Friday, 3 August 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 8)


The Dachshund is a short-legged, elongated dog breed of the hound family. The breed's name is German and literally means "badger dog," from (der) Dachs, badger, and (der) Hund, dog. The standard size was developed to scent, chase, and flush badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature was to hunt rabbits. Due to the long, narrow build, they are sometimes referred to in the United States and elsewhere as a wiener dog, hot dog, or sausage dog, though such terms are sometimes considered disparaging. Notwithstanding the German origin of the Dachshund's name, within Germany the breed is known—both formally and informally—as the Dackel or Teckel.


A double-dapple long-haired Dachshund

A double-dapple long-haired Dachshund

According to kennel club standards, the miniature variety differs from the full-size only by size and weight, thus offspring from miniature parents must never weigh more than the miniature standard to be considered a miniature as well.


Dachshunds come in two sizes. A full-grown standard Dachshund averages 16 to 28 pounds. (7 to 12.7 kg), while the miniature variety typically weighs less than 11 lb. (5 kg).

H. L. Mencken said that "A Dachshund is a half-dog high and a dog-and-a-half long," which is their main claim to fame, although many poems and songs refer to them as "two dogs long." This characteristic has led them to be quite a recognizable breed and featured in many a joke and cartoon, particularly The Far Side by Gary Larson.

Coat and color

Dachshunds have a wide range of colouration. Dominant colors and patterns are red and black-and-red (often referred to as black-and-tan). Also occurring are cream, blue, wild boar, chocolate brown, fawn, and a lighter "boar" red. The reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back, tail, face, and ear edges, lending much character and an almost burnished appearance; this is often desirable and is referred to among breeders and enthusiasts as a "stag" or an "overlay."

Silver dapple smooth-haired miniature dachshund with a blue eye and brown eye

Silver dapple smooth-haired miniature dachshund with a blue eye and brown eye

Solid black and solid chocolate-brown Dachshunds occur and, even though dogs with such coloration are often considered handsome, the colors are nonstandard – that is, the dogs are disqualified from conformance competitions in the U.S.

Light-colored Dachshunds usually sport light grey, light hazel, green or blue eyes, rather than the various shades of brown. They can also have eyes of two different colors; in rare cases, such as the double-dappled coloration (called merle in other dog breeds), Dachshunds can have a blue and brown eye. Color aside, this eye condition has led to the double-dapple coat being disfavored among breeders and owners.

Dachshunds come in three coat varieties. The most common and associated with the Dachshund is the smooth coated dog. The next most recognised is the long coat. The wire haired Dachshund is least common. Many people cannot recognize wire-hairs as Dachshunds and can be mistaken as other kinds of dogs.


Dachshunds are playful, fun dogs, known for their propensity to chase small animals, birds and tennis balls with great determination and ferocity. Many Dachshunds are strong-headed or stubborn, making them a challenge to train. Dachshunds are known for their devotion and loyalty to their owners. If left alone many dachshunds will whine until they have companionship.

According to the American Kennel Club’s breed standards, "the Dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault." Their temperament and body language give the impression that they do not know or care about their relatively small and comical stature. Indulged dachshunds may become snappy. Fanciers of the breed often say that "Dachshunds are big dogs in small packages".

The Dachshund's temperament may vary greatly from dog to dog. Although the Dachshund is generally an energetic dog, some are laid back. Due to this dog's behavior, it is not the dog for everyone. A bored Dachshund will become destructive. If raised improperly, Dachshunds can become aggressive or fearful. They require a caring owner that understands their need to have entertainment and exercise.


Wire-haired dachshund

Wire-haired dachshund

The breed is known to have spinal problems, especially intervertebral disk disease, due in part to an extremely long spinal column and short rib cage. The risk of injury can be worsened by obesity, which places greater strain on the vertebrae. In order to prevent injury, it is recommended that Dachshunds be discouraged from jumping and taking stairs, and encouraged to instead take the elevator (though some veterinarians say that slow stair-climbing is unlikely to lead to injury). Holding the dog properly is important, with both front and rear portions of the body fully supported.

As it has become increasingly apparent that the occurrence and severity of these spinal problems, or intervertebral disk disease, is largely hereditary, responsible breeders are working to eliminate this characteristic in the breed. Treatment consists of various combinations of crate confinement and courses of anti-inflammatory medications (steroids). Serious cases may require surgery to remove the troublesome disk contents. Riskier forms of treatment may be prevented by taking the dog to a chiropractor that has experience with canines, preferably a licensed animal chiropractor or veterinarian physiotherapist.

Some double dapples have problems with deafness and blindness. Therefore they need an owner who understands a disabled dog's special needs. Generally responsible breeders refuse to breed this coloration because of this.


Old-style Dachshund showing the longer legs. Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England

Old-style Dachshund showing the longer legs. Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England

Some have theorized that the early roots of the Dachshund go back to Ancient Egypt, where engravings were made featuring short-legged hunting dogs. But in its modern incarnation, the Dachshund is a creation of European breeders, and includes elements of German, French, and English hounds and terriers. Dachshunds have been kept by royal courts all over Europe, including that of Queen Victoria, who was particularly enamored of the breed.

