Monday, 13 August 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 10)

Field Spaniel

The Field Spaniel is a medium-sized breed of dog. It is one of several spaniel breeds which can serve as gundogs.


The Field Spaniel is 17-19 inches (43-48 cm) tall at the withers. Its long, silky coat comes in solid colours of liver and black. Tan points are allowed as is Roan, which is defined as a blend of both dark and white hairs without large patches of either colour. The Field Spaniel is somewhat longer than taller to a ratio of 7:8. Field Spaniels weigh on average 37-45 lb (23-30 kg).


The Field Spaniel was the first spaniel developed specifically for conformation showing. The breed developed at the time when dog showing was first coming into vogue. With most spaniels being a base colour with white splashes, breeders wanted to create a solid black dog. They bred every black spaniel of that time including Cocker Spaniels and the Irish Water Spaniel. Upon introduction, the Field Spaniel was an instant hit. The Field Spaniel enjoyed a burst of success quite early and quickly became a popular breed. The intense focus of show breeders on this breed led to a rapid demise of the original Field Spaniel. The dogs were crossed with Sussex Spaniels and Basset Hounds to produce low legged, long backed versions leading to tremendous health problems. Just as quickly as the Field Spaniels star rose in the show world, it fell once the myriad of genetic problems emerged.

On the brink of extinction, breeders worked to restore the Field Spaniel to its former glory. Crosses with English Springer Spaniels, under the watchful eyes of the English Kennel Club were made to increase the gene pool. Even though The Field Spaniel is now restored to normal, it has never achieved the same level of popularity and remains a rare breed. The Field is now seen more often in the show rings and in the field as a hunting companion.


The Field Spaniel is a very social breed that can adapt to almost any lifestyle. Whilst they will coexist peacefully with dogs and cats, as a hunting dog, their instincts make them difficult around rabbits, mice, rats and similar animals. They can sometimes be difficult around birds but should adjust if socialised as a puppy. Fields Spaniels are a family breed and will show affection to all household members. However, they are naturally cautious of strangers making them an excellent watchdog. The Field Spaniel will not handle abusive situations and should never be treated as a guard dog.


Being a spaniel, the breed requires some grooming to keep a neat appearance and to prevent ear infections. Normally the head, face, ears, throat and feet are trimmed. Ear trimming is important in all spaniel breeds as the long ears prevent air circulation in the ear canal causing excessive moisture and infection. Fields Spaniels have webbed feet and excessive hair can also lead to excessive moisture and infection. Fields that are shown have more extensive grooming to present their conformation in the ring. In addition Field Spaniels for show may also have their feathering on the legs and undercarriage trimmed. Nails should never be allowed too grow long. An active Field Spaniel will naturally wear down nails however carpeting can sometimes prevent this.

Finnish Lapphund

The Finnish Lapphund is a medium-size breed of dog and a member of the Spitz family. Traditionally it has been used for herding reindeer, but has also gained wide popularity as a companion animal. Although it is one of the most popular dog breeds in its native country, Finland, it is not very common elsewhere.


Distinctive facial markings and mane on a wolf-sable coloured male

Distinctive facial markings and mane on a wolf-sable coloured male


The Finnish Lapphund is a medium sized, strongly built dog. It is slightly longer than it is high at the withers. It has a profuse coat with pricked, highly mobile ears.


The breed standard is 46-52cm at the withers (above the shoulder) for a male dog, and slightly smaller 41-47cm for a bitch. However, some variation is allowed, since the breed standard states that the type is more important than the size.

A typical male of 49cm height normally weighs 17-19kg, but the breed has a weight range of 15-24kg, depending on size of the dog.

Predominantly black Finnish Lapphund bitch with spectacle markings around the eyes

Predominantly black Finnish Lapphund bitch with spectacle markings around the eyes


The Lapphund has a profuse double coat, with a short, fluffy undercoat and a longer, coarse topcoat. The coat makes the dog waterproof as well as resistant to extreme cold. In Finland, only two dog breeds are legally allowed to be kenneled outdoors in winter: the Finnish Lapphund and the Lapponian herder.

The profuse hair around the head and neck gives the distinct impression of a mane. Although the coat is profuse, it requires only a modest amount of maintenance.


A wide variety of colours are found in the breed. Any colour is allowed in the breed standard, although a single colour should predominate. Almost any colour can be found: white, black, red, brown, sable and wolf-sable are frequently seen. One of the most common colour combinations is black and tan: a predominantly black dog with tan legs and face.

Many Finnish Lapphunds have very distinctive facial markings. One of the unusual facial markings is "spectacles", where a ring of lighter coloured hair around the eyes gives the impression that the dog is wearing spectacles.


Cream sable Finnish Lapphund

Cream sable Finnish Lapphund

Like other Spitz types, the tail is carried curving over the back. The Finnish Lapphund has a tail covered with profuse and long hair. The tail may hang whilst the dog stands.

