Thursday, 6 September 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 19)

Pachon Navarro

The Pachon Navarro is a Spanish hunting dog (also known as: Old Spanish Pointer; Perdiguero Navarro; Navarro Pointer; and, Pachon De Victoria), has the unusual feature of a split or double nose. It is believed that this unusual nose gives this dog extra sensitivity to smells, a primary reason it was chosen as a hunting dog.


The Double-nosed Andean tiger hound found in South America is presumed to be decended from dogs brought by the Spanish Conquistadors in the 1500's.

Panja / American Mastiff

There are at least two lines of dogs competing for the breed name American Mastiff; neither is recognized by any major English-language kennel club, although the Flying W American Mastiff is recognized by the Continental Kennel Club.

One line is the dryer-mouthed American Mastiff, developed by the Flying W Farms kennel. Flying W Farms has bred English Mastiffs for decades, but noticed several negative health characteristics incumbent within the breed, namely hip dysplasia, excessive drooling, a shorter lifespan, and chronic elbow and knee problems, although it is important to keep in mind that not all English Mastiffs suffer from these ailments. During World War II, English Mastiffs nearly vanished from England; with resources limited due to the war effort, it became unpopular to feed a dog quantities of food that could feed an active soldier. Following the war, the English Mastiffs breed began to recover in North America, but perhaps due to the dramatic narrowing of the breed's bloodlines, many of these negative health traits began appearing more frequently. In order to correct these faults, Flying W Farms crossed the English Mastiff with an Anatolian Shepherd and engaged in aggressive medical screening of its sires and dams. Flying W Farms American Mastiffs are 7/8 English Mastiff and 1/8 Anatolian Shepherd.

This resulted in a breed that looks exactly like the English Mastiff but without the excessive drooling that is common in the English Mastiff. This American Mastiff loves children and are devoted to their families. These are loyal and calm dogs. They are generally non-aggressive except when their family is threatened. In those instances they become fierce and courageous guard dogs. American Mastiffs generally weigh between 150 and 250 pounds (70 to 110 kg).

The second line is sometimes called the Panja American Mastiff, developed by the Panja kennel. The Panja Mastiffs have a reputation for being much more aggressive than the Flying W Farms breed, and less suitable for children. The Panja American Mastiff usually grows between 22 and 26 inches (56-66 cm.) and weighing from 80 to 100 pounds (36-45 kg.).

Both lines are very new with not much breed history, making them ineligible for registration in most breed registries; registries with relaxed requirements may recognize a new breed with minimal history, such as the Continental Kennel Club's recognition of the Flying W Farms line. Some critics claim that these are simply crossbred dogs or variants on the standard English Mastiff. It is not clear which line, if either, will ultimately become a solid breed known as the American Mastiff.

Papillon (dog)

The Papillon is a small dog breed with distinctive large, fringed ears that earned it its name, the French word for butterfly. The Papillon is believed to be one of the oldest of the toy breeds. Though known to be reserved with strangers, these dogs can also be protective of a human family member, and are good alarm dogs while still affectionate to those they know. Papillons are very athletic, enjoying running or chasing, but usually enjoy staying indoors.


Papillons (Pronounced PAP-ee-yon) are white with markings of any color except liver. However, the most distinctive aspect of the Papillon is its large ears, which are well fringed with colored (not white) silky hair. The color covers both eyes and the front and back of the ears to give the proper butterfly look. A white blaze and noseband on the face is preferred. Tricolours should be black and white, with tan spots over eyes, inside ears and under the papillons tail.

There are two ear variations of this breed, the completely upright ears of the more common Papillon, and the dropped spaniel-like ears of the Phalène. The AKC considers the Phalène and the Papillon the same breed. Countries whose breed clubs follow the FCI standard consider Papillons and Phalènes two separate breeds.

The Papillon has an abundant, flowing coat, short on the head but with a profuse frill on the chest. The Papillon has no undercoat. The tail is a plume of long hair, set high and should arch over back with fringes falling to one side. The head is slightly rounded between the ears, and the muzzle is fine, tapering, and narrower than the skull with an abrupt stop.

The ideal size varies slightly among different organizations' breed standards, but it generally ranges from 8 inches (20 cm) to 11 inches (28 cm) at the withers. They usually weigh from 7 to 10 pounds(3-5kg).


The breed has the connotation of a dainty toy breed, but many owners will claim that they act like big dogs in small dogs' bodies. There are several possible reasons for this. First, the Papillion is hardy; some people find that their Papillon is very capable of handling a good five-mile walk. Some owners believe the reality is that they will resist such an outing if the grass is somewhat damp or if there are two clouds in the sky that might lead to rain, but others have experienced them as very versatile in almost all conditions, although not necessarily with prolonged exposure. Perhaps they seem to be larger dogs because, to many people, Papillons appear not to be prone to small dog quaking when confronted with new situations. In fact, some Papillon owners believe that their dogs interpret any new event as having been put on for their benefit, and that the dogs do their best to be attentive hosts or hostesses. Another aspect of the Papillon that has led many to believe the "big dog" assertion is this breed's surprising athletic ability. Perhaps people are surprised that in contrast to its staid and stately representation in the Old Master portraits, the Papillon is highly energetic and intelligent (Stanley Coren, in The Intelligence of Dogs, rates the Papillon eighth among all breeds). This makes Papillons very easy to train as they are so quick to learn. Provided their genetic structure is sound and they are healthy, Papillons are built for movement, and most do not need any encouragement to apply their energy to athletic activities.

In order to make a Papillon coat really shine to its fullest, it should be brushed once or twice a day, and the dog bathed at least every two weeks. As puppies, papillons have silky, medium length fur. They go through an "Ugly Baby stage," in which they lose much of their baby fur and grow in their adult fur. They will love every person in your family, but they will still attach themselves to one particular person, possibly the one that feeds it, also a very good watch dog. The papillon also tends to love a person more who frequently talks or interacts with the person which the dog is attached to, such as a spouse. Highly recommended for first-time dog owners and teenage girls.


The History of the Papillon is traced through works of art. The earliest toy spaniels resembling the Papillon are found in Italy. Tiziano Vicelli (Titian) painted these small dogs in many famous paintings including the Venus of Urbino (1542). Other well known artists who included them in paintings are Watteau, Gonzalez Coques, Fragonard and Mignard. In a painting after Largillierre in the Wallace Collection in London, a Papillon is clearly shown in a family portrait of Louis XIV. Papillons are also in paintings of royal families around Europe and paintings of merchant class families. The breed was popular in England, France, and Belgium which are considered counties of origin by the FCI.

The Papillon is a highly athletic breed. This Papillon is demonstrating the breed's blazing speed in dog agility.

The Papillon is a highly athletic breed. This Papillon is demonstrating the breed's blazing speed in dog agility.

There are many stories about the Papillon. Marie Antoinette was said to have walked to the guillotine clutching her small dog under her arm. Tradition has it that her dog was a small spaniel that had been brought to the French court from Spain on the back of pack mules. According to the story, her pup was spared and cared for in a building in Paris still called the Papillon House. Marie's small spaniel was said to have descended from a very old drop-eared breed known as the Epagneul Nain Continental, or Continental Dwarf/Toy Spaniel that appeared in church frescos and paintings as early as the 13th century.

The Papillon is still officially referred to as the Epagneul Nain Continental (ENC) in non-English-speaking countries. The name Squirrel Spaniel also has been used, most likely referring to an earlier standard in which the tail set is described as "curling over the back as a squirrel's." One version of the history of the two varieties of ear shape in the ENC ("Papillon" to denote the erect ear and "Phalène" to denote the dropped ear) is that toward the end of the 19th century, breed fanciers bred a version of the spaniel whose ears stood up. This dog was said to have been nicknamed papillon based on the impressively large, erect ears that resembled the wings of a butterfly. The drop-eared variety of the breed came to be called the Phalène (which means "night moth"). Both types are still bred today and appear in the same litter. The Papillon variety is much more common, although recently the Phalène has undergone a resurgence in popularity.

Professor Ludvic von Schulmuth studied canine origins by studying the skeletal remains of dogs found in human settlements as long as ten thousand years ago. The Professor created a genealogical tree of Tibetan dogs that shows the "Gobi Desert Kitchen Midden Dog", a scavenger, evolved into the "Small Soft-Coated Drop-Eared Hunting Dog". From this dog evolved the Tibetan Spaniel, Pekingese, and Japanese Chin. Another branch coming down from the "Kitchen Midden Dog" gave rise to the Papillon and Long-haired Chihuahua and yet another "Kitchen Midden Dog" branch to the Pug and Shih Tzu.


In recent years, the Papillon has become a small dog star in the sport of dog agility. This sport consists of an obstacle course with tunnels, jumps, A-frames, and narrow bridges that a dog completes at top speed aided only by verbal and body-language commands from a handler. Agility requires the dog to spring, scramble, weave, and turn on a dime. The breed is considered naturally agile, and Papillons compete at both national and international trials. Because many Papillons have intense drive and natural speed, their tiny turning radius gives them an edge over larger dogs, and some Papillons are capable of beating Border Collie speeds on some courses. At the same time, Papillons excel in companionship and lap dog sweepstakes, and take it very seriously.

Others have experienced Papillons as highly companionable—yet physically active—dogs requiring appropriate socialization, consistent and monitored exercise, continued training (which also serves to stimulate their active minds), and daily, proactive human-to-canine interaction.


The Papillon is a fairly healthy breed, but like all dog breeds there are some health problems that are known to occur. Von Willebrand's disease can occur in Papillons. This hereditary coagulation abnormality is described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. Luxating patella is not uncommon in small dogs, such as Papillions. It causes the kneecap to dislocate, and affects Papillons from 4 to 6 months. Mitral valve disease is a congenital heart defect that occurs in Papillons and affects the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid heart valves. Finally, Progressive retinal atrophy is a genetic disease of the retina sometimes found in the breed.

Parson Russell Terrier / Russell Terrier

The Parson Russell Terrier was recognized by the UK Kennel Club in 1990, and the American Kennel Club in 2001, under the name Parson Jack Russell Terrier and Jack Russell Terrier, respectively.

The Parson Russell Terrier is descended from early white-bodied fox-working terriers used in the hunt field. At the end of the 19th Century, these dogs were drawn into the Kennel Club as "fox terriers," but their still-working antecedents were referred to as "Jack Russell" terriers throughout the 20th Century, in honor of the Rev. John "Jack" Russell, a noted fox hunter of the 19th Century "The Sporting Parson".

In time, Kennel Club Fox Terriers and working Jack Russell Terriers looked completely different, with fox terriers growing both larger in the chest and also having longer heads. Today, Kennel Club fox terriers are rarely found at work in the field.

The name "Parson Russell" Terrier was chosen by the American Kennel Club because of a compromise with the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America.

The markings on Parson Russell Terriers can vary considerably.

The markings on Parson Russell Terriers can vary considerably.


The Parson is bold and energetic happy go lucky terrier. They often do well with people who possess those same attributes, as well as patience and a sense of humor. Parsons can do very well with children, but many Parsons won't tolerate being handled roughly, so it is not recommended that they be placed in homes with very young children. They are very intelligent and eager to please. Many excell in activities such as obedience, agility, conformation, and earthdog.

Parsons do not do well in apartments because they need space to exercise. If leaving the Parson home all day while one works, leaving a radio or TV on and/or having a playmate for your Terrier is suggested as the Parsons are very social creatures.

Because the Parson was bred to hunt, it can be difficult for them to live with some pets such as small rodents. However, they will get along fine with cats if raised with them.

The dogs are loving, loyal, and make great family pets with people who treat these animals as family members.

The Russell Terrier is a predominantly white working terrier with the insatiable instinct to hunt formidable quarry underground. The breed was derived from the Reverend John Russell's fox working terrier strains that were used in the 1800s for fox hunting. The Reverend's fox working strains were much smaller than the Show Fox Terrier and remained working terriers. The size of the Russell Terrier (10" to 12") combined with a small flexible, spannable chest makes it an ideal size to work efficiently underground. Their unique rectangular body shape with a 50/50 ratio of body to leg makes them distinctly different from the Parson Russell Terrier and the JRTCA Jack Russell Terrier.

The Russell Terrier originated in England with Australia being designated as the country of development.

About the Jack Russell Terrier

Russell's preparing for go-to-ground.

Russell's preparing for go-to-ground.

The name "Jack Russell Terrier" was never used to describe a breed of dog. Rather, it became a common name for any predominantly-white earth-working terrier after the death of the Reverend John Russell. The only requisite was color, the instinct combined with the will to employ earth-work and the size to work efficiently underground. Still today, the name is widely used for working terriers of the Parsons Reverend's style. It was in the country of development, Australia, that this 10-12 inch dog was first standardized by Kennel Club recognition with the official name "Jack Russell Terrier" applied to the breed. This ultimately led to recognition of the breed by FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) countries including Ireland and most recently the USA. Unfortunately, due to the previous use of the name in the USA and England, the name Jack Russell Terrier is conflicting. In the USA, the Jack Russell Terrier conforming to the Australian/FCI standard is simply called a Russell Terrier. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the most common Jack Russell Terrier stood between 10" and 12" at the shoulder. There were those over 12", but these were in the minority. In the United Kingdom, each hunt had its Hunt Terriers made up usually of an assortment of Jack Russells, Borders, Lakelands and "Patterdales".