The first verifiable references to the Dachshund, originally named the "Tachs Kriecher" (badger crawler) or "Tachs Krieger" (badger warrior), came from books written in the early 1700s. Prior to that, there exist references to "badger dogs" and "hole dogs", but these likely refer to purposes rather than to specific breeds. The original German Dachshunds were larger than the modern full-size variety, weighing between 30 and 40 lb. (14 to 18 kg), and originally came in straight-legged and crook-legged varieties (the modern Dachshund is descended from the latter). Though the breed is famous for its use in exterminating badgers and badger-baiting, Dachshunds were also commonly used for rabbit and fox hunting, for locating wounded deer, and in packs were known to hunt game as large as wild boar and as fierce as the wolverine.

Double Dapple Dachshunds are prone to eye disease and therefore are rare. It is generally believed that the breed was introduced to the United States between 1879 and 1885

Symbol of Germany

Waldi, the mascot of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games

Waldi, the mascot of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games

Dachshunds have traditionally been viewed as a symbol of Germany, despite their pan-European heritage. During World War I many Americans began referring to Dachshunds as "liberty pups." Political cartoonists commonly used the image of the Dachshund to ridicule Germany. The stigma of the association was revived to a lesser extent during World War II, though it was comparatively short-lived. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was known for keeping Dachshunds.

The Dachshund, for this association with Germany, was chosen to be the first official mascot for the 1972 Summer Olympics with the name Waldi.

The flap-down ears and famous curved tail of the Dachshund have deliberately been bred into the dog. In the case of the ears, this is so that grass seeds, dirt and other matter do not enter into the ear canal. The curved tail is dual-purposed: to be seen more easily in long grass and, in the case of burrowing Dachshunds, to help haul the dog out if it becomes stuck in a burrow.


Some people train and enter their Dachshunds to compete in Dachshund racing, such as the Wiener Nationals. Several races across the country routinely draw several thousand attendees, including races in Buda, Texas, Davis, California, Los Alamitos, California, and Findlay, Ohio. Despite the popularity of these events, the Dachshund Club of America opposes "wiener racing", as many greyhound tracks use the events to draw large crowds to their facilities. The DCA also is worried about potential injuries to dogs, due to their predisposition to back injuries.

Another favorite sport is earthdog trials, in which Dachshunds enter tunnels with dead ends and obstacles attempting to locate an artificial bait or live but caged and protected mice. Dachshunds, being true scent hounds, also compete in scent tracking events, with a national championship sponsored every year by the DCA.

Dackel versus Teckel

In Germany these dogs are widely named as 'Dackels'. To be classified as a full Teckel, these dogs must undergo Blood Tracking tests. Classically, any dog of dackel heritage is given an official tattoo upon one ear. After suitable training, the dog must then follow a blood trail that is at least 48 hours old successfully to its conclusion. Once this is completed, another tattoo is marked on the other ear to denote full Teckel rank. As Teckels are bred for hunting purposes, teckels tattooed or not, tend to be visibly larger in their chests than their dackel counterparts, though marginally shorter in length.


A red merle smooth-haired dachshund.

A red merle smooth-haired dachshund.

The modern American hot dog may be the descendant of the "dachshund" or "little-dog" sausage.


Dachshunds are a popular pet in the United States, ranking 6th in the most recent AKC registration statistics. They are popular with urban and apartment dwellers, ranking among the top ten most popular breeds in 39 of 50 major US cities surveyed by the AKC.One will find varying degrees of organized local Dachshund clubs in most major American cities, including New York, New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago. American Dachshund enthusiasts will enjoy their visits to overseas, as the breed's popularity is legion in places such as Germany, France, Switzerland, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic Slovak Republic and Japan.


Having been bred at one point as Wild Boar hounds, the Teckel breed of these dogs have a tendency to roll on their backs. This 'cute behaviour' has rather morbid beginnings. The dog would be sent into the undergrowth, to flush out the boar. The boar would, upon seeing the smaller dog, give chase. The dog would lead the boar towards the huntsman, whereupon it would throw itself upon its back. The boar would then pass over the dog, who would then attempt to either attack the throat or the genitalia of the passing boar, thus wounding the boar sufficiently for the huntsman to kill their prey.

During World War I the Dachshunds' numbers declined because they originated in Germany and anything having to do with Germany was disliked. However, the Dachshunds' charm brought a resurgence during the Roaring Twenties.


The Dalmatian is a breed of dog, noted for its white coat with either black or liver spots. Although other color variations do exist, any color markings other than black or liver are a disqualification in purebred Dalmatians. The famous spotted coat is unique to the Dalmatian breed; no other purebred dog breed sports the flashy spotted markings. The breed takes its name from the Croatian province of Dalmatia, where it is believed to have originated.



This popular breed of dog is a well-muscled, mid-sized dog with superior endurance. Known for its elegance, the Dalmatian has a body type similar to the Pointer, to which it may be related. The feet are round and compact with well-arched toes. The nails are either white and/or the same color as the spots. The ears are thin, tapering toward the tip, set fairly high and carried close to the head.