Differences in breed standard between countries

The Finnish Lapphund is a recognized breed in Finland, Europe, Great Britain, Australia and the USA. The breed standards are mostly identical, with a few minor exceptions: in the English standard, the acceptance of tipped ears is omitted.

Temperament and Characteristics

The Finnish Lapphund is an intelligent and active breed. Since it was employed as a herding dog that needed to work closely with man, it remains popular as a family pet. In Finland, it is one of the ten most popular breeds.

The breed is friendly and alert, and makes a good watch dog, due to its tendency to bark at unfamiliar things. The breed was originally used to herd reindeer by droving, and barking helped it to be distinguished from wolves. The breed is highly trainable, although it is sometimes described as "thinking before it goes into action". Barking can be controlled with a modest amount of training.

The breed makes the ideal outdoor companion. It is active, cold-proof, and water-proof, and will gladly accompany people on walking or running trips.

In Finland, at least two dogs have won national championships for obedience (Obedience Champion Hiidenparran Tielkka and Fin and Nordic Obedience Ch Kettuharjun Elle, both owned and trained by Rauno Nisula).

Finnish Lapphunds are also suitable for agility. In the UK, Elbereth Taika has been awarded an agility warrant, and has represented England at the 2005 Kennel Club Nations cup, where she achieved a second place.


The Finnish Lapphund is a naturally healthy breed, and typically lives 12-14 years, although dogs of 16-17 years are not uncommon in Finland.

Known medical issues include Generalised progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA), hereditary cataracts.

  • GPRA is a progressive eye disease that can cause permanent blindness in dogs. In the Finnish Lapphund, this tends to be late onset, but can typically appear between the ages of 1 an 8 years. GPRA is a genetic illness, and is transmitted via an autosomal recessive gene. A reliable genetic test for the prcd-form of GRPA has been developed by OptiGen , and breeders are increasingly testing breeding animals before deciding on suitable mating pairs. The Finnish Lapphund club of Great Britain adopted an ethical policy in 2006 that matings will only be allowed if the progeny can not be affected by GPRA. In 2001, 2.5% dogs of Finnish dogs were affected by PRA.
  • Some Lapphunds are affected by cataracts, with 3.4% of Finnish dogs affected. Cataracts can be caused by a number of factors, and the mode of inheritance is not yet well understood. Since the incidence in Finland is relatively high, the disease is considered to be hereditary. In the UK and USA the number of affected dogs is very small.
  • The ethical standard in most countries require the stud dogs to be hip-scored, but the incidence of hip dysplasia is low.



The breed has its origins as a reindeer herder of the Sami people, the indigenous people of an area in the Nordic countries. The Sami have used herding dogs for centuries, and these dogs were typically long in body, somewhat rectangular in shape, with long hair and a straight tail that would curl up over the back when the dog was moving.

The first breed standards were set in 1945 by the Finnish Kennel Club, who called the breed the Lappish Herder, also known as Kukonharjunlainen. It is believed that these dogs were the result of a cross between the Karelian Bear Dog and the reindeer dogs, and had short hair. In the 1950s the Finnish Kennel Association (the second major kennel association) created the first breed standard for the Lapponian herder. Acceptable colours for this breed were black, bear-brown and white.

In the 1960, the various Finnish kennel associations were unified, and in 1966 the breeds were reassessed. This resulted in the formal definition of two breeds: the Lapponian herder with a shorter coat was defined in 1966, and the longer coated Finnish Lapphund was defined in 1967.

At about the same time technology enabled changes in the lifestyle of the Sami herders. Previously the longer-haired dogs were generally preferred for herding, but with the advent of snowmobiles the preference started to change in favour of the shorter haired Lapponian herder.

Other countries

  • In 1982, Turid Uthaug (Koira Kennels) moved from Finland to Denmark and imported 15 Finnish Lapphunds, thus starting a hugely influential breeding line that resulted in more than 100 offspring. Denmark produced several dogs that were highly successful in the international show ring. Two of the most notable were Matsi (owned by Georg Carlsen of Inari Kennels) who won the World Winner title in 1989, and Fidelis Uuriel (owned by Sarah Brandes of Lapinlumon) who became the first Danish owned Lapphund to win an International Championship title in 1997.
  • Tamerack Samoyeds in California imported the first Finnish Lapphund to the USA during 1987, and successfully bred litters in 1988 and again in 1989. By 2001, the number of dogs has grown to 154 and the breed joined the American Kennel Club's Foundation stock service. In September 2006 there were 237 registered dogs.
  • The first import into the United Kingdom was in 1989, when Roger and Sue Dunger imported a Finnish bitch from the very successful Finnish kennel Lecibsin. Through further imports and local breeding programs, the number of registered dogs have grown to more than 180 in 2001, and more than 350 by Sept 2006. The Finnish Lapphund Club of Great Britain was formed in 1994.
  • Brambleway Kennels imported the first dog to Australia in 1995, and also had the first successful litter in 2001. Since then, further imports and local breeding have swelled the population to 98 registered dogs in July 2006.
  • In 2006, there were about 30 registered dogs in Canada. The breed is not yet recognised for conformation showing by the Canadian Kennel Club, although dogs can be registered as miscellaneous. They can, however, compete in agility and obedience.