Even now, the size of the Russell Terrier in a hunt kennel will vary depending on its usage. In areas where the terriers are expected to run with hounds, they will be longer in leg. In areas where the terriers are carried in a saddle bag or, more likely today, in the back of a vehicle, they will be of the shorter and longer than tall variety. During the hunts' off-season the kennels usually have fun days and conformation events accompanied by a Hound Show, Terrier Show and Terrier racing. The Russell Terrier is a very popular companion breed in the US. It must be noted first and foremost the breed is a working breed not a companion breed. They are bred by dedicated Fanciers to preserve their working functional conformation and the instinct to employ their original purpose as earth terriers. This makes them an excellent performance breed participating in a variety of events; natural hunting which includes earthwork, agility, rally, obedience, tracking, go-to-ground and conformation, just to name a few. They are also found as therapy and service dogs.

Then and Now

In the early 1970s, the Jack Russell Terrier Club of Great Britain was formed, and this body instituted a very primitive form of registration. Soon, Jack Russell Terrier Clubs were being formed world wide, including Australia. The Jack Russell Terrier Club of Australia was formed in 1972. This national organization set up a particularly comprehensive registration system, along with a formal breed standard. This club also initiated discussions with the KCC regarding the possibility of the breed being accepted for registration as a pure breed. The ideal height for the Jack Russell Terrier in Australia was to be 10" to 12".

In Australia, the Jack Russell Terrier Club initially held one show a year, but by the late 1980s, states were holding one or two shows each per year, as well as the National Annual Show. Discussions continued with mainly the KCC and from there to the Australian National Canine Council (ANKC). By now most Canine Councils were giving approval for their Judges to officiate at Jack Russell Shows, and those who were taking an interest in the breed began to realise that the type was improving, and the numbers increasing. In 1990, there were 109 entries at the Jack Russell Terrier Club of Australia's NSW Branch Easter Show. Since the beginning of development within Australia, the Breed has only progressed with great strength. Today, Jack Russell Terriers frequently gain Group awards at Championship Shows, are trialled at Obedience Trials, run in Endurance Tests, and compete in Earthdog Tests. Their most popular role...though is as pets, make lively and amusing companions.

Recent England and U.S. Breed Development

The Russell Terrier, also known as the F.C.I. type Jack Russell Terrier, is a recognized Kennel Club breed in the United States and is maintained separately from the AKC Parson Russell Terrier, JRTCA Jack Russell Terrier and the UKC Jack Russell Terrier. In 2001 The United Kennel Club accepted the application from the English Jack Russell Terrier Club officially recognizing the Russell Terrier. The American Kennel Club AKC accepted the breed into the FSS Program in December 8, 2004, again based on the F.C.I. Jack Russell Terrier Standard, also submitted by the E.J.R.T.C. AKA the American Russell Terrier Club.

In England (country of origin) the slightly longer than tall, more rectangular Russell is yet to be recognized. The original finer legged, more square in form (Parsons) were preserved for the most part and, in England, are called "Parson Jack Russell Terriers". This form was recognised by the Kennel Club (UK) in 1990 and gained provisional recognition by the international breeds association, the F.C.I, in the same year. The name of the breed was changed to "Parson Russell Terrier" in 1999 by the Kennel Club (UK) and gained full recognition by the F.C.I under this name in 2001. Also in England the Parson type Russell through the Jack Russell Terrier Club of Great Britain (JRTGB) is accepted as a working terrier breed, this club has no ties to any kennel clubs.

The United Kennel Club (UKC) has officially recognized the F.C.I. type Jack Russell Terrier based on the FCI standard since November 2001. All UKC FS designated dogs were those previously registered with the ARTC. The FCI Jack Russell Terrier was also accepted into the AKC FSS known as the "Russell Terrier" in December 2004 on the application submitted by the ARTC. The AKC Parsons Russell Terrier, the UKC Jack Russell Terrier (Parsons in style) and the AKC, UKC Russell terrier all evolved using parallel breeding strains from the fox-working terrier bred by the Reverend John Russell. The Jack Russell Terrier, the Parsons Russell Terrier and Russell Terrier (Australian/FCI JRT) will forever be linked in ancestry. However, after 12 years of maintaining the Russell Terrier in the US and longer internationally as a distinctly separate breed with the selection of the rectangular appearance unique only to the Russell Terrier they can no longer be considered variations.


Profile of a smooth Russell Terrier.

Profile of a smooth Russell Terrier.

The breed originated in England and was developed in Australia with a well-documented history. The history of the breed detailed in the standard is as important as the definition of the description of the Russells. The AKC Parsons Russell Terrier and the AKC FSS Russell Terrier are maintained as distinctly separate breeds in AKC and in Europe.

The AKC FSS books are open and accepting registrations for the FCI type Jack Russell Terrier/AKC FSS Russell Terrier. At this time there are 4 registries acceptable within the AKC FSS for the Jack Russell Terrier, two of those registries, the American Russell Terrier Club and the American Russell Terrier Foundation Club are no longer able to accept registrations for the Russell Terrier because these organizations have turned their entire registries over to the AKC FSS and therefore have become the property of the AKC FSS. The only acceptable registry that pre-screens for the FCI type JRT exclusively for the AKC FSS, is the American Jack Russell Terrier Association.


Used with permission and rewritten and pasted from WORD.

A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length. His smart movement matches his keen expression. Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken.

A Russell Terrier.

A Russell Terrier.
  • The overall dog is longer than high.
  • The depth of the body from the withers to the brisket should equal the length of foreleg from elbows to the ground.
  • The girth behind the elbows should be about 40 to 43 cm.
  • A lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen, intelligent expression. Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident.

Cranial Region

  • Skull: The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle. THIS PORTION OF STANDARD DIFFERS DEPENDING ON THE BREED CLUB.
  • Stop: Well defined but not over pronounced.

Facial Region

  • Nose: Black.
  • Muzzle: The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput.
  • Lips: Tight-fitting and pigmented black.
  • Jaws/Teeth: Very strong, deep, wide and powerful. Strong teeth closing to a scissor bite.
  • Eyes: Small dark and with keen expression. MUST not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely. The eyelid rims should be pigmented black. Almond shape.
  • Ears: Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility.
  • Cheeks: The cheek muscles should be well developed.
  • Neck: Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise.
  • General: Rectangular.
  • Back: Level. The length from the withers to the root of tail slightly greater than the height from the withers to the ground.
  • Loin: The loin should be short, strong and deeply muscled.
  • Chest: Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance from the ground, enabling the brisket to be located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm.
  • Sternum: Point of sternum clearly in front of the point of shoulder.
  • Tail: May droop at rest. When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears.
  • Forequarters
  • Shoulders: Well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle.
  • Upper arm: Of sufficient length and angulation to ensure elbows are set under the body.
  • Forelegs: Straight in bone from the elbows to the toes whether viewed from the front or the side.
  • Hindquarters: Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder.
  • Stifles: Well angulated.
  • Hock joints: Low set.
  • Rear pastern (Metatarsus) : Parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position.
  • Feet: Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in nor out.
Gait / Movement
  • True, free and springy.
  • Hair: May be smooth, broken or rough. Must be weatherproof. Coats should not be altered (stripped out) to appear smooth or broken.
  • Color: White MUST predominate with black and/or tan markings. The tan markings can be from the lightest tan to the richest tan (chestnut).
Size and Weight
  • Ideal Height: 25 cm (10 ins) to 30 cm (12 ins).
  • Weight: Being the equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cm in height, i.e. a 25 cm high dog should weigh approximately 5 kg and a 30 cm high dog should weigh 6 kg.

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree, and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. However, the following weaknesses should be particularly penalized when entering a conformation competition:

  • Lack of true Terrier characteristics.
  • Lack of balance, i.e. over exaggeration of any points.
  • Sluggish or unsound movement.
  • Faulty mouth.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities should be disqualified when showing.


A well-cared-for Russell can live for anywhere between 14-21 years.[citation needed] Health concerns with the breed include hereditary cataracts, primary lens luxation, congenital deafness, medial patellar luxation, cerebellar ataxia, Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, myasthenia gravis, atopy, and von Willebrand's disease. It is responsible breeders to have puppies BAER tested for hearing. The dams and sires should be CERF tested annually and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals examined to reduce the chance of passing on congenital eye or joint problems. Prospective puppy buyers are encouraged to avoid dogs sired or whelped by dogs under two years of age as congenital problems in the sire or dam may not yet have expressed themselves.

Patterdale Terrier

The Patterdale Terrier is a breed of dog native to the Lake District of Cumbria in Northwest England. The name Patterdale refers to a village a little south of Ullswater and a few miles east of Helvellyn.

A Patterdale is a type of Fell Terrier, which is the modern name for what used to be called a Black and Tan Terrier. The Black and Tan terrier was "improved" and brought into the Kennel Club as the Welsh Terrier after a brief naming struggle in which the name "Old English Broken-coated Terrier" was attempted before being rejected by the Kennel Club hierarchy. The "Old English Broken Coated Terrier" is sometimes called the "Old English Terrier"


According to breed standards, this working terrier stands between 25.5 cm (10 inches) and 38 cm (15 inches) at the withers and weighs between 4.5 kg (10 pounds) and 11 kg (24 pounds). The preferred size depends on the quarry. In Great Britain, all sizes are in use, depending on the terrain and the quarry. Quarry in the UK is mostly fox. In the eastern United States, smaller dogs are preferred and 30 cm (12 inches) tall and 5.5 kg (12 pounds) is the preferred size for groundhogs (aka woodchucks). However, somewhat larger dogs can be used in the American West when ground barn hunting larger raccoons and badgers.

Variations in Coat, Color and Name

3 year old smooth black Patterdale Terrier

3 year old smooth black Patterdale Terrier

The term "Patterdale terrier" generally refers to a smooth coated (short haired) black terrier, but bronze (black that shines brown in sunlight), grizzle, red sable (red base color with black hairs mixed through out, often with a black mask on the muzzle), liver (with red nose), and Blue, any of these colors can also be tan pointed like a Dobermann) or saddled patterned like an Airedale terrier. White feet and white chest markings appear in all coat colours. Coats are smooth, rough, or broken-coated.

If a black terrier is rough coated, rather than smooth, it may be called a Patterdale terrier, but it is more commonly called a "fell terrier" while a rough-coated black and tan terrier may be called a "fell terrier," a "Patterdale terrier," a "working Lakeland terrier," or a "black and tan terrier" In the world of non-Kennel Club working terriers, the only real proctor is the quarry itself.


Patterdale puppies tend to be bold and confident beyond their capabilities, and responsible owners of working dogs will not overmatch their dogs or enter them to formidable quarry before they are around one year of age.

A Patterdale terrier is a working terrier, and terrier work requires a high-energy dog with a strong prey drive and a loud voice. As a result, Patterdales are very energetic dogs, and can be quite vocal. It is not uncommon for a Patterdale to be cat-aggressive, and homes with other small fur-bearing animals in them (pet hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) would do well to think through the ramifications of bringing a working terrier into the house.

Due to their compact size, friendly and inquisitive nature, and intelligence, Patterdales are attractive as pets, but prospective buyers should be aware that while these dogs may enjoy sitting in a lap, they are not “lap dogs” – they are dogs that require training and regular and consistent exercise to maintain their temperament and to occupy their minds.

Patterdales which are not trained on a consistent basis, or are not exercised regularly, may exhibit unmanageable behaviour, including excessive barking, escaping from the yard, or digging in unwanted places inside and outside the house. Prospective Patterdale terrier owners are advised to do their homework, and those seeking working dogs are advised to focus on size and to make sure they are acquiring their dogs from true working homes.


The Patterdale Terrier of modern times refers to the mainly black smooth coated fell terrier first popularized by Cyril Breay from Kirkby Lonsdale and Frank Buck from Leyburn in Yorkshire during the early part of the 1950s. At that time, any "typey" fell terrier being shown in the Lake District was called a Lakeland Terrier, or simply called a coloured terrier, whether or not they were from Ullswater county. In the early 1960s, Brian Nuttall of Holmes Chapel began breeding dogs that he acquired from his grandfather and from Breay and Buck blood lines. These dogs were carefully linebred. Nuttall blood lines are still considered to be of the highest quality and adds a bit to the price of a puppy. The modern Patterdale Terrier is to fell terriers, what the Jack Russell Terrier is to hunt terriers—the indisputable leader in numbers and performance as a breed.

Patterdale terrier were developed in the harsh environment in the north of England that is unable to sustain agriculture and too hilly (in the main) for cattle. Sheep farming is the dominant farming activity on these hills. Since fox are perceived by farmers as being predatory on sheep and small farm animals, terriers are used for predator control. Unlike the dirt dens found in the hunt country of the south, the rocky dens found in the north do no allow much digging. As a consequence, a Patterdale terrier needs to be able to bolt the fox from the rock crevice or dispatch it where it is found. Because of the difficulty in digging in the north, northern dogs such as the Patterdale and fell terrier tend to "tough as nails." The use of "hard" dogs to hunt foxes in this way was made illegal in England and Wales by the Hunting Act 2004, as it runs counter to the code of practice under the Act.


A golden brown pekeapoo.
A golden brown pekeapoo.

A Pekeapoo (or, sometimes, Peekapoo) is a crossbred dog created by breeding a pure-bred Poodle with a pure-bred Pekingese. It is notable as a mix that has found its way to the mainstream.
Similar to Poodle, Pekeapoos have a non-shedding coat and carry little dander, although on occasion there can be loose fur.
Due to the mixed nature of their breeding, Pekeapoos have few defining characteristics.


Pekeapoos are commonly very friendly and intelligent dogs. They are a good family dog because of their size and their loving behavior with children. They should get along with other dogs; however, Pekeapoos are very wary of strangers and protective of their family, causing them to bark. They also love to play and go for walks.


A golden brown pekeapoo.

A golden brown pekeapoo.