The ideal Dalmatian should stand between 19 and 24 inches at the withers and weight from 45 to 70 pounds fully grown. Breed standards for showing for more specific sizes; the UK standard for instance, calls for a height between 22 and 24 inches. Males are generally slightly larger than females.


Dalmatian puppies (averaging 8 per litter) are born with white fur and develop their spots later

Dalmatian puppies (averaging 8 per litter) are born with white fur and develop their spots later

The coat is short, dense, and fine. The ground color is white with round, well-defined spots of uniform color, either black or one of the brown shades. Lemon, orange, blue, tricolor, and brindle spots very rarely also occur, but they are a disqualifying fault for showing, as are any areas of solid color not the result of heavy spotting.

Puppies are born with completely white fur, though the beginning of spots can sometimes be seen under the skin of a newborn pup. Any areas of color at birth are a "patch", and patches are a disqualifying fault in the breed standard. Common areas of a patch are one or both ears, head and neck, and rear. Large patches often result from mating with a non-Dalmatian. Spots will become evident after a week or so, and develop rapidly during the first few weeks. Spots will continue to develop both in number and size throughout the dog's life, though at a slower pace as the dog gets older. Spots should be well-defined, round, and evenly distributed over the body. Spot size may vary from the size of a dime, to the size of a dollar coin, but the more distinct the spots are, the better. Spots may be smaller on the face and tail.

Unlike many double-coated dogs, such as Siberian Huskies and German Shepherd Dogs, Dalmatians shed their short, fine coats year round. Dalmatians shed considerably more than most year-round shedders. These hairs are barbed at the ends, causing the hairs to stick to clothing, upholstery and nearly any other kind of fabric. Although they enjoy a vigorous rub down, nothing can be done to prevent their excessive shedding; new owners must be prepared to deal with an extraordinary amount of dog hairs constantly littering their households. The Dalmatian is not advised for those who prefer a hair-free atmosphere. Many (but not all) people who are otherwise allergic to the coated breeds can live with a Dalmatian allergy free. This can be attributed to their cleanliness and lack of that "doggy" odor.


A liver-spotted Dalmatian. In liver colored Dalmatians, the nose should be brown.

A liver-spotted Dalmatian. In liver colored Dalmatians, the nose should be brown.

The most common colors for Dalmatians are black spotted or liver spotted on a white background. Other spotting colors, though not permitable for showing, and rare, are blue (a blue-grayish color), orange or lemon (dark to pale yellow), brindle, mosaic, tri-colored (may appear on any other colored spots), and two-toned.

Patches often occur in the breed and are a disqualification in the show ring. Patches are present at birth, and consist of a solid color. Patches can appear anywhere on the body, but are most common on the head and ears. Patches are not to be confused with heavily spotted areas on a dog, however.

According to the AKC breed standard, the eyes are set moderately well apart, are medium sized and somewhat rounded in appearance, and are set well into the skull. Eye color is brown, amber or blue, or any combination thereof; the darker the better and usually darker in black-spotted than in liver-spotted dogs. While blue eyes are accepted by the AKC, the CKC faults any eye colour other than black, brown or amber. The Kennel Club (UK) allows only dark eyes in black-spotted dogs, and amber eyes in liver-spotted dogs. Blue eyes are regarded as a fault by many organizations because there appears to be a link between blue eyes and deafness. Amber colored eyes are more common in liver spotted Dalmatians.


As a result of their history as coach dogs, the breed is very active and needs plenty of exercise. They are very fast runners, with a great deal of stamina and self-reliance. Given freedom to roam, they will take multi-day trips on their own across the countryside. In today's urban environment, they will not likely survive such excursions and must be contained. Their energetic and playful nature make them good companions for children and they have an instinctive fondness for humans and horses. These qualities make them somewhat "unbreakable", and forgiving of rough handling by children. However, it is imperative that they be socialized with children while still puppies, and also that children be taught the correct way to play with a Dalmatian. These are powerful dogs that are easily capable of injuring a child in the process of innocent play.

They have very sensitive natures and never forget ill-treatment, and cannot be trained by using rough methods. However, their rambunctious and playful personalities necessitate constant supervision around very small children, whom they may accidentally knock over and hurt. Dalmatians are extremely people oriented dogs, and will get very lonely if left by themselves, and should be trained to accept their owners' absence if they must be left alone as otherwise they will pine severely. A better option is to provide companions. These dogs crave human companionship and do poorly if left alone in a backyard or basement. Dalmatians are famed for their intelligence, independence, and survival instincts. In general they have good memories and are usually kind natured (though individual specimens may vary). Originally bred to defend carriages and horses, these dogs can become territorial if not trained otherwise.


A large number of Dalmatians land up in shelters and rescue homes, often being stated as being difficult and un-trainable. A Dalmatian being un-trainable is not true; it is more a problem with the owner's inexperience with dog psychology, dog training, and/or lack of information about the breed than the dog itself (this statement usually holds true in most cases, irrespective of the breed of dog).

Dalmatians have extremely sensitive personalities and will not forget ill-treatment and ill-treatment can and certainly will break a dog's spirit and a Dalmatian's - certainly so.