Finnish Spitz

A Finnish Spitz is a breed of dog originating in Finland. The breed is thought to be an old one, bred as a hunting dog. It is a "bark pointer", indicating the position of game by barking to attract the hunter's attention. It has been used mostly to bark at game that flees into trees, such as squirrels, grouses, and capercaillies, but it serves well also to hunt moose and elk. Some individuals have been known to go after even a bear, despite the dog's small size. In its native country, the breed is still mostly used as a hunting dog, but as it is very friendly and loves children, in other countries it serves mainly as a house pet. The Finnish Spitz has been the national dog of Finland since 1979.


General appearance

The Finnish Spitz has a square build, meaning that the length of the body is the same, or slightly shorter than the height of the withers to the ground. The length of the body is measured from the point of the shoulder or forechest in front of the withers giving a truly square dogs a short back. Bitches are usually a little longer in the back. Both dogs and bitches should appear slightly longer in the leg. The Finnish Spitz is a double coated breed but the outer coat should not exceed 2 1/2 inches at the ruff. The undercoat is soft and lighter in color than the red/gold outer coat. The undercoat will shed twice a year, and if a Finnish Spitz is to be kept healthy, a good shedding of the undercoat when the dog is ready to "blow coat" is needed. Some exhibitors show dogs with undercoat that should be removed but that is the breeder, owner or handler's choice. Ommission to shed undercoat is considered neglect by some judges who prefer a clean and combed coat. Dew claws can appear on front and/or back feet. If back dew claws appear, they should be removed by the breeder. The front dewclaws can be removed but since they are usually small, they generally are not removed. If the back dew claws are present and not removed, they look like toes. The front dew claws appear to have no purpose.

Finnish Spitz are considered to interact well with people, including children. In the home, the Finnish Spitz is a happy member, playing gently with children but maybe be rougher with other dogs. Some Finnish Spitz love other dogs and some are shy or passive/aggressive around other dogs. They are very loyal to their family, therefore the Finnish Spitz can be shy or moody around other dogs. Left alone the Finnish Spitz will figure out if another dog is acceptable. The Finnish Spitz is loyal to humans, exceptionally agile and should always exhibit a refined demeanor and a reddish gold coat.


The Finnish Spitz has a typical double coat, which consists of a soft, dense undercoat and long, harsh guard hairs that can measure one to two inches long. The coat should be stiffer, denser, and longer on the neck, back, back of thighs, and plume of the tail, whilst shorter on the head and legs. Dogs should sport a slightly longer and coarser coat than the bitches, who are slightly more refined. However the plume of the tail is important to the overall look of the dog but should not be too long. Feathered long tails hairs without sustanstance can give the dog an unkempt look. Additionally the tailset is important and the Finnish Spitz shoud be able to move its tail from one side to the other. Most Finnish Spitz have a preferred side and this is not incorrect. Proper care of the coat is most important. The Finnish Spitz blows coat or looses its undercoat twice a year. It is imperative that owners brush out the old undercoat so the new coat can grow properly. Excessive undercoat can cause skin problems and although your dog may look fluffy and full, the undercoat may be causing serious skin problems. In the show ring, the coat should be shown as completely natural; a brush through the coat is acceptable but no trimming is allowed, not even of whiskers. However, any excessive undercoat should be removed. Some exhibitors leave in the undercoat to make the dog's coat look bigger. However, most well trained judges see this problem. Another exception is the hair under the bottom of the feet. The hair under the feet as well as the toe nails should be nicely trimmed for show.


Puppies are often described as looking similar to a red fox cub. They are born dark grey/black/brown or fawn, with a vast amount of black. The colour of the adult dog cannot really be assessed until about four months, but even then the colour may change. The adult colour must be red. It can be of almost any shade, varying from pale honey to dark chestnut. There are no preferences over shades as long as the color is bright and clear with no hints of dullness, which is of most importance. The coat should never be of a solid colour. It should be shaded and without any defined colour changes. The coat is usually at its darkest shade on the back of the dog, gradually getting lighter around the chest and belly. The undercoat must always be lighter in colour than the topcoat, but is never allowed to be white. A small patch of white, no more than 1.5 centimetres wide, is allowable on the chest, and white tips on the feet are acceptable, but not desired.


The nose, lips, and rims of eyes should always be black.

Height and weight

  • Height at withers
Males, 16 to 19 inches (44-50 cm)
Females, 14½ to 17 inches (39-45 cm)
  • Weight
Males, 27-33 lb (11-13 kg)
Females, 20-27 lb (8-9 kg)


Finnish Spitz are a lively, faithful, and intelligent breed of dog. They love playing with children, and are excellent companion dogs, which makes them an ideal family pet. They rarely show aggression unless needed (they are a breed who like to protect their family) but they do love the sound of their own voices. Careful training will need to be undertaken to teach him that his barking is both unnecessary and unwanted, although the barking does come in useful if you are looking for a watchdog, as the Finnish Spitz will very happily locate anything that is out of the ordinary and alert their owners to it.