Pekeapoos can be white, black, brown, red, grey, or a cream color. The texture of the coat is usually a very soft, cotton-like fur, especially after being bathed. They are small for dogs, weighing from 4 to 20 pounds.

Health Care

There are few health problems associated with Pekeapoos. It is not uncommon for a pekeapoo to experience a spell of breathing difficulty every now and then, traits they gain from their Pekingese parent. Tear stains can become a serious problem if the eyes become swollen or the tear stains are too dark of a color on light-colored dogs. Light, peach colored tear stains are nothing to worry about unless they become a dark purple/ red color. Dental problems are also common for Pekeapoos. In many cases it is hard for the animal to eat, as the teeth don't meet up in a nice way to help with the chewing of the food that they eat.

With a well-balanced diet and annual vet visits, Pekeapoos have a life expectancy of 10-15 years.


Pekeapoo Puppy

Pekeapoo Puppy

Pekeapoo's fur should be brushed occasionally and should be bathed when it is needed. A pekeapoo's fur should be kept short for easier brushing.In addition, this prevents tear stains from becoming a problem.


Pekingese or Pekinese is an ancient breed of toy dog, originating in China. They were the favored pet of the Chinese Imperial court, and the name relates to the city of Beijing where the Forbidden City resides. The breed has several characteristics and health issues related to its unique appearance.

These dogs are also called Dogs of Foo (or Fu) by the Chinese, and how much they are revered can be seen in the number of Chinese artworks depicting them. They were considered a guardian spirit as they resembled Chinese lions (see Lion dance).


A pekingese puppy

A pekingese puppy

The Pekingese breed is over 2000 years old and has hardly changed in all that time. One exception is that modern breeders and dog-show judges seem to prefer the long-haired type over the more-traditional spaniel-type coat.

All breed standards allow all sorts of color combinations. The most common is gold; this is the color of the majority of Pekingese exhibited. Although the breed once came in a variety of colours, the majority of Pekingese are gold, red or sable. Light gold, cream, black, white, sables, black and tan and occasionally 'blue' or slate grey have appeared in the breed. The latter often has poor pigment and light eyes. Albino Pekingese (white with pink eyes) should be bred cautiously due to health problems that have been associated with albinoism.

The Chinese bred them to be companions to the Emperor of China and his ladies and eunuchs. They have short legs that are bowed. It is said that this was done to discourage wandering. However, they can and will keep up with the big dogs when allowed. The bowed legs makes their walk, run, or trot quite striking. The juvenile appearance of the Pekingese has been attributed to the artificial, perhaps inadvertent, paedomorphosis of an "ancestral" form of the dog through breeding.

Pekes weigh from 7 to 14 pounds (3-6 kg) and stand about 6-9 inches (15-23 cm) at the withers.


A Pekingese in a show coat

A Pekingese in a show coat

These dogs can be stubborn and jealous. Do not expect this dog to come when it is called. Pekes are sometimes aggressive, especially to other dogs. It may take a long time for Pekes to get used to any other dogs except puppies, mates, and siblings. However, Pekes can be properly socialized with dogs and other types of pets and can become fast friends. It is easy to believe that Pekes know that they are royalty and expect you to know it too. The Pekingese personality has been compared to a cat, although this isn't quite right. Where a cat can be trained, a Pekingese needs to be convinced that the training is beneficial to him as well as to you. But, if they love you they will do anything for you, even fight to the death to protect you.

The Pekingese is generally a one-person dog. Many breeders will not place the breed in households with young or boisterous children as the Breed simply does not enjoy being mauled or expected to tear around in a manner that would be more befitting an agile Poodle or other smalls breeds.

The Pekingese is a large dog in a small body. It expects to be respected and will not tolerate being treated otherwise.


The leading cause of death for Pekes is congestive heart failure. When diagnosed early and successfully treated with prescription meds, a Peke with this problem can expect to live many years. A heart murmur is a potential sign of a problem, and must be evaluated by a veterinary cardiologist. Very often, the problem does not surface until the dog is 6 or more years old, so it is very difficult to screen the problem in a pup. Pekes' other main problems are eye issues and breathing problems, resulting from its tiny skull and flattened face, and skin allergies (and hotspots). An especially common problem is eye ulcers, which may develop spontaneously. Pekes should never be kept outside as their flattened faces and noses can develop breathing problems, which makes it difficult for them to regulate their body temperature in overly hot or cold weather. Their long backs, relative to their legs, make them vulnerable to back injuries. Care should be taken, when picking them up, to give Pekes adequate back support: one hand under the chest, the other under the abdomen. Short legs give some Pekes difficulty with stairs; older dogs may not be able to go up or down stairs alone.


Black pekingese

Black pekingese

Keeping the Peke coat healthy and presentable requires brushing once a day. If you do this, they will need to see a groomer only once every 3 months. If a Peke becomes dirty, it is important to take it to a groomer as soon as possible, as it is difficult to remove dirt from its coat once it has dried, but this can be avoided if by brushing regularly, especially the belly, and between the front and hind legs. One important thing for new owners to remember is that dogs intended as a house pet may be kept in a puppy cut which is much more low maintenance than a show cut. It is also important to remove dirt from the eye pores daily, and from the creases on the face to prevent sores (hotspots).


The breed originated in China in antiquity, in the city of Peking most likely from Asian wolves. Another theory proposed by Professor Ludvic von Schulmuth is that the "Gobi Desert Kitchen Midden Dog", a scavenger, evolved into the "Small Soft-Coated Drop-Eared Hunting Dog". From this dog evolved the Pekingese, Tibetan Spaniel, and Japanese Chin. The Professor studied canine origins by studying the skeletal remains of dogs found in human settlements as long as ten thousand years ago and believed different branches of this "Kitchen Midden Dog" also gave rise to the Papillon and Long haired Chihuahua, as well as the Shih Tzu and the Pug. Recent DNA analysis confirms that the Pekingese breed is one of the oldest breeds of dog. For centuries, they could be owned only by members of the Chinese Imperial Palace.

During the Second Opium War, in 1860, the Forbidden City was invaded by Allied troops. The Emperor Xianfeng had fled with all of his court. However an elderly aunt of the emperor remained. When the ‘foreign devils’ entered, she committed suicide. She was found with her five Pekingese mourning her passing.

They were removed by the Allies before the Old Summer Palace was burnt. Lord John Hay took a pair, later called ‘Schloff’, and ‘Hytien’ and gave them to his sister, the Duchess of Wellington, wife of Henry Wellesley, 3rd Duke of Wellington. Sir George Fitzroy took another pair, and gave them to his cousins, the Duke and Duchess of Richmond and Gordon. Lieutenant Dunne presented the fifth Pekingese to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who named it Looty.

The Empress Dowager Cixi presented Pekingese to several Americans, including John Pierpont Morgan and Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth, daughter of Theodore Roosevelt, who named it Manchu.

19th Century Chinese Happa Dog, probably ancestor of the modern Pekingese.  Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England

19th Century Chinese Happa Dog, probably ancestor of the modern Pekingese. Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England

The first Pekingese in Ireland was introduced by Dr. Heuston. He established smallpox vaccination clinics in China. The effect was dramatic. In gratitude, the Chinese minister, Li Hung Chang presented him with a pair of Pekingese. They were named Chang and Lady Li. Dr. Heuston founded the Greystones kennel.


Her Imperial Majesty, Empress Dowager Cixi, said:

Let the Lion Dog be small; let it wear the swelling cape of dignity around its neck; let it display the billowing standard of pomp above its back.
Let its face be black; let its forefront be shaggy; let its forehead be straight and low.
Let its eyes be large and luminous; let its ears be set like the sails of war junk; let its nose be like that of the monkey god of the Hindus.
Let its forelegs be bent; so that it shall not desire to wander far, or leave the Imperial precincts.
Let its body be shaped like that of a hunting lion spying for its prey.
Let its feet be tufted with plentiful hair that its footfall may be soundless and for its standard of pomp let it rival the whick of the Tibetans' yak, which is flourished to protect the imperial litter from flying insects.
Let it be lively that it may afford entertainment by its gambols; let it be timid that it may not involve itself in danger; let it be domestic in its habits that it may live in amity with the other beasts, fishes or birds that find protection in the Imperial Palace.
And for its colour, let it be that of the lion - a golden sable, to be carried in the sleeve of a yellow robe; or the colour of a red bear, or a black and white bear, or striped like a dragon, so that there may be dogs appropriate to every costume in the Imperial wardrobe.
Let it venerate its ancestors and deposit offerings in the canine cemetery of the Forbidden City on each new moon.
Let it comport itself with dignity; let it learn to bite the foreign devils instantly.
Let it be dainty in its food so that it shall be known as an Imperial dog by its fastidiousness; sharks fins and curlew livers and the beasts of quails, on these may it be fed; and for drink give it the tea that is brewed from the spring buds of the shrub that groweth in the province of Hankow, or the milk of the antelopes that pasture in the Imperial parks.
Thus shall it preserve its integrity and self-respect; and for the day of sickness let it be anointed with the clarified fat of the legs of a sacred leopard, and give it to drink a throstle's eggshell full of the juice of the custard apple in which has been dissolved three pinches of shredded rhinoceros horn, and apply it to piebald leeches.
So shall it remain - but if it dies, remember thou too art mortal.

Peke legends

There are two origination stories for the Pekingese. The first is the most common, The Lion and the Marmoset:

A lion and a marmoset fell in love. But the lion was too large. The lion went to the Buddha and told him of his woes. The Buddha allowed the lion to shrink down to the size of the marmoset. And the Pekingese was the result.

The second, less-common, originating story is The Butterfly Lions:

A lion fell in love with a butterfly. But the butterfly and lion knew the difference in size was too much to overcome. Together they went to see the Buddha, who allowed their size to meet in the middle. From this, the Pekingese came.

Another legend says that the Peke resulted from the mating of a lion and a monkey, getting its nobleness and coat from the former and its ungainly walk from the latter.

Because the Pekingese was believed to have originated from the Buddha, he was a temple dog. As such, he was not a mere toy. He was made small so that he could go after and destroy little demons that might infest the palace or temple. But his heart was big so that he could destroy even the largest and fiercest. (A book was written from this premise, although the author denies knowledge of the legends: Bride of the Rat God.)

Pembroke Welsh Corgi

The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (IPA: /ˈkɔ(r)ˌgi/) is one of two dog breeds known as Welsh Corgis that originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. These herding dogs are believed to be descended from Swedish Vallhund dogs that came to Wales with the Vikings. The phrase "cor gi" is frequently translated as "dwarf dog" in Welsh.The Corgi is actually the smallest dog in the Herding Group.


Tricolor Corgi with predominant black coloring.

Tricolor Corgi with predominant black coloring.

A Pembroke is between 10 and 12 inches (250 to 300 mm) tall at the withers (tallest point in the shoulders) and weighs no more than 30 lb (15 kg); dogs in peak condition weigh about 27 pounds (12 kg) for the male and the females are about 2 pounds (1 kg) lighter. Pembrokes can be red, sable, fawn, or black and tan (tri color) with or without white markings on the legs, chest, neck, muzzle, underneath, and as a narrow blaze on the head. There are technical names for these Tri Colors, and they are Black Head Tri, and Red Head Tri Color. Too much white is not acceptable for show dogs.

Sable Pembroke Welsh Corgi acting out natural herding instincts.

Sable Pembroke Welsh Corgi acting out natural herding instincts.

Historically, the Pembroke was a breed with a natural bob tail (very short tail). Due to the advent of docking, the trait was not aggressively pursued, with breeders focusing instead on other characteristics, and the tail artificially shortened if need be. Given that some countries are now banning docking, breeders are again attempting to select for dogs with the genes for natural bob tails. Corgis have a short undercoat as well as a longer thicker overcoat. These coats shed continuously all year round, with extensive seasonal shedding occurring at least twice each year (as well as after the weaning of pups in the intact females). Also common is a "fairy saddle" marking over the dog's withers, caused by changes in the thickness and direction of hair growth. The phrase supposedly comes from mythology, with the dogs being used as steeds or carthorses for fairies, but it is possible the legend is a modern explanation that came after the term.


Like most herding breeds, they are active, intelligent, and athletic dogs despite their short legs and stocky body. The short legs may seem to be a disadvantage, but they can run and jump just as well as any other dog of comparable size. They were originally used to herd sheep, horses and cows by nipping at their heels. Its low profile allowed it to roll away from a cow's kick.

Though still sometimes used as a working dog, today they are more commonly kept as companions. These dogs are amazing companions for children, bonding more with them than they might other members of the family. Pembrokes are extremely intelligent and quick thinkers, which can make them easy to train, but they are not subservient — for instance, they might not respond to "come" if they have found something such as a gopher hole that interests them more than the reward offered. Pembrokes are quite obedient, because of its want to please the owner. In training, the most success has been found using treat-based praise as the Pembroke has an insatiable appetite to a fault. Corgis can become overweight quickly, so with treat-based praise, one should use low-fat treats (such as low-fat dog treats, Cheerios, or small pieces of carrot). Clicker training is an extremely effective means of training corgis and can be used for simple household training and on through upper level obedience and other competitions. (See Karen Pryor's "Don't Shoot the Dog" for information on training with positive reinforcement). Another way of training uses a training chain or a pinch collar. Although the name may sound bad, used responsibly (and under the supervision of an obedience instructor or professional dog trainer) this might help owners to train their dogs. Cesar Millan introduced this training in year 2000 or earlier and calls his work Dog Psychology.