While a Dalmatian with a clear rank idea, proper and correct obedience training, would make an excellent companion for anyone or any sized family, Dalmatians are not a breed for a first-time and completely inexperienced owner, especially one whose expectations of the dog and its behaviour are high, especially in terms of obedience or those who have little time and patience to train them.

While a desire to please their owners can be a taught behaviour, they do not have a natural desire to completely please their owners in comparison to some other breeds, e.g. shepherd dogs. Generally speaking (and specimens may vary) Dalmatians are rambunctious, playful breed and usually seem to have a mind of their own, which makes them more challenging to train and requires more knowledge of dog training. Generally speaking (i.e. individual specimens may vary), their attention spans are limited. More so in the hands of an inexperienced owner who does not create the correct rank order. Combinations of rewards (treats, play and praise, in that order) are your best bets and will go a long way in getting their attention and for training purposes [please note the difference between rewards and bribes].

Gentle consistent corrections are often sufficient to correct unacceptable behaviour. Common complaints heard are that while the owner has been able to get the Dalmatian to respond while on leash or while in familiar areas, it does not obey equally well off the leash or in unfamiliar areas. This problem is not breed specific, however, again a trainer inexperience issue.

Origin and history

Dalmatian in woods.

Dalmatian in woods.

The Dalmatian is a breed whose heritage is hotly disputed by researchers, none of whom can come to an agreement on where this spotted dog originated. Very little is known about the origins of the Dalmatian; contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that the breed originated in Dalmatia. The Dalmatian is most certainly a dog of very ancient lineage that has come through the centuries virtually unchanged. Paintings of Dalmatians running along-side chariots have been unearthed in Egyptian tombs. The breed has also been mentioned in the letters of a poet named Jurij Dalmatin, which date back to the mid-1500s. The Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy boasts a fresco painted 1360 that depicts a spotted dog that strongly resembles a modern-day Dalmatian. It may be because of these appearances in art, literature, and writings of antiquity that many claim the Dalmatian first appeared in Europe, Asia and Africa. One reason the breed's origin is often attributed to Dalmatia is that the breed has frequently been found in the company of travelling Roma. Like his Roma masters, the breed is well known, but difficult to locate in one place. The first references to the breed by its current name, Dalmatian, occur in the mid-eighteen hundreds.

The duties of this ancient breed are as varied as his reputed ancestors. He has been used as a dog of war, guarding the borders of Dalmatia and Croatia. To this day, he retains a high guarding instinct; although he is friendly and loyal to those he knows and trusts, he is often aloof with strangers and unknown dogs. He has a strong hunting instinct and is an excellent exterminator of rats and vermin. As a sporting dog he has been used as bird dog, as trail hound, as retriever, or in packs for boar or stag hunting. His flashy colouring and intelligence have made him a successful circus dog throughout the years. He is perhaps best known for his role as a fire-apparatus follower and as a firehouse mascot.

However, the Dalmatian's most important task has been his role as a coach or carriage dog. To this day, Dalmatians retain a strong affinity for horses, often naturally falling in behind a horse and cart in perfect position. The strong-bodied, clean-cut and athletic build of the Dalmatian reflects his years as a coach dog; although rarely used as a coach dog today, his physical make-up is still ideally suited to road work. Like his ancestors, the modern Dalmatian is an energetic dog, with unlimited energy and stamina.

Association with firemen

Particularly in the United States, the use of Dalmatians as carriage dogs was transferred to horse-drawn fire engines, although it is unclear why this link was not made in other countries. Today the Dalmatian serves as a firehouse mascot, but back in the days of horse-drawn fire carts, they provided a valuable service. Dalmatians and horses are very compatible, so the dogs were easily trained to run in front of the carriages to help clear a path and quickly guide the horses and firefighters to the fires and sometimes used as rescue dogs to locate victims in burning structures. Dalmatians are also known to make good watchdogs and it is believed that Dalmatians may have been useful to fire brigades as guard dogs to protect a firehouse and its equipment. Fire engines used to be drawn by fast and powerful horses, a tempting target for thieves. So, Dalmatians were kept in the firehouse as deterrence to theft. The horses have long since gone, but the Dalmatians, by tradition, have stayed. As a result, in the U.S., Dalmatians are commonly known as firehouse dogs. Dalmatians are still chosen by many firefighters as pets, in honor of their heroism in the past. The Dalmatian is also associated, particularly in the United States, with Budweiser beer and the Busch Gardens theme parks, since the Anheuser-Busch company's iconic beer wagon, drawn by a team of magnificent Clydesdale horses, is always accompanied by a Dalmatian carriage dog. The giga-brewer maintains several teams at various locations, which tour extensively. According to Anheuser-Busch's website, Dalmatians were historically used by brewers to guard the wagon while the driver was making deliveries.


A black-spotted Dalmatian female

A black-spotted Dalmatian female

Dalmatians are a very old breed, often thought to be the very first type of dog for which man made deliberate attempts to selectively breed for specific characteristics. These characteristics were at first appearance, then other attributes such as stamina, endurance, and health. The result is a very prolific and long-lived breed of striking appearance, generally free from ailments common to other dogs such as hip dysplasia (almost unknown in purebred dalmatians). Most of their health problems result from the onset of old age; the average Dalmatian lives between 11 and 13 years, although some can live as long as 15 to 16 years. In their late teens, both males and females may suffer bone spurs and arthritic conditions.