Because of his intelligence, he is an independent and strong-willed dog and is best trained with a soft voice and touch. He will easily become bored with repetitive training and so sessions should be kept short and to the point, making patience a must-have for any owner. Obedience, agility and field training should be understood from the dog's point of view. Finnish Spitz are very obedient with a light touch and lots of "positive reinforcement" but most owners and trainers don't understand the subtle difference and use too much punishment. Top trainers have found Finnish Spitz to be manipulative and sometimes too smart for their owners, so beware, you may not own a Finnish Spitz but your Finnish Spitz may own you.

Finnish Spitz can excel in obedience, agility and rally as a companion dog.


The Finnish Spitz is typically a very healthy breed, and health concerns are rare. Here is a short list of what is known to occur:

Flat-Coated Retriever

The Flat-Coated Retriever is a gundog breed from the United Kingdom. It was developed as a retriever on both land and water. Flat-coats make exceptional family companions, bonding very closely with all members of the family. Compared with other sporting breeds, Flat-coats have a relatively low activity level indoors, but outdoors can play, run and retrieve tirelessly. Flat-coats given too little exercise, companionship and mental stimulation, however, can become overly active or destructive indoors, especially if left alone for extended periods of time. They are wonderful with older children but may be too exuberant for very small children. Early obedience training and socialization are highly recommended. The well-socialized and well-trained Flat-coat is an optimistic, enthusiastic dog with a constantly wagging tail who is a friend to all.


The Flat-Coated Retriever breed standard calls for males to be 23–24.5 inches (58–62 cm) tall at the withers and for females to be 22–23.5 inches (56–60 cm), with a recommended weight of 55–70 lb (24–32 kg). Flat-Coated Retrievers have strong muscular jaws and a relatively long muzzle to allow for the carrying of birds and upland game. Their head is unique to the breed and is described as being "of one piece" with a minimal stop and a backskull of approximately the same length as the muzzle. They have almond shaped dark brown eyes that have an intelligent, friendly expression. The ears are pendant, relatively small and lie close to the head. The occiput (the bone at the back of the skull) is not to be accentuated (as it is in setters, for example) with the head flowing smoothly into a well-arched neck. The topline is strong and straight with a well feathered tail of moderate length held straight off the back. Flat-coats should be well angulated front and rear, allowing for open, effortless movement. They are lighter, racier and more elegant in appearance than the other retriever breeds. In other words the flat coated retriever is one of the cuter breeds in existence.

Flat Coated Retrievers retrieves well on land or in the water.

Flat Coated Retrievers retrieves well on land or in the water.


The Flat-coat's colour is either solid black or solid liver (a deep, rich brown), more commonly the former. The single coat (there is no undercoat) is moderate in length, dense, and lustrous; ideally it should lie flat and straight, but a slight wave is permissible. Body coat is of moderate length with longer feathering on the backs of the legs, chest, under body and tail.


Black is the most common colour but Flat-coats also come in dark brown (known as "liver")

Black is the most common colour but Flat-coats also come in dark brown (known as "liver")

The Flat-coat’s personality is described as outgoing, devoted, and friendly, an ideal companion with a strong bond to its owner and family. It is a versatile hunting dog, retrieving well on land or in the water, flushing upland game, marking downed birds, and generally performing all the tasks expected of a multi-purpose gundog. Although not as well known and much less popular than the Labrador and Golden Retrievers, it has benefited from that lack of popularity by enjoying more careful breeding and better maintenance of its working ability.

Flatcoats love water

Flatcoats love water

Flat-coats love to please, but may be slightly more difficult to train than Golden Retrievers and Labradors. They are easily bored with repetitive training techniques and can exhibit a streak of wilfulness at times. For this reason, it is best to make training sessions fun, varied, and relatively short for the dog. Flat-coats are very sensitive and respond best to positive reinforcement. They cannot tolerate harsh handling or corrections.

Flat-coats are known for having a sunny optimism and a tail that is always wagging. They are capable of getting along well with cats, other dogs, small pets, and strangers. However, due to their exuberant nature, they may tend to knock over very small children. Socialisation and obedience training are highly recommended. Flat-coats are known to demonstrate their affectionate natures by frequently kissing their human friends. They also display an unusual habit with their canine friends: the "flat-coat kiss", where the dogs lick each others mouths as a form of greeting. Since they are inclined to be friendly to all, they make only adequate watchdogs to give warning.

Flat-coats tend to have a good deal of energy, especially when young, and need to have appropriate outlets for this energy. They need plenty of activity and stimulation, both physical and mental, throughout their lives. Sometimes they are referred to as the "Peter Pan of dogs" because they never grow up, acting playful and puppy-like well into old age. They need to be an active participant in the daily life and activities of the family to lead a happy, well balanced life.