Sable Pembroke doing agility teeter-totter

Sable Pembroke doing agility teeter-totter

Although short, Corgis are fast runners and, like most herding breeds, need a minimum of a two hours' exercise daily. They should be walked daily, and also tended to. They are, contrary to appearances, a medium-size dog and should never be thought of as a toy dog or one who needs less attention and activity.


The length of the spine can cause spinal problems and early arthritis in Corgis. Corgis usually live about twelve to fourteen years.

Pembroke Corgis, if not kept active or if overfed, can easily become obese. The disease can end a Pembroke Corgi's life particularly early since biophysical stresses on the structures of a Pembroke Corgi's spine resulting from the weight of an over-sized belly can and do lead to secondary diseases such as osteoarthritis. Corgis are also prone to a disease called degenerative myelopathy.

Pembroke Corgis should also not be forced to jump from heights, such as from a couch, for they could fracture their relatively short legs or damage their very long backs.


The Pembroke is very intelligent, quick, active, and exceedingly bold. It is thoroughly devoted and protective of its family, defending its home at any cost. It barks occasionally, but makes a good watchdog. The Pembroke is generally suspicious around strangers, and must be trained (as a puppy) to prevent growling around new people. Pembrokes can be resistant to grooming, in particular grooming the paws. Puppies should have their feet handled regularly to negate this behavior. This little dog is friendly and playful, although it has been known to nip at people's (especially children's) heels either in play or in an attempt to herd them, due to instinct. This can be avoided with proper training. The Pembroke is also patient with young children, as long as they know how to treat pets.


Originally bred for herding sheep and cattle, they have proven themselves as excellent companion animals and are outstanding competitors in sheepdog trials and dog agility. There are three theories of Pembroke Welsh Corgi origin:

  1. Some Cardigan Welsh Corgis were crossed with Swedish Vallhund Dogs.
  2. The Cardigan and the Pembroke Welsh Corgis are not related at all.
  3. Some of the original dogs (the Pembroke) evolved into Cardigans from other dogs, such as Schipperke and Pomaranians, and other Spitz-type dogs.

Corgis are becoming more popular in the United States and rank 22nd in American Kennel Club registrations as of 2006. Pembroke Welsh Corgis seem to be loved by the Queen of the United Kingdom; she reportedly has 16 of them. These dogs have been a favored dog by British royalty for more than 70 years.

On May 30, 2007 performance artist Mark McGowan consumed some Corgi meat live on air to protest the accused cruelty by Prince Philip during the hunting and killing of a fox in January. The animal, prepared by others for McGowan, was supposedly an animal culled for independent reasons by a Corgi breeder.

Perro de Presa Canario

The Perro de Presa Canario or Dogo Canario is a Molosser type dog from the Canary Islands. This large breed was originally bred as a multi-purpose farm dog, being used as a cattle drover and guard dog. The name means the "Canarian Dog of Prey" and is sometimes simply called "Presa."


The breed is originally from the Canary Islands in the 1700s, notably Gran Canaria. Its exact ancestry is unknown, but enthusiasts believe that the Perro de Bardino Majorero, an established farm dog from the Canary Islands, was crossed with the Mastiff and other English dogs brought to the Islands by visitors and colonists, creating the foundation for the modern Presa Canario.

Presa type guard and catch dogs are mentioned in historical documents of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is believed that the Perro de Presa Canario was created during the 18th century for the purpose of property and flock guarding as well as the holding and driving of livestock. The breed was also used for dog fighting, a tradition the English settlers transplanted along with their Mastiff and Bulldog breeds. Canary Islanders consider these fights "honor fights" and not the sole purpose of the animal. Presa type dogs were referred to as the "perro de la tierra" or "dog of the land."

The breed became nearly extinct after dog fighting was outlawed in the 1940s, but the breed was revived in the 1970s with the help of several crosses by various breeders. This period is generally known as the reconstruction of the breed, with atypical specimens becoming less common.

The Presa should be powerful, balanced, and imposing in appearance. It is heavily built, but able to move with great athleticism.

The head is broad, massive, square, and powerful. Proper head and good expression are part of the breed standard, and are manifest in the best breed specimens. The ears are normally cropped both to create a more formidable expression, and to prevent damage while working with cattle. In countries where ear cropping is banned the ears should be pendant or "rose" shaped. The lips are thick and hang in an inverted V; the flews may be slightly loose.

A portrait showing the breed's distinctive head.

A portrait showing the breed's distinctive head.

The breed is also characterized by a sloping topline(with the rear being slightly higher than the shoulders). Another characteristic of the breed is the shape of the paws (cat foot) and the catlike movement of the animal. The body is mesomorphic, that is, slightly longer than the dog is tall, contributing to the feline movement. The breed can adapt to various climates.


Females average between 22-24 inches at the withers and weigh between 83-110 pounds.

Males average between 23.5-25.5 inches at the withers and weigh between 110-130 pounds.

Generally speaking, exceeding the weights listed above could lead to a number of health problems. Too much weight is also known to compromise the dog's athleticism and working ability.

Coat and color


Silver Fawn

Silver Fawn
Red Fawn

Red Fawn

Red Brindle

Red Brindle
Brown Brindle

Brown Brindle
Fawn Brindle

Fawn Brindle
Reverse Brindle

Reverse Brindle


The ideal coat is medium length and "rustic," that is, slightly coarse to the touch. The breed is known for its very minimal shedding. Presa Canarios have thick skin and short fur that comes in all shades of fawn, brindle and black (the acceptance of the black coat is a point of contention among fanciers as it is allowed by the AKC-FSS, UKC and UPCC standards, but not by the FCI or FIC standards, with the FCI standard #346 being the only recognized standard in Spain and the Canary Islands). White is allowed up to 20 percent and is most commonly found on the chest and feet, and occasionally on a blaze on the muzzle. The breed standard requires black pigmentation and dogs should have a black mask that does not extend above the eyes. This breed has never consisted of any shades of blue or grey. See below for a brief discussion on coat genetics.


Presas are of strong character and are dominant animals requiring early socialization and obedience training. In some situations, the Presa can be aggressive toward other dogs and suspicious of strangers. Once the dog has been properly socialized and trained, this becomes the exception rather than the rule. Often the dogs natural distrust has been taken as unfriendly or interpreted as aggressiveness. However, many Presas share their homes with children, other dogs, cats, horses and other farm animals.

The breed has come under recent scrutiny with the Presa being linked to attacks on humans. Media and public interest in the breed increased in 2001 when Diane Whipple of San Francisco, California was attacked and killed by two Presa Canario/Mastiff hybrid dogs in the hallway of her apartment building. Additionally, in 2006 a Presa Canario fatally mauled a Florida woman. The woman was the dog's owner and was giving the dog a bath when it attacked. Police responding to the emergency felt threatened by the dog and shot and killed it.


Due to its temperament, the Presa Canario can be a challenge to train. They require a firm owner who is willing and able to meet the challenges a young, dominant puppy may pose. The breed is not traditionally suited for protection sports but it is gaining in popularity due to a small group of enthusiasts who have selected dogs based heavily on function. The Perro de Presa Canario is not recommended for the first time dog owner.


As with any breed, those interested in purchasing a Presa Canario should carefully research breeders and a dog's ancestry to ensure that the breeding lines are healthy. Typically speaking, the higher the degree of consanguinity, the higher the likelihood of genetic defects. Due to the breed's vast gene pool, many of the genetic problems that affect other purebreeds are less evident. However, as the breed becomes more tightly interbred and bloodlines developed the incidence of genetic problems may increase.

As a large breed, the Presa Canario can be susceptible to hip dysplasia. Other reported health problems include patellar luxation and patellar evulsions, skin cysts, epilepsy, osteochondrodysplasias, demodectic mange and cryptorchidism.A health issue unique to Spain is canine visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a blood parasite that has a long incubation period (of several years) and most often leads to death.


The average lifespan for the Presa Canario is 8-12 years.

Breed status

Some enthusiasts hold that, if the dog's pedigree cannot be traced back to the Canary Islands, it is not a true Presa Canario but rather a Bandog. It should be noted that there is a great degree of diversity in Presa Canarios and Dogo Canarios throughout the world. While this diversity has good implications for health, it has some interesting ramifications for the breed status. The Presa Canario is one of four breeds that does not have a DNA profile.

For years, obtaining proper paperwork from Spain was extremely difficult. It is even claimed (but never substantiated), for example, that a former president of the Spanish club simply didn't give out papers. Some breeders simply do not have papers on their dogs which are bonafide Presa Canarios. The problem in obtaining papers has definitely contributed to the diversity of the breed in many ways. Due to this difficulty, American owners and breeders created and sought other ways to register their dogs, such as AKC-FSS, UKC, UPPCC, and FIC.

Coat genetics

Dogs have a great deal of diversity in breeds, in all aspects, including coat color and patterns. Canine coat genetics are still being researched. Most of our present understanding of canine coat genetics is based on the work of Clarence Cook Little, author of "Inheritance of Coat Color in Dogs" (1979), although some researchers dispute certain of his theories. For those with a keen interest in canine coat genetics, an excellent source for the breeder and the layperson's understanding is authored by Dr. Sue Ann Bowling

As far as the Presa Canario is concerned, it is believed Fawn is based on the Agouti series, specifically the ay allele. Agouti hairs are fawn hairs banded and/or interspersed with black. This gene is recessive to the other genotype of the breed, brindle.

It is known that Brindle is a dominant trait but there is some argument as to where it is located. Little postulated that it was on the E series (Ebr) but if so, would compete with the black mask (Em), which is known to not be the case. Dr. Bowling speculates the gene is most likely on a new series, which she calls "K".

The following are true in canine coat genetics: (remembering alleles come in sets of 2)

1. Breeding fawn (ayay) x brindle (KbrKbr or Kbray) may produce: fawn and brindle offspring.

2. Breeding brindle (KbrKbr or Kbray) x brindle (KbrKbr or Kbray) may produce: fawn and brindle offspring.

3. Breeding fawn (ayay) x fawn (ayay) will always produce: fawn offspring.

For breedings of fawn x brindle or brindle x brindle there is no clear way to predict the number of fawn or brindle offspring. Some litters from these breedings will be entirely fawn, entirely brindle, or, most likely, some combination of both.

Peruvian Hairless Dog

The Peruvian Hairless Dog is a breed of dog with its origins in Peruvian pre-Inca cultures. It is one of several breeds of hairless dog.


The posing of a Peruvian Hairless Dog

The posing of a Peruvian Hairless Dog

According to the FCI breed standard, the most important aspect of its appearance is its hairlessness. The dog may have short hair on top of its head, on its feet, and on the tip of its tail. In Peru, breeders tend to prefer completely hairless dogs. The full-coated variety is not recognized as a valid breed variation for show dogs. The color of skin can be chocolate-brown, elephant grey, copper, or mottled. Albinism is not allowed. The eye color is linked to the skin color. It's always brown, but dogs with light colors can have clearer eyes than darker-skinned dogs. Peruvian Hairless Dogs vary in size:

  • Miniature (or pequeño), 25 to 40 cm (10 to 16 inches)
  • Medium (or medio), 40 to 50 cm (16 to 20 inches)
  • Large (or grande), 50 to 65 cm (20 to 26 inches)

The smallest weighs from 4 kg (9 lb) and the largest up to 25 kg (55 lb). Some kennel clubs consider the three to be separate breeds.

The dogs should be slim and elegant, with the impression of force and harmony, without being coarse.

The ears should be candleflame shaped and erect with the possibility to lay flat.

Proportions of height (at withers) to length (withers to base of tail) are 1:1.


Noble and affectionate at home with those close to him. At the same time lively and very alert. He is wary almost suspicious of strangers. They are friendly with other dogs but can be protective as well. These dogs do not like to be alone, but when trained, can do well. It is a dog that can be indoors or outdoors. They are agile and fast. Despite its assets, the primitive nature of the dog doesn't make it a good dog for beginners. It needs an owner that understands dog language.


Hairless dog - Trujillo, Peru

Hairless dog - Trujillo, Peru

The lack of hair leads to a reputation for being clean, for being easy to wash with a sponge, and for a natural lack of fleas or other parasites. Despite this, the dog needs as much care as other dogs, but in another way. The skin should be taken care of frequently. Almost all of this breed tend to have acne or at least blackheads. The skin often becomes too dry and can be treated with some kind of moisturing cream.

Protection against sunlight may be necessary, depending on the season and the color of the dog's skin. The dark-colored dogs get used to direct sunlight and need to be looked after only in spring when sunlight gets stronger. The light-colored dogs (copper) and spotted ones have to be protected always, in summer. They tend to quickly sunburn.

Protection against cold is necessary when it gets colder. However, sensitivity to cold may vary from dog to dog, with smaller dogs more sensitive to cold than the bigger ones.

The ears need special attention. The rims of the ears can dry out and chap easily.

Genetics and health

Coated Peruvian Hairless Dog Grande

Coated Peruvian Hairless Dog Grande
Peruvian Hairless Dog - USA

Peruvian Hairless Dog - USA

The genes that cause hairlessness also result in the breed often having fewer teeth than other breeds, mostly lacking molars and premolars.

One theory is that hairlessness is dominant-lethal, which means that homozygotic hairlessness doesn't exist. This results in a birthrate of 2:1, hairless : coated. However, some breeders don't show this result, having a birthrate between 2:1 and 8:1. According to Hans Räber "Enzyklopädie der Rassehunde" T.I 25% of the population is born coated.