An exception to Dalmatians' generally good health is a genetic disposition towards deafness. Deafness was not recognized by early breeders, so the breed was thought to be stupid. Even after recognizing the problem as a genetic fault, breeders did not understand the dog's nature, and deafness in Dalmatians continues to be a frequent problem.

Researchers now know that deafness in albino and piebald animals is caused by the absence of mature melanocytes in the inner ear . This may affect one or both ears. The condition is also common in other canine breeds that share a genetic propensity for light pigmentation. This includes, but is not limited to bull terriers, Poodles, boxers, border collies and Great Danes. Similarly, Charles Darwin commented on the tendency of white, blue-eyed cats to be deaf [10], while Waardenburg syndrome is the human analog. There is an accurate test called the BAER test, which can determine if the defect is present. Puppies can be tested beginning at five weeks of age. BAER testing is the only way of detecting unilateral deafness, and reputable breeders test their dogs prior to breeding.

Only dogs with bilateral hearing should be allowed to breed, although those with unilateral hearing, and even dogs with bilateral deafness, make fine pets. Research shows that Dalmatians with large patches of color present at birth have a lower rate of deafness, and breeding for this trait, which is currently prohibited in the breed standard, might reduce the frequency of deafness in the breed.This is not always true as there have been instances where patched Dalmatians have been found to have faulty hearing. One of leading reasons patches are a disqualifying factor in Dalmatians is to preserve the much prized spotted coat--the continual breeding of patched dogs would result in heavily patched Dalmatians with few spots.

Research concludes that blue-eyed Dalmatians have a greater incidence of deafness than brown-eyed Dalmatians, although an absolute link between the two characteristics has yet to be conclusively proven. Though blue-eyed Dalmatians are not necessarily deaf, many kennel clubs consider blue eyes to be a fault or even a disqualification, and some discourage the use of blue-eyed Dalmatians in breeding programs.

Kidney and bladder stones

Dalmatians, like humans, the great apes, some New World monkeys, and guinea pigs, can suffer from hyperuricemia. The latter lack an enzyme called uricase, which breaks down uric acid. However, in Dalmatians, the deficit seems to be in liver transport. Uric acid can build up in joints and cause gout or bladder stones. These conditions are most likely to occur in middle-aged males. Males over 10 are prone to kidney stones and should have calcium intake reduced or take preventive medication.

Owners should be careful to limit the intake of purine by not feeding these dogs organ meats, animal by-products, or other high-purine ingredients in order to reduce the likelihood of stones. Healthy diets range from premium, all natural pet food brands to prescription diets. Hyperuricemic syndrome in Dalmatians responds to treatment with Orgotein, the veterinary formulation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase

Crosses to English Pointers

Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians (as in all breeds) is inherited. However, unlike other breeds of dog the "normal" gene for uricase is not present in the breed's gene pool at all. Therefore, there is no possibility of eliminating hyperuricemia among pure-bred Dalmatians. The only possible solution to this problem must then be crossing Dalmatians with other breeds in order to reintroduce the "normal" uricase gene.

This has led to the foundation of the "Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project", which aims to reintroduce the normal uricase gene into Dals by crossing them with English Pointers, to whom they are normally thought to be related and who have the normal uricase gene. This project was started in 1973 by Dr. Robert Schaible. The f1 hybrids did not resemble Dalmatians very closely. The f1s were then crossed back to pure-bred Dals. This breeding produced puppies of closer resemblance to the pure Dal. By the fifth generation in 1981 they resembled pure Dals so much that Dr. Schaible convinced the AKC to allow two of the hybrids to be registered along with pure-bred Dals. The Dalmatian Club of America's (DCA) board of directors supported this decision, however it quickly became highly controversial among the club members. A vote by DCA members opposed the registration of the hybrids, causing the AKC to ban registration to any of the dog's offspring.

At the annual general meeting of the DCA in May of 2006 the backcross issue was discussed again by club members. In June of the same year DCA members were presented with an opportunity to vote on whether to reopen discussion of the Dalmatian Backcross Project. The results of this ballot were nearly 2:1 in favor of re-examining support of the Dalmatian Backcross Project by the Dalmatian Club of America. This has begun with publication of articles presenting more information both in support of and questioning the need for this Project. As of May 2007, discussion is on-going.


A "smiling" dalmatian.

A "smiling" dalmatian.

The Dalmatian breed experienced a massive surge in popularity as a result of the 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians written by British author Dodie Smith, and later due to the two Walt Disney films based on the book. The Disney animated classicreleased in 1961, later spawned a 1996 live-action remake One Hundred and One Dalmatians . In the years following the release of the second movie, the Dalmatian breed suffered greatly at the hands of irresponsible breeders and inexperienced owners. Many irreputable breeders and puppy mills cashed in on the breed's rising popularity, and began breeding high numbers of Dalmatians without first ensuring the health, quality, and temperament of the dogs being bred.