A typical Flatcoat expression

A typical Flatcoat expression

Originating in the mid 19th century in England, the Flat-Coated Retriever gained popularity as a gamekeeper’s dog. Part of its ancestry is thought to have come from stock imported from North America from the now extinct St. John's Newfoundland Dog. This type of dog is thought to factor as well in the ancestry of both Labrador and Chesapeake Bay Retrievers.

After its introduction into the U.S., the Flat-coat began to quickly gain in popularity as a gundog, and from 1873 when the breed became a "stable type" according to the American Kennel Club until 1915 when it was officially recognized as a breed, the number of Flat-coats grew rapidly. However, soon after, the popularity of the Flat-coat began to decrease, eclipsed by the Golden Retriever, which was actually bred in part from the Flat-coat, along with other breeds. By the end of World War II, there were so few Flat-coats that the breed's survival was uncertain. However, beginning in the 1960s, careful breeding brought the population back and the breed gained in popularity again, primarily as a conformation show dog and companion pet. Today, the Flat-coat enjoys a modest popularity and is moving ahead as a breed through attentive breeding for the conformation, health, multi-purpose talent and exceptional temperament that are its hallmarks. It has yet to return in substantial numbers to field competition.

Flat-coat owners were delighted to see Almanza Far and Flyg (a.k.a. Simon), from Oslo, Norway, win the Gundog Group at Crufts in 2007. The last win for a Flat-coat in the Gun Dog Group at Crufts was a Swedish Flat-coat in 2003. The last Flat-coat to win Best in Show at Crufts was Shargleam Blackcap in 1981. These wins have contributed to the breed's popularity in Europe and the United Kingdom.


Regular tests and clearances for hereditary joint conditions such as hip dysplasia and eye conditions such as progressive retinal atrophy and glaucoma should be conducted by breeders on any dogs used for breeding. Occasionally epilepsy is also seen in the breed.

Flat-coats have a higher risk of cancer than most dogs. Hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma and malignant histiocytosis are particularly devastating, and occur at higher rates in Flat-coated Retrievers than in other breeds. According to studies sponsored by the Flat Coated Retriever Society of America (FCRSA), the average lifespan of the Flat-coated Retriever is only 8-10 years, with as many as 75% of deaths due to cancer.

Flat-coats have a very low rate of hip dysplasia and luxating patellas compared to other medium-sized breeds; the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) statistics consistently show a rate of hip dysplasia in the breed of less than 3%. In 1997 FCRSA health survey, 4.2% of males and 3.2% of females had been diagnosed with luxating patellas.

Fox Terrier

The Smooth Fox Terrier shows a typical perky terrier expression.

The name Fox Terrier or Foxy refers primarily to two different breeds of dog, the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier, that were independently bred in England in the mid-19th century. The two terrier breeds are very similar, with the only major difference being the coats. The Smooth Fox Terrier has a smooth, flat, but hard and dense coat, whereas the Wire Fox Terrier coat should appear broken with a dense, wiry texture.

In show circles, the terms fox terrier and foxy are only used for these two breeds, but in other communities around the world, particularly rural and farming ares, these words are used for these breeds and also to refer to mixed-breed dogs of fox terrier type, or to descendent breeds such as the Toy Fox Terrier and Miniature Fox Terrier, which are similar to each other.


Wire-haired Fox Terrier

Wire-haired Fox Terrier

The breeds were established to assist in fox hunting. Before their development, a hunt would be ruined as soon as the fox reached its hole. The introduction of Fox Terriers into the hunting party solved the problem. If the fox "went to ground" (reached and entered its lair), the terrier would be sent in after it. This identified the major requirements for a Fox Terrier. Firstly, it had to have the stamina to run with the Foxhounds. Secondly, it had to be small enough to follow a fox down its lair. And thirdly, it had to be tough, as a cornered fox was likely to turn and try to fight off an intruder, so a foxy had to be able to stand up to it.

The term Fox Terrier was generic until the latter part of the 19th Century. It referred to a group of dogs of varying type which were bred for the hunt. These dogs were often called "foxies" regardless of type or size. The first Fox Terrier, a dog called "Foiler" or "Old Foiler", was registered by the Kennel Club circa 1875-6, and the breed began the process of standardization.

Refinement of breed types led to the assignment of new breed names to the ensuing breeds. A differentiation was made between the Fox Terrier varieties, although the two breeds were shown under the same breed standard until well into the 20th century. The process of selective breeding was duplicated in other countries as emigrants took their dogs to other parts of the world.

Development of the Fox Terrier around the world

In the United States, fanciers of the Jack Russell Terrier were adamant that their dog, of a type created by The Reverend Mr. John Russell, “The Sporting Parson”, was as much of a fox terrier as the smooth or wirehaired varieties. They referred to those breeds as the Modern Fox Terriers. Some Jack Russell owners preferred that their breed clubs remain unaffiliated, to preserve the working qualities of their fox terrier.