AKC-type breed standards are not compatible with the genetics of hairlessness in dogs, but FCI rules are. Some breeders think that interbreeding with coated (Peruvian) dogs is required to maintain functional teeth and nervous system health in subsequent generations. They say that breeding of hairless with hairless (and common but unacknowledged culling of hairy pups from litters to maintain a "pure" image) leads to short-lived dogs with serious health problems. However, other breeders think the opposite and are doing well, too. Breeding hairless to hairless over multiple generations increases the the chance of having a double hairless gene which is lethal. Breeding hairless to hairless also increases the chance of congenital defects in litters.

Like all breeds there are some health problems. There include IBD, seizures, stroke, and skin lesions. They are very sensitive to toxins and care should be taken in use of insecticides. Insecticides are absorbed through the skin and body fat keeps these toxins from entering the liver too quickly. Since these dogs have very low body fat toxins are absorbed too quickly and cause severe damage to the nervous system and GI tract.


It is a persistent myth that the body temperature of hairless dogs is higher than other dogs; they may feel warmer due to the lack of hair. Letting the dog "hug" you is supposed to help with stomach pain and other disorders, according to Peruvian folklore. Other myths are the dog is a vegetarian or that it cannot bark. It is very likely that some of these myths have helped the breed to survive in Peru.


Peruvian Hairless Dog Vessel. Chimu Culture. Larco Museum Collection.

Peruvian Hairless Dog Vessel. Chimu Culture. Larco Museum Collection.

This is an ancient breed. Although it is often perceived to be an Incan dog because it is known to have been kept during the Inca-imperium, they were also kept as pets in pre-Inca cultures from the Peruvian coastal zone. Ceramic hairless dogs from the Chimú, Moche, and Vicus culture are well known.Depictions of Peruvian hairless dogs appear around 750 A.D. on Moche ceramic vessels and continue in later Andean ceramic traditions.The main area of the Inca imperium (the mountains) is too cold for the natural existence of the dogs. The Spanish conquest of Peru nearly caused the extinction of the breed. The dogs survived in rural areas, where the people believed that they held a mystical value. In recent years, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) accepted the breed and adopted an official breed standard. Before that time, in the United States, some enthusiasts created another type of Peruvian hairless dog, the Peruvian Inca Orchid, which has never been officially recognized by a major all-breed kennel club. The Peruvian Inca Orchid is recognized by the AKC and it is the only open stud book for this breed in the US.

Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen

The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen (Pronunciation:IPA: [pɛˈti bæˈse gɹɪˈfɑn ˈvɑn.deˌɑn] or "peh-TEE bah-SAY grih-FON von-day-ON" with "bah" having the same vowel sound as "bat") is a breed of dog, more specifically a scent hound, that was bred to hunt small game in bramble filled terrain of the La Vendee district of France.


Both sexes should be of similar size, range between 12.5 and 15.5 inches (32 to 40 cm) at the withers and between 25 and 40 pounds (15 to 20 kilograms).

Like the other 3 Griffon Vendéen breeds: the Grand Griffon Vendéen, Briquet Griffon Vendéen, and the Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen; they are solid dogs that appear rough and unrefined yet casual. They have short legs, a sturdy bone structure, and a body that is only slightly longer than it is tall at the withers.

The double coat is both long and rough. The fur on the face resembles a beard and moustache similar to that of a Scottish Terrier. They have drop ears like many hounds share. The tail is long and tapered to the end, similar in shape to a saber. The coloring is primarily white with spots of orange, lemon, sable or black. They may be bicolor, tricolor, or have grizzling.


They are very extroverted, friendly, and independent hounds. PBGVs tend to be very active and lively. They are good with children and other dogs. They can be rather vocal, as is typical of scenthounds.

Like other hounds, they are stubborn and do not respond as well to training as some owners may like. They tend to do what they want to do unless there is a reward for them.


The UK Kennel Club conducted a health survey of Basset Griffon Vendeens (both Petit and Grand varieties combined) in 2004. The Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen (PBGV) Club of America has conducted two health surveys, one in 1994 and one in 2000. The club is currently conducting another survey. These are apparently the only completed or on-going health surveys for Basset Griffon Vendeens (as of July 2007).


Average longevity of PBGVs in the 2000 Club of America survey was 12.7 years (standard deviation 3.9). Sample size was not clear, but it appeared to be 45 dogs. No longevity data were collected in the 1994 survey. There was no information on causes of death.

Average longevity of 76 deceased Basset Griffon Vendeens (both varieties) in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 12.1 years (maximum 17.3 years). Leading causes of death were cancer (33%), old age (24%), and cardiac (7%).

Compared to surveyed longevities of other breeds of similar size, Basset Griffon Vendeens have a typical or somewhat higher than average life expectancy.


In the PBGV Club of America 2000 survey, the most common diseases reported by owners of 640 dogs were persistent pupillary membranes, recurrent ear infections, hypothyroidism, neck pain, and epilepsy.

Among 289 live Basset Griffon Vendeens (both varieties) in the 2004 UKC survey, the most common health issues noted by owners were reproductive, dermatologic (dermatitis and mites), and aural (otitis externa, excessive ear wax, and ear mites).


They should have daily walks to burn off excess energy. They need to be brushed regularly, but not daily, to avoid matting and tangles. They need regular ear cleanings to prevent yeast infections.

Griffon Bruxellois

The nose and eyes should be set at the same level.

The Griffon Bruxellois or Brussels Griffon is a breed of toy dog, named for the city of their origin, Brussels, Belgium. The Griffon Bruxellois may refer to three different breeds, the Griffon Bruxellois, the Griffon Belge and the Petit Brabançon. Identical in standard except for coat and colour differences, in some standards they are considered varieties of the same breed, much like Belgian Sheepdogs.


All three breeds are generally small, with a flat face, prominent chin, and large wide-set eyes that give the Griffon an almost human expression. They are sometimes compared to an Ewok or Wookiee from the movie Star Wars. All three breeds are sturdy toy dogs with thick-set, well-balanced bodies, giving a squared appearance in proportion when viewed from the side. A proper Griffon should be muscular, compact, and well-boned, and should not seem delicate, racy, or overly cobby. The Griffon often feels heavier than it is for such a small size. Because they are judged by weight rather than by shoulder height, proper proportioning is essential to determine whether a dog is too fat, too slim, or too tall for its size.

Weight standards, especially where the upper limit is that might disqualify the dog from the show ring, varies among the breed standards, but the ideal weight is 3.6–4.5 kg (8–10 lb) for both sexes.

The neck is medium length and arched slightly. The chest is deep, and the back is level. The tail is either cropped to one-third its length or is left its natural length in breed standards than allow for that; it should be set high, and when showing, should express the alert, keen demeanor of the breed. Kinked tails are not uncommon in the breed, and are invalid for the show ring unless they can be cropped below the kink to a length acceptable in the breed standard.


The head is the most important characteristic of this breed, and the most well-defined aspect of the breed standard.

The rounded head should be large in proportion to the body, but should not appear to unbalance the dog. Depending on the standard, the forehead is referred to as "rounded" or "domed". In either case, the appearance or the skull should be of a circle (minus the features of the muzzle) rather than an oval, and the forehead should not bulge or protrude.

The ears should be high set but well apart, small, and carried semierect if left uncropped. Cropped ears are preferred in US show rings, but most European countries ban cropping.

The dark, wide-set, black-rimmed eyes are very large and expressive, giving the face its essential human-like qualities. They should be prominent but not bulging.

The nose is broad with wide nostrils, black, and set at the same level as the eyes. There should be a very pronounced stop, and the muzzle between the nose and forehead should not be more than 1.5 cm in length. Many standards prefer the stop to be so strong as to leave no visible distance between the nose and forehead. The nose should angle upwards. The muzzle from nose to chin should not be in line with the face, instead, it should slope towards the skull, giving a turned up or layback look. The broad chin should be undershot and prominent, sweeping up to the lips.

The lips should be black, and close fitting. The top lip is short under the nose, and should not overlap the bottom lip, nor should teeth or tongue be visible. The upper lips should not be pendulous in any way. The teeth should be strong and straight, with none missing or askew.

The nose and eyes should be set at the same level.

The nose and eyes should be set at the same level.


In the Griffon Bruxellois and the Griffon Belge, the coat is wiry, harsh, and dense. By breed standards, at no time should it look or feel woolly. It should be short enough not to disrupt the form of the dog over the body, and long enough to distinguish the texture and type from the Petit Brabançon. Furnishings around the face form a fringe around the eyes, nose, cheeks and chin, but should not be allowed to grow into a long, flowing beard. Rather, they accentuate the natural form of the chin and cheeks. The eyebrow, moustache and beard look is essential to the human-like expression sought after in the breed. There may be some furnishings around the legs as well, though shorter than the head.

To accomplish this harsh coat the hair must be groomed with a technique known as stripping. This involves pulling out the dead hair by hand. If the coat is left to grow naturally it will become soft and woolly looking.

In the Petit Brabançon, the coat is short, straight, smooth, glossy, and flat, with no trace of wiry hair. Its coat should look rather like a Pug or Boston Terrier.

Color types

There are three distinct color types recognized for the breed. The actual color of each dog can vary depending on how they are groomed. If there hair is cut or clippers are used the color of dog will be considerably lighter than is expected by breed standards. The three color types are as follows:

  • Griffon Bruxellois: Red or reddish-brown; black allowed on muzzle.
  • Griffon Belge: Black, Black and tan (a black and tan pattern with emphasis on a rich red shade), Black and red (black mixed evenly with reddish-brown hairs). Black and red may have a black face mask.
  • Petit Brabançon: All colours allowed for the other standards. Until recently, black short may have been a fault, but it is now allowed in all standards. A black mask is expected on the red or reddish brown coat. Grey hair from age is not penalized.


Despite being a Toy dog, the breed is very active.

Despite being a Toy dog, the breed is very active.

The Griffon Bruxellois is known to have a huge heart, and a strong desire to snuggle and be with his or her master. They display a visible air of self-importance. A Griffon should not be shy or aggressive; however, they are very emotionally sensitive, and because of this, should be socialized carefully at a young age. Griffons should also be alert, inquisitive and interested in their surroundings.

Griffons tend to bond with one human more than others. This, along with their small size, may make them unsuitable as a family pet, especially for a family with very small children. Griffons tend to get along well with other animals in the house, including cats, ferrets, and other dogs. However, they can get into trouble because they have no concept of their own relative size and may attempt to dominate dogs much larger than themselves.

Some say: "Having a Griffon means having a true constant companion. They need their favorite person all the time, and will be very unhappy if left outdoors or alone most of the day. A Griffon Bruxellois will want to follow you about the house, on your errands, and to bed."


The life span of Griffons is somewhere in the range of 12 to 15 years.

Due to the shortened snout that Griffons have, heat stroke is a major concern for the dog. To be left outside for any period of time is extremely devastating for a Griffon. Also as a result of the breed's smashed face, the extreme heat conditions may cause serious respiratory issues. Other common problems most owners have are eye lacerations and slipped stifle.

Griffons can prove also to be very difficult to breed. The birthing process is often the most problematic, ending usually in a caesarean section.


For centuries, rough coated, short nosed toy dog breeds have been found in Belgium, but the true history of the Griffon Bruxellois started in the 1800s, not in royal palaces, but in coach houses.

To help keep rats away, Belgian coachmen used to keep small terriers called Griffons d’Ecurie in their stables. These Affenpinscher-like dogs were friendly and popular. At some point in the 1800s, these coachmen bred their Griffons with imported toy dogs, such as the Pug, and the King Charles Spaniel, bringing about the change in coat types that lead to the Petits Brabançon, which was originally a fault of the breed. The spaniels also brought the rich red and black and tan colour of the modern Griffon Bruxellois and Griffon Belge.

The Griffon Bruxellois grew in popularity in the late 1800s with both workers and noblemen in Belgium. Queen Marie Henriette was a dog enthusiast who visited the annual dog shows in Belgium religiously, often with her daughter, and became a breeder and booster of Griffon Bruxellois, giving them international fame and popularity and indirectly leading to two Griffon Bruxellois clubs starting in England and America.

The First World War and Second World War proved to be a disastrous time for the breed. War time is difficult on any dog breed, and the recovering numbers after the First World War were set back by increased vigilance in breeding faults such as webbed toes. By the end of the Second World War, Belgium had almost no native Griffon Bruxellois left, and it was only through the vigilance of dedicated breeders (in England particularly) that the breed survived at all.

The breed has never been numerous or popular, but had a brief vogue in the late 1950s, and now is generally an uncommon breed. There has been a recent increase in interest in the United States due to appearance of a Griffon in the movie, As Good as It Gets, and also because of a general increase in interest in toy dogs.


The Phalène is the drop-eared version of the Papillon, a toy breed also known as the Butterfly Dog or the Continental Toy Spaniel (Epagneul Nain Continental).


The Phalène is the earliest form of the Butterfly Dog; the appearance of the erect-eared variety was not documented until the 16th century, by which time the Phalène had been portrayed in numerous paintings, particularly in portraits of the wealthy by Old Masters and their students. Belgium, France, Spain, and Italy have all been credited with the creation or development of Butterfly Dogs; there have even been theories of its origin in Latin American or Asia[citation needed]. The Papillon gained popularity after the turn of the nineteenth century.

By the middle of the 20th century, the Papillon’s popularity had far outstripped that of the Phalène, which sank low enough into obscurity to become endangered. Fortunately, the breed had its fanciers and did not slip into extinction. At some point the variety was named phalène, or ‘moth’.

The 21st century has seen a revival of interest in the Phalène, with its fanciers pointing out that in countries where it is judged together with the Papillon, judges must be familiar enough with the breed standard to appreciate the qualities of a well-bred Phalène, and not confuse its dropped ears with those of a semi-erect eared Papillon, which would suggest a fault in conformation.