Many well-meaning enthusiasts purchased Dalmatians—often for their children—without educating themselves on the breed and the responsibilities that come with owning such a high-energy dog breed. Since Dalmatians were originally bred to run with horses, they require frequent exercise to keep them out of mischief. Many owners find themselves unable to cope with the breeds or the specimen's characteristics and cannot provide their dogs with adequate care and Dalmatians were abandoned in large numbers by their original owners and left with animal shelters. As a result, Dalmatian rescue organizations sprung up around the country to care for the unwanted dogs and find them new homes. Dalmatians subsequently developed an unfair reputation of being 'difficult', 'stupid', or 'high strung'.

Dandie Dinmont Terrier

A Dandie Dinmont Terrier is a small breed of dog in the terrier family. The breed has a very long body, short legs, and a distinctive "top-knot" of hair on the head.


Dandie Dinmonts are between 8 and 11 inches tall at the top of the shoulders and can weigh between 18 and 24 pounds. The dogs are sturdily built with strong bone structure and ample muscular strength. The color is either pepper or mustard. Pepper ranges from dark bluish black to a light silvery gray, the topknot is a silvery white. Mustard can range from a reddish brown to a pale fawn, with the topknot a creamy white.


This short legged terrier was developed in the 17th century as an otter and badger specialist in the Cheviot and Teviotdale Hills in the border country of Scotland and England. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier is named after Dandie Dinmont, a jovial farmer in Sir Walter Scott's novel Guy Mannering. Scott also gave the names to the breed's colours, pepper and mustard, which were adopted from the names of Dandie Dinmont's dogs. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier is the only breed to be named after a character in fiction.

In the 1870s, exhibiting dogs became popular. The Kennel Club formed in 1873 and, just after this time, moves were made by Dandie enthusiasts to form a club. On November 17, 1875, at a meeting held at the Fleece Hotel in Selkirk on the Scottish Borders, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club was formed. It is one of the oldest pedigree breed clubs in the world.

The first task was to draw up a breed standard and Mr William Wardlaw Reed, a founder member of the DDTC. worked on this, smoothing out the many differences. The following year at the Red Lion Hotel, Carlisle, the standard was agreed and adopted.

The breed was first registered with the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1888. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club (UKC) in 1918.

Today the Dandie Dinmont is amongst the rarest and most endangered of all pure breeds/pedigree dogs. The UK Kennel Club list the Dandie as one of the UK's Vulnerable Native Dog Breeds and there is a very real chance of the breed becoming extinct.

Scottish Deerhound

The Scottish Deerhound, or simply the Deerhound, is a breed of hound (a sighthound), bred to hunt the Red Deer.

Temperament and Health

The Scottish Deerhound is a large breed with an extremely friendly nature that needs considerable exercise as a younster to develop properly and to maintain its health. That does not mean it needs a large house to live in; however should have regular access to free exercise in a fenced or otherwise "safe" area. They should not be raised with access only to leash walking or a small yard.

Young Deerhounds can be quite destructive especially if not given sufficient exercise; however, the average adult Deerhound may spend much of the day stretched out on the floor or a couch sleeping. They do require a stimulus, preferably another Deerhound, and a large area to exercise properly and frequently. They are gentle and docile indoors and are generally good around company and children (however they require supervision with young children due to their size).

Barring major medical emergencies, Deerhounds can be expected to live to approximately 9-11 years of age. The serious health issues in the breed include cardiomyopathy, osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and bloat (GDV).


The Scottish Deerhound is believed by some to have existed back to a time before recorded history. In appearance it is similar to the Greyhound and may have been closely related to the "Highland Greyhound". The environment in which it worked, the Scottish Highland moor, is likely to have contributed to the larger, rough-coated appearance of the breed. The Deerhound was developed to hunt red deer by “coursing”, and by “deer-stalking”. The Scottish Deerhound is closely related to the Irish Wolfhound and was the main contributor to the recovery of that breed at the end of the 19th century. The antecedents of the modern Scottish Deerhound may have been common among the Picts and Scots,and would have been used to provide part of the dietary requirements, namely hoofed game. With the eventual demise of the clan systems in Scotland, these hunting dogs became sporting animals for landowners and the nobility but when possible continued to be bred and hunted by common folk. These, fast, silent hunters made quick work of any game from a hare up and were highly regarded by the nobility and poachers alike. In coursing deer, a single Deerhound or more likely a pair of Deerhounds, would be brought as close as possible to red deer, then slipped to run one of them down by speed, which if successful would happen within a few minutes - rarely were there sustained chases.

German Wirehaired Pointer

The German Wirehaired Pointer is a griffon type breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Germany for hunting. It became a leading gun dog in Germany in the later part of the 20th Century.


The German Wirehaired Pointer is a well muscled, medium sized dog of distinctive appearance. Balanced in size and sturdily built, the breed's most distinguishing characteristics are its weather resistant, wire-like coat and its facial furnishings. Typically Pointer in character and style, the German Wirehaired Pointer is an intelligent, energetic and determined hunter. The tail is typically docked to two-fifths of the natural length. In countries where docking is prohibited the tail should be of sufficient length to reach down to the hocks.