The Toy Fox Terrier was developed by selected breeding from smaller Fox Terriers. The breed was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1936 and generated little controversy.

In Australia, a distinct type of Australian Fox Terrier was becoming recognizable during the same period in which the fox terrier breed was being standardized. The miniature version of this new dog became extremely popular. Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are often referred to as Standard Fox Terriers in Australia in an attempt to minimize confusion.

Today, there are many and varied breeds that are descended from or related to earlier fox terrier types. These include the

The Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are seldom used for hunting these days and are more often pets. Their small size makes them appealing.


Genetically, both Smooth and Wire Fox Terriers have base colors of tan or black and tan. The white coloring derives from a "spotting gene", which acts to restrict the formation of color to a greater or lesser degree. This is not related to albinism in any way. The alleles in the series that are believed present in Fox Terriers are sp for "piebald" markings (random spots, saddles, or even blankets of color, with the head solid color or exhibiting some white in blaze or half face) and sw, extreme white, which restricts color to virtually none or eye and ear patches. Pigment of the nose, lips, pads, and so on remain black in all cases. Eye rims are always black where there is color surrounding, but eyes surrounded by white may get rim pigment gradually or sometimes not at all, a very minor fault.

French Brittany (dog)

A French Brittany or Épagneul Breton

The French Brittany is a breed of gun dog that is bred for bird hunting. In French, the name of the breed is "Épagneul Breton". In French, the word "Épagneul" means a longhair pointing dog and the English word "Spaniel" means a flushing breed. So we cannot name the breed "Spaniel". Why use the word "French"? It is because there are 2 different Brittanies. There is the "American Brittany" which is in the United States of America (standard owner is the AKC with the ABC as parent club) and in Canada under the CKC and there is the "French Brittany". In the FCI countries, they use another standard, the French standard done by the CEB of France.

General Appearance

Smallest of the pointing breeds. The French Brittany is a dog with a Continental epagneul-type head (braccoïde in French) and a short or inexistent tail. Built harmoniously on a solid but not weighty frame. The whole is compact and well-knit, without undue heaviness, while staying sufficiently elegant. The dog is vigorous, the look is bright and the expression intelligent. The general aspect is « COBBY » (brachymorphic), full of energy, having conserved in the course of its evolution the short-coupled model sought after and fixed by those having recreated the breed.

Excellent male

Excellent male

Brief Historical Summary

Of French origin and more precisely, from the centre of Brittany. At present, in first place numerically among French sporting breeds. Probably one of the oldest of the epagneul type dogs, improved at the beginning of the 20th century by diverse outcrosses and selections. A draft of a breed standard drawn up in Nantes in 1907 was presented and adopted at the first General Assembly held in Loudéac (in former Côtes du Nord department, now Côtes d’Armor), June 7, 1908. This was the first standard of the <>.

French Bulldog

The French Bulldog is a dog breed that originated from a group of English bulldog fanciers who were not interested in the dog-fighting realm. The English artisans, particularly lacemakers, breed a small bulldog that would weigh at least 16 lbs but no more than 28 lbs. As the Industrial Revolution grew in England, the lacemakers and other artisans took their skills and small dogs to France where they could continue to ply their trade. The small bulldog earned quite a following in France and by the late 1800s they were known as French Bulldogs. When wealthy Americans traveled to Paris they were very taken with the little Frenchie and imported them to the United States. The breed was first exhibited at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1896.


French Bulldogs are a compact, muscular dog with a smooth coat, snub nose and solid bone. Their physical appearance is characterized by naturally occurring 'bat ears' that are wide at the base and rounded on the top. Their tails are naturally short, not cropped, straight or screwed but not curly.

Under the American Kennel Club and Canadian Kennel Club standards, weight is not to exceed 28 pounds (13 kg). In general, bitches range in weight between 16 and 24 pounds, with dogs between 20 and 28 pounds. The FCI does not set a hard and fast weight limit, simply stating 'The weight must not be below 8 kg nor over 14 kg for a bulldog in good condition, size being in proportion with the weight'.

Coat colors in French Bulldogs

French Bulldogs come in a variety of colors and coat patterns. Here is what the AKC standard has to say about color:

"Acceptable colors - All brindle, fawn, white, brindle and white, and any color except those which constitute disqualification. All colors are acceptable with the exception of solid black, mouse, liver, black and tan, black and white, and white with black, which are disqualifications. Black means black without a trace of brindle."

The FCI standard disallowed fawn until the mid nineties. Color disqualifications under the current FCI standard are "black and tan, mouse grey, brown".

All of this variety has a drawback, however - confusion over just what name applies to each color or color pattern.