The Phalène is considered a variant of the Papillon in the AKC, where they are registered as Papillons and shown and judged in the same classes. The breed standard is the same with the exception of the dropped ear, which does not sit as low on the head as that of other spaniel types. In nations where clubs follow the guidelines of the FCI, the Phalène is considered a separate breed.

Pharaoh Hound

The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog, a hound which has been classed variously as a member of the sighthound and pariah groups. It is the national dog of Malta, where it is called the Kelb tal-Fenek (plural: Klieb tal-Fenek), meaning "rabbit hound". It is rare outside of Malta, and it is number 141 out of 154 breeds by dogs registered in 2005 by the AKC.


At first glance, the Pharaoh Hound should appear both graceful/elegant AND powerful/athletic. Its build should be one of strength without bulkiness or excessive musculature. Its head is elegant without being fine or extreme. The skull should resemble a blunt wedge, and is long and chiseled with only a slight stop and a muzzle of good length. Its eyes are oval with a keen, noble, alert, and intelligent expression. It has a long, lean, and muscular neck that is slightly arched. Its body is slightly longer than its height at the withers. It has a deep chest that extends down to the elbows and a moderate tuck up. Its shoulders are long and well laid back. Its front legs are long and straight. The back legs are moderately angulated, parallel to each other, and must be in balance with the forelegs. It has a long, fine, straight tail that should reach down to a bit below the point of the hocks. The tail is carried down when relaxed but must not tuck between the legs. When the dog is in motion or is excited, the tail is carried up; either level with, or loosely curled above, the back. Its dewclaws may be removed.


It stands between 21 to 25 inches at the withers and weighs between 40 to 60 lbs. Males are typically larger than females.

Coat and colour

Head study of a Pharaoh Hound

Head study of a Pharaoh Hound

The coat is fine and short with no feathering. The texture varies from silky to somewhat hard and it must never be so profuse as to stand away from the dog's skin. It is always red in colour, though the shades of red varies, and accepted shades range from a tan to a deep chestnut and all shades in between. White markings on the chest, toes, tail-tip, center of forehead, and the bridge of the muzzle are accepted, but not required. A white tail-tip is desired by some kennel clubs. In contrast, any white markings on the back of the neck, the sides, or the back of the dog are unacceptable by most standards. Its irises are always amber, and should compliment the coat colour. Though the adult eye color is amber and blending with the coat, Pharaohs are born with blue eyes, which change to a light gold or yellow color during early puppyhood and then begin to darken. Pharaohs' eyes continue to darken well into adulthood. The nose, whiskers, nails, paw-pads, and eye-rims should also be the same colour as the coat. Pharaohs also have a unique trait of "blushing" when excited or happy, with their ears and nose becoming bright pink.


The Pharaoh Hound is an intelligent, trainable, playful and active breed. It is sociable with other dogs and with people, however it can be aloof/reserved with strangers. It is typically very open and affectionate with its family and those it knows, however. It is an independent-minded, occasionally stubborn breed, yet can be very trainable when appropriate positive training methods are used. It has a strong hunting instinct, and caution should be observed when it is around small pets such as cats, birds, and rodents. It is not a demonstrative breed but rather is quietly affectionate. It is a vocal breed without being yappy or barking just for the sake of barking. It makes a good watch dog, however, it is not well suited as guard dog as it is rarely aggressive with people. This is not a breed suited for kennel situations due to its intelligence and activity level. The breed tends to bond deeply with its people and thrives best when it feels included as a member of the family.


The Pharaoh Hound is independent-minded, highly intelligent, and occasionally stubborn, yet very trainable when positive methods are used. It is a very sensitive breed and responds poorly to compulsionary training methods and to being physically punished. Pharaohs can succeed in competition obedience, but they do not take to it naturally as many breeds that were bred to work along side Man. Pharaohs were bred to hunt and think for themselves, and they have retained this trait for thousands of years. They tire/bore easily with repetitive commands, therefore it is the trainer's job to ensure that their training remains interesting and positive in nature.

They have sensitive skin, and shampoo (canine or human) may cause allergic reactions; therefore, it is best to wash them with either a human baby shampoo or gentle dog shampoo. Grooming Pharaohs is as easy as a quick rub with a hound glove or a damp cloth. They are clean dogs, shed very little, and have no noticeable odor, even when wet.

They are a very active breed and need more than just a daily walk; a run every day is required. Though they are active, they should not be hyperactive. Because of their strong prey drive and independent nature, this breed should never be allowed off leash unless in a securely fenced area away from road traffic or other dangers. Their prey drive is so strong that if they see something they think is prey, they will chase after it, and no amount of training can stop them.

They are very adept jumpers, and fences meant to contain them must be more than five feet (1.52 metres) high, six feet (1.82 metres) or higher being preferable. Because they are such good jumpers, they are well suited to the sport of dog agility. They are often classified as sighthounds, and thus compete in lure coursing. Because they maintain very little body fat and have short coats, they are sensitive to cold and cannot be left outside for long in cold climates. Dog coats/jackets are a must for this breed in cold climates. However, many Pharaoh Hounds enjoy snow and will keep themselves warm through running, playing and digging.


Two Klieb tal-Fenek hunting for rabbits in a rubble stone wall in Malta. The dogs indicate a hidden rabbit, to enable the hunter to set a Ferret into the wall

Two Klieb tal-Fenek hunting for rabbits in a rubble stone wall in Malta. The dogs indicate a hidden rabbit, to enable the hunter to set a Ferret into the wall

The first two specimens of the breed were brought to Britain in the 1920s, but at that time, no litter was bred. Again, some dogs were imported to the UK in the early 1960s, and the first litter was born in 1963. The breed standard was recognised by the The Kennel Club in 1974. The breed was called the Pharaoh Hound although this name was already used by the FCI as an alternative name for the Ibizan Hound at that time. When the FCI abolished this name in 1977 and decided to call the Ibizan Hound exclusively by its original Spanish name Podenco Ibicenco, the term Pharaoh Hound was transferred to the Kelb tal-Fenek, whose breed standard had been recognised by the FCI at the same time .

For many years, the Pharaoh Hound was considered one of the oldest dog breeds, because it is thought by some to resemble paintings of dogs featured on the walls of ancient Egyptian pyramids and tombs. Recent DNA analysis reveals, however, that this breed is actually a more recent construction, developed out of different lines of European hunting dogs . This DNA data now puts to rest the "Egyptian Myth" and proves the breed did not originate from Egypt. It is often called a sighthound, particularly in North America, but also hunts by scent and hearing.

A number of other breeds that are similar to the Pharaoh Hound exist in different regions of the Mediterranean. One is the Cirneco dell'Etna from neighbouring Sicily, which is very similar in structure and appearance, but somewhat smaller (43-51cm/17-20in). Other similar breeds include the Ibizan Hound, Podenco Canario, Podengo Português and other local breeds from the Mediterranean. It is not clear whether those breeds have descended from the same anscestral lines, or whether their similarities have developed due to similar environmental conditions.


Pharaohs, being somewhat uncommon, have not been subjected to as much irresponsible breeding as some more popular breeds, because they are not profitable for commercial breeding, thus those who breed them do it for the love of the breed and to have a good show, performance, and/or hunting dog. They try hard to prevent hereditary diseases from entering the gene pool. Thus, Pharaohs are basically free from genetic diseases at this point in time. However, reputable breeders continue to test their breeding stock for genetic conditions such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, and myriad eye conditions just to ensure that these disorders do not become a problem in the future. Reputable breeders should be able to show you documentation of health screening performed on their breeding dogs. Note that Pharaohs, like most sighthounds, are sensitive to barbiturate anaesthetics. Their ears are thin and prone to frostbite when in cold climates. stefan

Picardy Shepherd / Berger Picard

The Berger Picard (pronounced 'Bear-zhay Pee-carr') or Picardy Shepherd is a French breed of dog of the herding group of breeds. These dogs nearly became extinct after both World War I and World War and still remain a rare breed to this date with only about 3500 dogs in France, around 500 in Germany and less than 100 in the United States. This breed of dog is people-oriented, loyal, and can make a good family pet if properly socialized early in life.

The 2005 American movie Because of Winn-Dixie brought 5 of these dogs over from Europe ("Scott," "Laiko" and "Tasha" performed in the movie). The trainer, Mark Forbes, wanted a dog that resembled the scruffy mutt on the original book's cover but needed several that looked alike so that production could continue smoothly, thus he decided on this rare purebred dog from France.

It is this breed's rustic mutt-like appearance that has prevented it from being rapidly popularized and exploited in the United States by the movie release, as has been the fate of other breeds. People are often fooled into thinking "Winn-Dixie" is a mixed breed.

Like any breed of dog, the Picardy Shepherd is not for everyone, and much thought must be devoted to choosing the right dog. As more Picard puppies are slowly being imported to the U.S. from France and other countries, it is important that owners and potential breeders remain responsible; they will determine the fate of this breed in the United States. The Berger Picard Club of America has recently been formed to help promote and protect this breed


The Berger Picard is a medium-sized, well-muscled dog, slightly longer than tall with a tousled yet elegant appearance. Their ears are naturally erect, high-set and quite wide at the base. Their eyebrows are thick, but do not shield their dark frank eyes. They are known for their smile. Their natural tail normally reaches to the hock and is carried with a slight J-curve at the tip. Their weather-proof coat is harsh and crisp to the touch, not excessively long with a minimal undercoat. Coat colors fall into two colors, fawn and gray with a range of shade variations.

Berger Picard

Berger Picard


Height: 21-25½ in. (53-65 cm.)

Weight: 50-70 lb. (23-32 kg.)


The Berger Picard's attributes include a lively, intelligent personality and a sensitive and assertive disposition that responds quickly to obedience training. By and large Picards are laid back and mellow but they are known for having a stubborn streak and being reserved towards strangers.

Picards are energetic and hard working, alert, loyal and sweet-tempered with children. They are happiest when they have a job to do. They also have a protective nature, making them good guard dogs. However, they are not excessive barkers. Some Picards are notoriously picky eaters, and it may be difficult to decide on a diet that you and the dog agree on.

The breed also has a well developed sense of humor making them an endearing companion, and they continue to be used very effectively as both sheep and cattle herder in their native land and elsewhere.

Like many herding breeds, Picards require human companionship and lots of it. Since they can be demonstrative to their owners and enthusiastic friends towards other animals, formal obedience training and plenty of positive socialization is a must. Athletic, loyal and filled with a desire to work a long day, the breed excels in any "job" as long as enthusiasm and praise is a part of the task.


Berger Picards due to lack of over breeding are a relatively healthy, disease free breed. Hip dysplasia is known, but not common because the dog is not very large. Nevertheless a reputable breeder will have hips and elbows x-rayed and eyes certified for hereditary diseases.

The breed's life expectancy is 13 to 14 years.



Bred to work the fields, Picards are very athletic and revel in exercise. A good deal of exercise is therefore a must for this breed. Otherwise boredom will give way to destructive doggie behavior and rowdy play. They enjoy swimming, running beside a bike, and nice long walks. The Berger Picard makes an excellent jogging companion. The breed's intelligence and sensitivity have made it increasingly popular in dog sports such as agility, Tracking, Schutzhund, Flyball and French Ring Sport.

Living conditions

Despite being more suited for being outdoors, Picards can do surprisingly well in city life provided they are given enough energy-releasing exercise. However, the Picard always tries to stay close to its owner and family, so when given a choice between being alone in a big yard or inside with its master the Picard would rather be with his "shepherd." Inside the house the Picard is usually a very quiet dog, waiting for its time to go out to run, play and sniff around.


The Berger Picard is a low maintenance dog. The rough, tousled coat does not mat or require special care to yield its rustic appearance. Brushing should only be done about once a month. Bathing is rarely done. Their fur should never be trimmed except maybe around the ear edges. They are not profuse shedders and have no "doggie odor".

Brief History

Thought to be the oldest of the French Sheepdogs, the Berger Picard was brought to northern France and the Pas de Calais, in the 9th century by the Celts.

Some experts insist that this breed is related to the more well-known Briard and Beauceron, while others believe it shares a common origin with Dutch and Belgian Shepherds. Although the Berger Picard made an appearance at the first French dog show in 1863, the breed's rustic appearance did not lead to popularity as a show dog.

The breeding stock of the Berger Picard, or Picardy Shepherd, as it is known in some countries, was decimated by the ravages of World War I and World War II. With its population concentrated on the farms of north-eastern France, trench warfare in the Somme reduced the breed to near extinction.

The Picards' easy care and happy, though mischievous, temperament have started the breed back on the road to recovery. Nevertheless its numbers are still limited, even in its native country. As mentioned previously, today in France there are approximately 3500 dogs and in Germany approximately 500 of this breed. At present there are less than 100 Berger Picards in the United States and Canada.

Pit Bull

The American Pit Bull Terrier is one of several bull terrier breeds, often kept as a pet.This is a purebred APBT commonly known as a "Blue Nose" because of its blue-grey coat.

Pit bull is a term that describes several types of dogs with similar physical characteristics. There are several physically similar breeds that are mistakenly termed "pit bull", including the Indian Bull Terrier, Argentine Dogo, the American Bulldog, the Bull Terrier, the Perro de Presa Canario, Cane Corso, and the American Staffordshire Terrier. These breeds are usually not included by name in any Breed Specific Legislation (see below), but are sometimes included because of a broad definition and confusion as to what a pit bull actually is. All of these breeds as well as many others (including Great Danes, Newfoundlands and Rottweilers) are members of the Molosser family of dog breeds.