The functional wiry coat is the breed's most distinctive feature. A dog must have a correct coat to be of correct type. The coat is weather resistant and, to some extent, water-repellent. The undercoat is dense enough in winter to insulate against the cold but is so thin in summer as to be almost invisible. The distinctive outer coat is straight, harsh, wiry and flat lying, and is from one to two inches in length. The outer coat is long enough to protect against the punishment of rough cover, but not so long as to hide the outline of the dog. On the lower legs the coat is shorter and between the toes it is of softer texture. On the skull the coat is naturally short and close fitting. Over the shoulders and around the tail it is very dense and heavy. The tail is nicely coated, particularly on the underside, but devoid of feather. Eyebrows are of strong, straight hair. Beard and whiskers are medium length. The hairs in the liver patches of a liver and white dog may be shorter than the white hairs. A short smooth coat, a soft woolly coat, or an excessively long coat is to be severely penalized when showing. While maintaining a harsh, wiry texture, the puppy coat may be shorter than that of an adult coat. Coats may be neatly groomed to present a dog natural in appearance. Extreme and excessive grooming to present a dog artificial in appearance should be severely penalized in competition.


The dog should be evaluated at a moderate gait. The movement is free and smooth with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. The topline should remain firm.


The German Wirehaired Pointer is very affectionate, active and intelligent. Eager to learn and loyal to its family, it needs a handler who is consistent in approach. They like to be occupied and enjoy working for their owner. They are friendly with those they know, but are naturally aloof with strangers and should be socialized at an early age. As a puppy, the owner needs to spend time with this breed otherwise the puppy will grow up to be 'spooky.' The owner mustn't leave it in the kennel, though some breeders will tell them otherwise. Can be rather willful and they like to roam. Powerful and energetic they can become bored and hard to manage without enough exercise. The German Wirehaired Pointer is a good all-around gun dog, able to hunt any sort of game on any sort of terrain. This dog has a good nose and can track, point, and retrieve on both land and water. Steady, lively and vigorous. They do best with older, considerate children; very affectionate with its master and can become jealous. Some may try to dominate other animals but most will get along well with other dogs and household animals. They make good watchdogs.


Some lines are prone to hip dysplasia, ear infections, genetic eye disease and skin cancers.


The German Wirehaired Pointer was developed in the beginning of the 20th century in Germany from careful crosses of the German Pointer with many other breeds. Sources differ on the exact lineage, though the Wirehaired Griffon, Poodle-Pointer mixes, Foxhound and Bloodhound are all mentioned as possible contributors. This is a dog that can fully respond to the needs of its hunter.

German Spaniel

The German Spaniel, also known as the Deutscher Wachtelhund, is a breed of dog that was developed in Germany, and is used as a gundog.

The Deutscher Wachtelhund is a strong boned, muscular, medium sized gundog with long thick wavy hair. It is solidly-built which allows it to retrieve heavy game such as hares and foxes. The ears are fairly long and should reach from half way to the nose, to the tip of the nose. The size is approximately 18 to 22 inches. Body length, nose to base of tail is twice the height. It is slightly larger than the Springer Spaniel. The coat is short and fine on the head, and of long on the body, where it is strong, thick, wavy or curly, with enough undercoat to provide protection. It is well feathered.

The Deutscher Wachtelhund is an exceptional versatile gundog. They are used to hunt upland game, will match the retrieving ability of any other breed, excel at tracking and blood trailing large game. All round bird dogs and will hunt all other types of game. Vibrant friendly personality, intelligent, aggressive hunters, and love water work..


Males: 18 7/8 to 21 1/4 inches (46-54 cm.)
Females : 17 3/4 to 20 1/2 inches (44-52 cm.)
Weight: 44 to 66 pounds (20-28 kg.)

Tibetan Terrier

The Tibetan Terrier is not a member of the terrier group, the name being given to it by European travelers to Tibet who were reminded of terriers from back home when they first encountered the breed. Its origins are uncertain at best, as some sources claim them to be lucky temple dogs, whereas others place them as general use farm dogs.

The Tibetan Terrier is a dog with many uses, able to guard, herd, and also be a suitable companion dog. Their utility in Tibet meant that the first examples of the breed available in the west were generally given as gifts, as the Tibetan Terrier, along with other Tibetan breeds, were too valuable to the people who owned them to casually sell. As such, the early history of the breed is linked to only a handful of foundation dogs.

The Tibetan name for the breed, Tsang Apso, roughly translates to "shaggy or bearded (apso) dog, from the province of Tsang". Other "Apso" dogs from Tibet include the smaller and more familiar Lhasa Apso (called the Lhasa Terrier in the early 1900s) and the very rare Do Khyi Apso (bearded Tibetan Mastiff, sometimes considered as a TT/TM mongrel)

Recent DNA analysis has concluded that the Tibetan Terrier is one of the most ancient dog breeds.


The appearance of the Tibetan Terrier is that of a powerful, medium sized dog of square proportions, with a shaggy coat. Overall, there should be a feel of balance.

The head is moderate, with a strong muzzle of medium length, and a skull neither rounded nor flat. The eyes are large, dark, and set fairly far apart. The V-shaped drop ears are well feathered, and should be set high on the sides of the skull. The nose is always black, regardless of coat colour.