In its most simple forms, French Bulldog coat color can be simply described as fawn, with a variety of possible marking patterns and dilutions possible. Fawn can range in shade from deep red to cafe au lait to pale golden cream. The differences in appearance from here are all due to variants in marking patterns, which range from brindle - black stripes in varying degrees of repetition and thickness overlying the fawn base coat, to pied - varying patches of brindle overlaying fawn interspersed with white markings, to black masked fawn - fawn in differing shades with a classic 'masking' pattern on the face and dorsal area of the body. There are a myriad of variants of marking type, pattern, size and placement possible within these parameters.

Here are a few examples of common - and not so common - coat patterns and colors within French Bulldogs. All terms should be taken objectively, as there is a great deal of difference of opinion within the Frenchie community as to which term defines which color.


While theories abound about the exact origin of the French Bulldog, the most prevalent opinion is that around the mid 1800s Normandy lace workers from England took smaller bulldogs with them when they sought work in France. In the farming communities north of France that the lace workers settled in, the little Bulldogs became very popular as ratters and loyal family companions and their population began to swell. These little bulldogs were in fact "culls" of the established Bulldog Breeders in England, who were generally more than happy to sell these undersized examples of their breed to fanciers of the "new" breed in England. This was especially true of the "tulip" eared puppies that cropped up at times in Bulldog litters.

As the new, smaller Bulldogs gained popularity in France, they became favorites of the Parisian "Belles De Nuit" - the street walkers. Breed historians can still sometimes turn up notorious "French Postcards" bearing images of scantily clad French prostitutes posing with their little "Bouledogues Francais." The aura of notoriety that ownership of the little dogs conveyed made them a fashionable way for the well to do classes to show off how daring they could be, and they soon became favorites of the "artistic" set across Europe.

Photos dating to around this time show photos of the Russian Royal family posing along side their French Bulldogs, and they imported several of the little dogs from France. Other famous fanciers included Toulouse-Lautrec, the author Colette and King Edward VII. As a point of historic interest, a French Bulldog, insured for the at that time astronomical sum of $750, was on board the ill fated Titanic.

It is inarguable that without the influence of dedicated, turn of the century American fanciers the breed would not be what it is today. It is they that organized the very first French Bulldog Club in the world, and it was they who insisted that the "bat" ear so associated with the breed today was correct. Until that time, French Bulldogs were shown with either the "bat" or "rose" ear.

All in all, French Bulldogs truly are an International Breed, with fanciers of many nations being responsible for the creation of the loving dogs we know today.


The French Bulldog is a gentle breed that typically has a happy-go-lucky attitude. Like many other companion dog breeds they require close contact with humans. They have fairly minimal exercise needs, but do require at least regular daily walks. Sedentary Frenchies can tend to become obese. Their calm nature makes them excellent choices for apartment dwellers, as does their usually sensible attitude towards barking. As flat faced breed, it is essential that owners understand that French Bulldogs cannot live outdoors. Their bulk and their compromised breathing system makes it impossible for them to regulate their temperature efficiently. In addition, frenchies are top heavy and therefore have a difficult time swimming. Be cautious when exercising your Frenchie during hot or humid weather, as well.

French Bulldogs can play too roughly for some smaller children, and should be monitored at all times during play. As well, children should be cautioned not to pick French Bulldogs up, as their size can mask how truly heavy they actually are.

French Bulldogs are essentially a bull and terrier breed, and as such, it is not surprising to learn that canine aggression can sometimes occur. Generally, this takes the form of same sex aggression, with the bitches being the most culpable in this respect. Owners considering adding a second dog to their household are usually cautioned to choose one of the opposite sex. Spaying or neutering can do much to curb aggressive tendencies before they begin. The French Bulldog energy level can range from hyperactive and energetic to relaxed and laid back.

French Bulldogs can be stubborn, and early and consistent obedience training is highly recommended.

In general, Frenchies are amiable, good natured, playful dogs, and make excellent companions for families, single persons and the elderly.


There are several congenital diseases and conditions that French Bulldogs are prone to, although they are still considered among the healthiest of the Bull Breeds. Frenchies can suffer from Von Willebrand's disease (VWD), a bleeding syndrome similar to Hemophilia in humans which can impede their clotting. In conjunction to this, French Bulldogs may also suffer from thyroid condition. Many breeders follow a program of testing younger dogs for VWD, and only testing for thyroid at that time if the VWD factor is low. In this program, the breeder tests thyroid again just prior to using the dog for breeding. Other breeders test both VWD and Thyroid at the same time.

French Bulldogs suffer from Brachycephalic syndrome, which is what creates the charming flat faced appearance of the Frenchie. As a result, one of the most common defects in French Bulldogs is elongated soft palate or cleft palate. Puppies affected with Cleft palate are generally put down at birth, as it is generally considered to be an almost impossible condition to correct. Elongated soft palate can manifest as anything from a mild condition causing labored breathing to severe condition that can cause the affected dog to pass out from moderate exercise.