The ancestors of modern pit bulls come from the bulldogs and terriers of England. At one time every county in England had its own breed of terrier. Many of these still exist; however, some have evolved into new ones. Such is the case for the English White and the Black and Tan terriers, whose descendants include the bull-and-terriers, the Fox Terrier, and the Manchester Terrier. Terriers served an important purpose in England by killing Vermin that might otherwise ruin crops, damage property, or spread disease such as the Black Plague. The development of sports such as rat- or badger- baiting further added to the breeds' importance.

United States propaganda poster used during World War I depicting a Pit Bull

United States propaganda poster used during World War I depicting a Pit Bull

Mastiff type dogs also have a long history in England; they are thought to have been brought by the Celts. It is also known that the Normans introduced the Alaunt. These dogs were used in battle and for guarding, but they also served utilitarian purposes, such as farm work. Specifically, these dogs accompanied farmers into the fields to assist with bringing bulls in for breeding, castration, or slaughter. The dogs, known generally as bulldogs, protected the farmer by subduing the bull if it attempted to gore him. Typically a dog would do this by biting the bull on the nose and holding on until the bull submitted. Bulldogs were bred to have powerful, muscular bodies and the resolve to hold onto a violently struggling bull despite injury. These traits permitted the development and rise of the bloody sports of bull-baiting and bear-baiting. In Elizabethan England, these spectacles were popular forms of entertainment. However, in 1835, bull-baiting and bear-baiting were abolished by Parliament as cruel, and the custom died out over the following years.

The sport of dog fighting, which could be carried out under clandestine measures, blossomed. Since Bulldogs proved too ponderous and uninterested in dog fighting, the Bulldogs were crossed to English White and Black and Tan Terriers. They were also bred to be intelligent and level-headed during fights and remain non-aggressive toward their handlers. Part of the standard for organized dog-fighting required that the match referee who is unacquainted with the dog be able to enter the ring, pick up a dog while it was engaged in a fight, and get the respective owner to carry it out of the ring without being bitten. Dogs that bit the referee were culled.

As a result, Victorian fighting dogs (Staffordshire Bull Terriers and, though less commonly used as fighters, English Bull Terriers) generally had stable temperaments and were commonly kept in the home by the gambling men who owned them.

During the mid-1800s, immigration to the United States from Ireland and England brought an influx of these dogs to America, mainly to Boston, where they were bred to be larger and stockier, working as farm dogs in the West as much as fighting dogs in the cities. The resulting breed, also called the American Pit Bull Terrier, became known as an "all-American" dog. Pit bull type dogs became popular as family pets for citizens who were not involved in dog-fighting or farming. In the early 1900s they began to appear in films, one of the more famous examples being Pete the Pup from the Our Gang shorts (later known as The Little Rascals).

During World War I the breed's widespread popularity led to its being featured on pro-American propaganda posters.

Pit bulls as pets

A champion Pit Bull.

A champion Pit Bull.

In many shelters across the United States, Pit bulls or dogs that appear to be pit bulls comprise a large portion of the shelter's population and may be destroyed due to the stigma associated with the breed (or because of overcrowding).

Although friendliness and tolerance towards humans are traits of the breed, there are, as in any breed, those that are dangerous toward humans. It is the owner's responsibility to be in total control of his dog(s), and it is the owner who, through intentional mistreatment or neglect, is frequently responsible for pit bull bites. Many attacks by other dog breeds are misclassified as "pit bulls" by media reports.

Regardless of who he is, any owner of a pit bull must train the dog well. Lack of proper socialization and strong training can result in a dog with aggressive tendencies. Under the care of an overly-permissive or uneducated owner, pit bulls (or any other large breed) can become very dangerous dogs.

Banning of pit bulls

This table shows places where Pit Bulls have been banned or where bans were proposed.


Place Status Type Date Banned Details
Ontario, Canada Active Province August 29, 2005 Pit bulls are not allowed to be imported into or brought through Ontario. Severe fines are in place for bringing new pit bulls into Ontario. Pit bulls owned prior to August 29, 2005 are grandfathered in. All grandfathered pit bulls of over 36 weeks of age are required to be sterilized immediately. Grandfathered pit bulls must be muzzled and leashed on a leash of less than 1.8 metres while in public. Sale of non-grandfathered pit bulls to residents of Ontario is illegal.
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Active City 1990
Australia Active Country March 10, 2006 Legislation and implimentation dates varies across the different states, but here is the start of a list of the legislation in the various states: New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australi, Queensland, Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, South Australia, Tasmania.
France Active Country April 30, 1999 Ownership restricted; non-pure-breed animals resembling pit-bulls are to be surgically neutered
Norway Active Country 1991
United Kingdom Active Country August 12, 1991 Banned under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991
New Zealand Active Country
Must be microchipped, muzzled in public, and cannot be publicly advertised for sale

Place Status Type Date Details
Delta, Utah Active City
Springville, Utah Active City
Miami-Dade County, Florida Active County 1989 Section 5 Code 17: "It is illegal in Miami-Dade County to own any dog which substantially conforms to a pit bull breed dog, unless it was specially registered with Miami-Dade County prior to 1989. Acquisition or keeping of a pit bull dog: $500.00 fine and County Court action to force the removal of the animal from Miami-Dade County."
Council Bluffs, Iowa Active City 2004
Royal City, Washington Active City January 12, 2007
Denver, Colorado Active City 9 May 2005 First banned in 1980s, but later revoked
Prince George's County, Maryland Active City 1996
Yonkers, NY Active City November 3, 2006
Springfield, Missouri Active City April 17, 2006
Oklahoma Proposed State June 21, 2005
Shelbyville, California Proposed City November 18, 2006
New York City, NY Proposed City December 28, 2006
Aurora, Colorado Proposed City September 27, 2005
Youngstown, Ohio Proposed City January 10, 1999
Richland, Washington Proposed City December 21, 2006
Tupelo, Mississippi Proposed City September 28, 2006
Parker, Colorado Proposed City January 17, 2006
Chicago, Illinois Proposed City November 17, 2005

Legal issues in the USA

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published a study concerning deaths from canine attacks in 2000. Although often cited, the CDC report cautioned that the accuracy of the data "requires complete ascertainment of deaths and an accurate determination of the breed involved, and the denominator requires reliable breed-specific population data (i.e., number of deaths involving a given breed divided by number of dogs of that breed).

However, such denominator data are not available, and official registration or licensing data cannot be used because owners of certain breeds may be less likely than those owning other breeds to register or license their animals."

The issue is further clouded by up to at least half a dozen different breeds being classified as "pit bulls" and comparing these figures to individual breeds, making statistical comparisons irrelevant. Breed identifications were also obtained from media reports, a highly biased and dubious source on which to base policy decions. For all the reasons mentioned above CDC no longer quote breed identifications in dog-bite data.

These caveats notwithstanding, a CDC study detailing dog bite related fatalities in the US between 1979 and 1998 reveals that roughly one-third were caused by Pit Bull type dogs. The highest number of attacks (118) were by Pit Bull type dogs, the next highest being Rottweilers at 67. The full report can be accessed at:

A followup to the study published in 2000 by Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association suggested that "generic non–breed-specific, dangerous dog laws can be enacted that place primary responsibility for a dog’s behavior on the owner, regardless of the dog’s breed. In particular, targeting chronically irresponsible dog owners may be effective."

Urban myths

There are many urban legends surrounding the pit bull, mostly based on the idea that the dogs are physiologically different from other breeds of dog. Many sources propagate the myth that pit bulls have a "locking jaw" mechanism, and that the dog cannot let go once it has bitten. This is untrue. According to Dr. I. Brisbin, a senior researcher at the University of Georgia:

The few studies which have been conducted of the structure of the skulls, mandibles and teeth of pit bulls show that, in proportion to their size, their jaw structure and thus its inferred functional morphology, is no different from that of any breed of dog.

There is absolutely no evidence for the existence of any kind of 'locking mechanism' unique to the structure of the jaw and/or teeth of the American Pit Bull Terrier.

Furthermore, the pit bulls that compete successfully in protection sports such as Schutzhund obviously do not display an inability to release their grips after biting, as releasing the decoy's sleeve on command is an integral part of scoring the competition. Reports of pit bull type dogs refusing to release a bite grip is more likely a function of the breed's gameness—a willingness to engage in a task despite pain and discomfort.

A variant of the "locking jaw" story is told by Tom Skeldon, Lucas County (Ohio), dog warden, who said that an impounded pit bull that had been used in fighting started "going wild," biting at the walls of the kennel. He shot the dog with a tranquilizer, and then left it for five minutes to let it pass out. When he came back the dog had indeed passed out, but not before it had leaped up and clamped its jaws on a cable used to open the door of the kennel. "Everything else was relaxed, the dog was out cold, but its jaws wouldn't let go of that cable, and he was hanging in midair," said Skeldon. "Not even a jaguar will do that." There is a video which shows live action where Skeldon is engaging a pit bull dog, and the judge who viewed the video believed that it showed animal abuse.

However, an incident reported by the Associated Press suggests that other breeds may also fail to relax their jaws when they become unconscious. An Albuquerque police officer was attacked, in October 2005, by a Belgian Malinois, a herding breed with no significant commonality with "pit bulls", other than that which makes them both dogs. The dog bit the officer on the arm. When the officer couldn't shake free, she shot the dog, killing it. Still, other officers had to come to her aid, and pry the dead dog's jaws off the officer's arm.

In addition to the "locking jaw" myth, it is widely believed that pit bulls don't feel pain. However, pit bulls have the same nervous system of any other breed, and they can and do feel pain. Historically, those dogs that would tolerate or ignore discomfort and pain and finish the task they were required to perform were the dogs that were bred and the sort of dogs breeders strove to produce. This is the trait of “gameness” that so many breed fanciers speak of, which may be defined as, “The desire to continue on and/or complete a task despite pain and discomfort.” Therefore, the difficulty in deterring a pit bull from its task is in fact not an inability to feel pain but rather a desirable trait in any trained working dog. Clearly shown in herding dogs which continue to herd despite a broken limb.

Another urban myth surrounding this breed states that pit bulls are the only type of dog that are not affected by capsaicin-based dog-repellent sprays. In fact, many other dog breeds also display this resistance to pepper spray when they are attacking. Documented cases include Bull Mastiffs, Rottweilers and many German Shepherds (including Police K9s). In the words of two police officers, it is "not unusual for pepper spray not to work on dogs" and "just as OC spray doesn't work on all humans, it won't work on all canines."

It is also untrue that the pit bull is the only dog that will keep attacking after being sub-lethally shot. Rottweilers, Mastiffs and German Shepherds have all exhibited this capacity.

Research performed by director, the late Marjorie Darby, finds that dogs involved in attacks overwhelmingly have a known history of aggression, even though many dog owners deny or minimize this fact.The neighbors are usually a better source for documenting negative aspects of a dog's history than the owner(s) are. As such, it is further evidence that dogs, including "pit bulls," don't just "turn" on their owners. A follow-up to a CDC report on dog bite fatalities came to a similar conclusion.

Urban myths about pit bulls are well enough established to be spoofed, as in The Onion's mock caption "Heroic Pit Bull Journeys 2,000 Miles to Attack Owner" (Apr 17, 2002) and "Department Of Homeland Security Deputizes Real Mean Dog," a Rottweiler-Pit Bull-Doberman mix introduced to the press corps approvingly by Tom Ridge (May 21, 2003).

Insurance problems

Many homeowner's insurance companies in the United States are reluctant to insure owners of dogs that are considered to be a dangerous breed. Allstate (depending on the state) may not insure homes with pit bulls or even boxers, akitas, chow chows, dobermans, rottweilers, or wolf hybrids. The Automobile Club of Southern California will refuse to provide homeowner's insurance if a dog living in the home "looks like a pitbull". The CDC estimates that 368,245 persons were treated in U.S. hospitals for nonfatal dog bites in 2001, and that 2% of the U.S. population are attacked by dogs per year. These attacks most often occur on the owner's property.

Pit bulls are also most responsible for the number of fatal dog attacks, when the breed had been identified. The Pit Bull Terrier and Rottweiler in particular are often considered to contribute the most to the serious injuries caused by dog attacks and are the most common breeds that insurance companies will refuse to insure.

Some insurance companies have taken a compromise position, and will only insure pit bull owners if their dogs have achieved a Canine Good Citizen award.

Breed Specific Legislation (BSL)

In response to a number of well-publicized incidents involving dogs that resemble pit bulls, some jurisdictions began placing restrictions on the ownership of pit bulls, such as the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 in the UK, an example of breed-specific legislation. Many jurisdictions have outlawed the possession of Pit bulls, either pit bull breeds specifically, or in addition to other breeds that are regarded as dangerous.

A Pit Bull muzzled.

A Pit Bull muzzled.

Pit Bull Terriers are regulated in the United Kingdom under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, administered by the government agency DEFRA. It is illegal to own any of these dogs without a specific exemption from a court. Licensing is done by local governments, dogs must be muzzled and kept on a lead in public, they must be registered and insured, and receive microchip implants. In November 2002, The Princess Royal was fined £500 under the provisions of the Act.

The Canadian province of Ontario, on August 29, 2005 enacted a ban on Pit Bulls. It was the first province or state in North America to do so. [46] The breeds listed in the ban can no longer be sold, bred, or imported and all pit bull owners must leash and muzzle their pit bulls in public. A 60 day grace period has been put in place to allow for owners to have their pit bulls spayed or neutered. Also it left a period to allow municipalities to adjust to the new law. Prior to the bill's passage, the Ontario government cited what it deemed the success of a pit bull bylaw passed by Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Pit bulls were not the #1 biting breed in Winnipeg's dog bite statistics, prior to the ban being implemented in 1990. After the ban, overall bite numbers increased by an average of almost 50 per year for the following decade. Bites by other breeds increased dramatically, including the #1 breed reported for biting, German Shepherds and their crosses, at close to 100 annual bites by 1992.