Frenchies may also have a tendency towards eye issues. Cherry eye, or everted third eyelid, has been known to occur, although it is more common in (English) Bulldogs and Pug Dogs. Glaucoma, retinal fold dsyplasia, corneal ulcers and juvenile cataracts are also conditions which have been known to afflict French Bulldogs. Screening of prospective breeding candidates through CERF - the Canine Eye Registration Foundation - can help to eliminate instances of these diseases in offpsring. The skin folds under the eyes of the French Bulldog must be cleaned regularly and kept dry, in order to avoid fold infections. In extremely severe cases of persistent fold infections, some veterinarians have performed fold removal surgeries.

French Bulldogs can also suffer from a condition called megaesophagus, a term which collectively describes several esophageal disorders and malformations in any combination from single-to-double or multiple. One of the most disgusting possibilities in a dog affected with megaesophagus is passive regurgitation, in which the affected dog vomits up food or phlegm after eating or exercise. A frequent and sometimes lethal complication of passive regurgitation is aspiration pneumonia.

Another result of the compacted air way of the French Bulldog is their inability to effectively regulate temperature. While a regular canine may suffer to some degree from the heat, to a Frenchie it may be lethal. It is imperative that they be protected from temperature extremes at all times, and that they always have access to fresh water and shade.

French Bulldogs can also suffer from an assortment of back and spinal diseases, most of which are probably related to the fact that they were selectively chosen from the dwarf examples of the Bulldog Breed. This condition is also referred to as chondrodysplasia. Some breeders feel that only dogs that have been X-rayed and checked for spinal anomalies should be bred from, but this is a difficult position to take sides on. While it is true that no dog affected with a spinal disease should be bred from , there is a great deal of variance in the appearance of a French Bulldog's spine as compared to, for example, a Labrador Retriever. If possible, such decisions should be left to either a Vet or breeder who has seen quite a few Bulldog Breed Spinal Xrays, to avoid eliminating dogs unnecessarily.

In North America, French bulldogs frequently require Caesarean section to give birth. As well, many North American French Bulldog stud dogs are incapable of naturally breeding, requiring breeders to undertake artificial insemination of bitches. French Bulldog bitches can also suffer from erratic or 'silent' heats, which may be a side effect of thyroid disease or impaired thyroid function.

Thyroid disease may also be responsible for some of the skin conditions which afflict some Frenchies. Skin allergies, obsessive foot licking, and interdigital cysts have been known to affect some French Bulldogs.

Those considering the purchase of a French Bulldog would be well advised to ask what disorders breeders are testing for, and beware of any breeder who cavalierly states that "They don't have any of those problems in *their* lines." Reputable breeders are struggling to produce dogs that are as healthy as possible, and while these tests are expensive for the breeder to do, they can help to save the puppy purchaser hundreds or even thousands of dollars in potential vet bills.

French Spaniel

The French Spaniel is a breed of dog. It was developed in France as a multi-purpose gundog, capable of pointing and retrieving. It is rare outside its native country, and has yet to be recognized by several major kennel clubs.



The French Spaniel is one of the largest spaniel breeds that. They can range in height from 21 to 24 inches . Dogs can range in weight from 50 to 70 pounds.

Coat and colour

The hair is medium long and wavy on the ears, backs of the legs and tail. It has some waviness on the chest and otherwise lies flat on the body. The color is always white with brown markings. There may or may not be brown ticking in the coat. The French Spaniel's coat adapts to hot or cold climates.


The French Spaniel is an intelligent dog that looks to please its owner. It does not take to a harsh handler. It responds well to positive treatment and repetitive lessons. It is a calm loving hunting companion and makes a wonderful house dog.

The French Spaniel is a true versatile or multipurpose hunting dog that will pursue, point, track and retrieve game on land or water but like most pointing breeds the French Spaniel's true strength is hunting in the fields and forests. The French Spaniel is a medium to close working pointing dog that works at a very comfortable pace and distance. His gait has been referred to as a trotting, easy going fashion. They are a tough, determined dog that can adapt to all types of terrain.


The French Spaniel is a very old breed with documentation of the breed back to the 14th century where is was used for net hunting and falconry. For net hunting the dog would point with a low elongated, "setting" style which would make it easier for the hunter to throw the net over the dog.

There was a time in the 19th century when the French Spaniel was on the verge of extinction. However, a French priest gathered the remaining French Spaniels in his kennels. There he rebuilt the lineages that are representatives of those we now have. The French Spaniel is thought to be related to a number of other hunting breeds. There is some speculation that outcrosses of the French Spaniel make it the cousin of the Small Munsterlander and the Drentse Patrijshond. Also, the Brittany Spaniel is said to be the prodigy of pairings with English Setters and French Spaniels.

The French Spaniel was little known outside of France and neighboring countries until it was introduced in the Canadian province of Quebec in the 1970's. It quickly became a popular dog for hunting woodcock and grouse. The Canadians formed a strong breed club to ensure the French Spaniel would continue to meet breed standards. In 1985 the French Spaniel received CKC or Canadian Kennel Club recognition.

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