Constitutional challenges to pit bull legislation in the United States

As early as 1921, courts have upheld breed specific ordinances in municipalities as a legitimate exercise of police power. These have not been without their Constitutional challenges. A 1991 Colorado Supreme Court case outlines the basic arguments against pit bull specific legislation. It incorporated cases from Arkansas, Ohio, New Mexico, Florida, et al. and several federal district courts, which upheld similar statutes. The case has become federal precedence for what classifies a constitutionally acceptable definition of a "pit bull" when the statute cites the United Kennel Club as the standard for defining the characteristics of the breed. The Constitutional issues raised by the case cover the quintessential arguments against pit bull targeted legislation.

In Colorado Dog Fanciers, Inc. v. City and County of Denver, the Supreme Court of Colorado reviewed en banc claims that the 1989 "Pit Bulls prohibited" city ordinance was unconstitutional. The ordinance made it

unlawful for any person to 'own, possess, keep, exercise control over, maintain, harbor, transport, or sell within the City any pit bull.' § 8-55(a). The ordinance permitted an owner of a previously licensed pit bull to keep the dog only if the owner (1) annually renewed a 'pit bull license' (2) proved that the dog had been spayed or neutered and had been vaccinated against rabies, (3) kept the dog confined or securely leashed and muzzled, and (4) maintained $100,000 in liability insurance. § 8-55(d).

The ordinance defined a pit bull as

Any dog that is an American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any dog displaying a majority of physical traits of any one or more of the above breeds, or any dog exhibiting those distinguishing characteristics which substantially conform to the standards established by the American Kennel Club or United Kennel Club for any of the above breeds.

The trial court held that the ordinance on its face was unconstitutional as a violation of due process rights because it placed the burden of proof on the dog owner that his animal was not a pit bull for purposes of the ordinance. Furthermore, the trial court severed the licensing requirement as lacking a rational basis. It judicially modified the ordinance and ordered a 120 day notice to affected owners to comply with the provisions of the modification. Both parties appealed the decision.

Petitioners opposed to the ordinance made several constitutional challenges:

  • Owners were not afforded sufficient due process when the animal would be impounded for an alleged violation of the ordinance
  • Ordinance violated due process rights by creating a legislative presumption of criminal culpability of knowingly and voluntarily possessing a pit bull
  • Ordinance violated due process rights by permitting a finding that an animal fell within the definition of a pit bull without expert testimony
  • Ordinance was vague and overbroad for treating all pit bulls and substantially similar breeds as inherently dangerous
  • Ordinance violated Constitutional guarantees of Equal Protection under the law by targeting pit bull owners while omitting owners of other presumably dangerous breeds

The Supreme Court rejected each of these claims. It found that pit bull owners as a class were not constitutionally suspect when identified in a statute (as opposed to race, ethnicity, and natural origin). Furthermore, the ownership of an animal was not a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution, but a liberty interest to be safeguarded. Consequently, the court required only a rational basis test for the constitutionality of the ordinance. It held that state police power held a "significant state interest" in public safety and welfare, and that regulation of dogs was a proper exercise of that power.The court adopted the trial court findings that "pit bull attacks, unlike attacks by other dogs, occur more often, are more severe, and are more likely to result in fatalities. The trial court also found that pit bulls tend to be stronger than other dogs, often give no warning signals before attacking, and are less willing than other dogs to retreat from an attack, even when they are in considerable pain." However, the court did not cite any scientific sources for this legal conclusion.

The Supreme Court did affirm the lower court's ruling that the burden should fall to the state in proving whether an owner's dog was a "pit bull" for purposes of the ordinance. Given the case's federal citations for due process claims, this is particularly significant to those statutes of other states which place the burden on the owner in contrast to the Colorado ruling. Pit bull owners facing prosecution who hold the burden of proof for their dog could challenge the statute on due process grounds under the reasoning in Colorado Dog Fanciers.

The Colorado case did not address expert findings that specific breeds should not be banned from municipalities. Other jurisdictions have deferred the weighing of scientific evidence to the legislature, but do not accept expert testimony to the contrary if the legislature has a "rational basis for public health and safety."

Subsequent to this ruling, a 2004 law passed by the Colorado General Assembly prohibited breed specific laws. However, it was overturned in April of 2005 after the city of Denver challenged the law on constitutional grounds. Over 260 "pit bull type" dogs have been seized from their homes and euthanised since this date, resulting in national protest by dog owners and animal rights lobbying groups. Since 1989, Denver authorities have confiscated and destroyed over 1100 pit bulls from city residents who have violated the ordinance. Dog owners continue to bring pit bulls into the city.

No such ban on other dogs deemed dangerous has been enacted, and the number of pit bull related bites has changed little since the city reinstated the ban.

Legislation and judicial opinions in opposition to pit bull specific legislation

Ohio became the first state jurisdiction to find its breed specific legislation unconstitutional on due process grounds. In Toledo v. Tellings (March 3, 2006), a 2-1 decision, the Ohio Sixth District Court of Appeals struck down breed specific legislation that restricted pit bull ownership in Toledo, Ohio. The law had relied on a state definition of a vicious dog as one that has bitten or killed a human, has killed another dog, or "belongs to a breed that is commonly known as a pit bull dog." The court held that the legislation was void for violation of a pit bull owner's right to due process, because the owner could not appeal a designation of his pet as a vicious dog. For the majority, Judge William Skow wrote: "Since we conclude that there is no evidence that pit bulls are inherently dangerous or vicious, then the city ordinance limitation on ownership is also arbitrary, unreasonable, and discriminatory." The court found no rational basis for the law. The case is currently before the Ohio Supreme Court and a final determination on the constitutionality of the law is due between October and December of 2007.

The State of Virginia now has Anti-BSL laws prohibiting cities and counties from banning a dog of certain breed or cross breed.

The State of Florida, Statute 767.14 forbids local governments in Florida from enacting breed specific laws unless the law was in place before October 1, 1990. Several communities, including Miami-Dade County, Florida had such laws in place before the law took effect and pit bull ownership is banned there.


The extent to which banning a particular breed is effective in reducing dog bite fatalities is contested. Some people maintain that pit bull attacks are directly attributable to irresponsible owners, rather than to any inherent defect in the breed itself. Other people believe that the Pit Bull Terrier is a breed that, although not inherently dangerous, needs a particularly knowledgeable and committed handler and should not be freely available to novice owners.

Pit bulls are said to be popular with irresponsible owners, who see these dogs as a symbol of status or machismo. This type of owner may be less likely to socialize, train, or desex their pet. It is known that unneutered male dogs account for a disproportionate amount of all fatal dog attacks. Some say that many of those who do not believe in altering male dogs also believe that having and training an aggressive dog "goes with the territory," so to speak. Irresponsible ownership can have a great impact on how a breed is represented in attack statistics.

Some people argue that banning the pit bull will simply result in irresponsible dog owners seeking to own other large or intimidating breeds, such as the Dobermann, Rottweiler or German Shepherd Dog, resulting in an increased occurrence of dog bites from these breeds.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which maintains the United States' database on fatal wounds inflicted by dog bites, does not advocate breed-specific legislation, instead encouraging "Dangerous Dog" laws that focus on individual dogs of any breed that have exhibited aggressive behavior. The CDC study is also admittedly flawed due to a large number of dog breeds being unknown when the study was compiled. It bears mentioning that using newspaper reports as evidence is hardly the most valid data available.

Huntsville, Alabama police raided a dog-fighting arena on Feb 28, 2002 and seized 10 Pit Bulls. The city's attempt to legally euthanize four pit bull puppies, never trained to fight, was stopped by Madison County Circuit Court Judge Joe Battle, who ruled that the pit bull puppies were not dangerous by virtue of their genetics alone (AP Wire; Apr 6, 2002).

Huntsville appealed to the Alabama Supreme Court, which affirmed (City of Huntsville v. Sheila Tack et al., 1010459, S.C. Alabama; Aug 30, 2002) the Circuit Court opinion by a 6-2 vote; the written dissent addressed procedural matters of legal status of the parties, not the nature of the dogs. The puppies were adopted. Animal Rights group PETA sent the Judge a letter calling for the execution of all the pups. Ingrid Newkirk, president of PETA, officially advocates the euthanasia of all pitbull dogs, and the illegalization of their breeding.

American Airlines banned "Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Bull Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, and any mixed breeds containing one or more of those breeds" in August of 2002 following an incident involving an American Pit Bull Terrier puppy that escaped from luggage into the cargo hold of an airliner, causing damage to the cargo hold. The American Kennel Club lobbied the airline to lift the restriction, arguing that the incident was merely one of improper restraint, and could have involved any dog breed.

The restriction was lifted in May of 2003 after a compromise was reached that requires portable dog carriers in the cargo hold to employ releasable cable ties on four corners of the door of the carrier.

Dog fights

Pit bulls are often used for dog fights, due to their strength, courage, dog-aggressive tendencies (common to all terriers) and widespread availability. Although dog fighting is illegal in the United States, it is still practiced, and is sometimes accompanied by gambling. In the United States Commonwealth of Virginia, for example, it is a felony to organize, promote, be employed by, or wager on a dogfight, whether one is physically present at the fight or not. Laws vary in other states, but most states have some laws to address dogfighting.

Most people who own these breeds direct their dogs' plentiful energy toward nonviolent athletic tasks. Some people train their pit bulls for dog agility. Others involve their pit bulls in weight pulling competitions, obedience competitions or schutzhund. The pit bull often excels at these sports. Out of the 25 dogs who have earned UKC "superdog" status (by gaining championship titles in conformation, obedience, agility, and weightpull), fourteen have been pit bulls.

Media coverage

A Pit Bull

A Pit Bull
Positive press

Although negative information about pit bulls is widespread and, when a negative news story occurs, highly publicized, there are also many positive stories. Some work in hospitals and care facilities as certified therapy dogs, many are well-loved family pets, and some have even saved people's lives. There are many incidences of pit bulls being productively employed by U.S. Customs , as police K9s.

Often pit bulls have been reported to "adopt" other species of animals (such as kittens or squirrels), which some attribute to the breed nickname, "nanny dog". It is more widely accepted that the breed nickname, "nanny dog" comes from Pit Bull type dogs innate love and tolerance of children.

A rescued pit bull called Popsicle is a United States Customs dog, and is famous for sniffing out one of the biggest cocaine busts in history.

In February, 2006, New Yorker magazine writer Malcolm Gladwell published an article surveying the research on pit bulls which concluded that legal attempts to ban the breed were both crude and unnecessary.

In February 2007 a pit bull named "Chief" rescued his family of humans from a spitting cobra by dashing in front of the attacking snake and taking the deadly bite himself. Chief subdued the snake but died of the venom 30 minutes later.

In April 2007, columnist John Canzano of The Oregonian newspaper wrote a favorable piece on Hollywood, the pit bull that formerly belonged to NBA player Qyntel Woods. Hollywood, renamed Stella, was adopted by a loving owner and reformed from a fighting dog to a lap dog.

News reports of injuries and fatal attacks

News media stories of pit bull attacks involving disfiguring injury to humans and other animals, the latter very often also fatally, ranging in size from attacks on smaller nonpitbull dogs to horses can be found globally.The pit bulls involved were not always loose and off the owner's property, but sometimes were inside the home of the owner, who, or a family member or visitor, was the victim of the aggression. Fatal pit bull attacks to children and adults have been reported by the English-language news media in the United States and United kingdom.

Plott Hound

The Plott Hound is a large scent hound, specifically a coonhound, originally bred for hunting boar.


The Plott Hound should be athletic, muscular, and agile in appearance. It should be of moderate build and proportion, being neither low-set and heavy, nor leggy and light. Its expression should be one of intelligence, confidence, and determination. Its skin should not be baggy like that of a Bloodhound.

The Plott may have an identification mark on the rump used to identify the dog when out hunting. Such a mark is not penalized in conformation shows.


It is approximately 20 to 25 in (50 to 63.5 cm) at the withers for males, (50 to 58 cm) 20 to 23 in for females. Males should weigh 23 to 27 kg (50 to 60 lb). Females should weigh 18 to 25 kg (40 to 55lb)

Coat and colour

The coat is smooth, dense, hard, and fairly fine in texture. The colour is almost any shade of brindle. Small white patches are permissible on the feet and chest.


Eager to please, loyal, intelligent, alert. Aggressive, bold, and fearless hunter. Disposition generally even, but varies among strains, with a distinction sometimes appearing between those bred for big game and those bred as coonhounds.


The Plott brothers brought their dogs with them from Germany to the United States. They bred the dogs on Plott Creek in what is now Haywood County, North Carolina until they obtained the dogs they desired. Later, their neighbors referred to the type of dog as a "Plott boar hunting dog," named after the brothers and in recognition that the Plott had bred arguably the best boar hounds in the world.

The Plott Hound breed originated in the mountains of North Carolina around 1750 and is the only breed known to have originated in this State. Named for Jonathan Plott who developed the breed as a wild boar hound and bear hound, the Plott Hound is a legendary hunting dog. Plott Hounds are known to be courageous fighters and tenacious trackers, but they are also gentle and extremely loyal. The Plott Hound is very quick of foot with excellent treeing instincts and has always been a favorite of big-game hunters.

The Plott Hound has a brindle-colored coat and a bugle-like call. It is also one of only four breeds known to be of American origin.

The Plott Hound was officially adopted as the North Carolina State Dog on August 12, 1989.

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