The body is well muscled and compact. The length of the back should be equal to the height at the withers, giving the breed its typical square look. Height for either sex is 14-16 in (35-41 cm) and weight is 18-30 lb (8-14 kg), with 20-24 lb (9.5-11 kg) preferred, but all weights acceptable if in proportion to the size.

The tail is set high, well feathered, and carried in a curl over the back.

One of the more unusual features of the Tibetan Terrier is the broad, flat feet, not found in any other dog breed. They are ideal for climbing mountains and act as natural snow shoes.


The double coat is profuse, with a warm undercoat and a topcoat which has the texture of human hair. It should not be silky or curled, but wavy is acceptable. Long and thick, it is shown natural, but should not be so long as to touch the floor, as is typical in breeds such as the Lhasa Apso or Maltese. A fall of hair covers the face and eyes, but long eyelashes generally prevent hair from getting in the Tibetan Terrier's eyes, and the breed has very good eyesight.


All colours are permissible, barring liver and chocolate, and none are preferred. Tibetan Terriers are available in any combination of solid, particolour, tricolour, brindle or piebald, as long as the nose leather is black and the eyes and eye rims are dark.


The temperament has been one of the most attractive aspects of the breed since it was first established in the 1920's. They are amiable and affectionate family dogs, sensitive to their owners and gentle with older children. As is fitting a dog formerly used as a watch dog, they tend to be reserved around strangers, but should never be aggressive nor shy with them.

Suitable for apartment living, the Tibetan is still an energetic and surprisingly strong dog, and needs regular exercise. Their energy level and intelligence is well suited for dog sports such as agility. They are steadfast, determined, and clever, which can lead to them being stubborn. Some dogs of this breed can often be jealous, which can make it hard to live with another pet.

Though not yappy, the Tibetan Terrier has an assertive bark, likened to a rising siren.


The Tibetan Terrier enjoys the long life span often associated with small dog breeds, and generally lives from 17-20 years.

Though an athletic breed that has been bred for a natural look, the Tibetan Terrier is still susceptible to a variety of health problems, especially those related to the eyes and joints. These can include:

Because of that, Tibetan Terrier clubs recommend purchasing from breeders who participate in eye and hip testing, such as the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA).

Tibetan Mastiff

The Tibetan Mastiff (Do-khyi in Tibetan, meaning 'tied dog' or 'Bhote Kurur' in Nepali which means Tibetan Dog) is a rare, very large ancient breed of dog originating in what in the past was Tibet and neighboring countries with similar nomadic culture (for ex. Mongolia).


The Tibetan Mastiff is among the largest breeds. It is found in a heavier mastiff type and a more moderately sized mountain type. Its sturdy bone structure and large, wide head makes it appear considerably more massive than other dogs of a similar height. It can reach heights up to 31+ inches (80+cm) at the withers, although the standard for the breed is typically in the 25 to 28 inch (61 to 72 cm) range. History records the largest of the breed weighing over 110kg, but dogs in America are more typically between 100lb (45kg) to 160lb (72kg).

Its double coat is long and found in a wide variety of colors from solid black, to black and tan, various shades of gold (light to dark) and occasionally the dilute gray and brown are also possible. In Tibet, a white patch or star on the chest signified a brave heart.

Like other types of mastiffs, the larger variety can have greater size, a heavier head and more pronounced wrinkling, while the mountain type has a smoother rather than wrinkled brow with less jowling, giving them a drier mouth than other mastiff breeds. They are also hypoallergenic with a thick double coat that only sheds once per year.

Tibetan Mastiffs are separated by Chinese breed-standard into two categories - Lion Head (relatively smaller in size, exceptionally long hair from forehead to withers, in which creates a lion mane alike head) and Tiger Head (relatively larger in size, shorter hair)


A Tibetan Mastiff puppy needs a lot of socialization.

A Tibetan Mastiff puppy needs a lot of socialization.

The native strain of dog, which still exists in Tibet, and the Westernized breed can vary in temperament. Elizabeth Schuler states, "The few individuals that remain in Tibet are ferocious and aggressive, unpredictable in their behavior, and very difficult to train. But the dogs bred by the English are obedient and attached to their masters." Others claim that the ferocity of those in Tibet is due to selective breeding and their training as guard dogs, more than companion dogs. Many breeders throughout Asia are now seeking to preserve and breed the larger, original, more protective Tibetan Mastiff while Western breeders have sought to stabilize the temperament, in both size varieties.

As a flock guardian dog in Tibet, it is tenacious in its ability to confront predators the size of wolves and leopards. As a socialized, more domestic Western dog, it thrives in a spacious, fenced yard with a canine companion, but it is not an appropriate dog for apartment living. Still, the Western-bred dogs are generally more easy-going, although somewhat aloof with strangers coming to the home. Through hundreds and hundreds of years of selective breeding for a protective flock and family guardian, the breed has been prized for being a nocturnal sentry, keeping would-be predators and intruders at bay, barking at sounds throughout the night. So, leaving a Tibetan Mastiff outside all night with neighbors nearby is not usually recommended. The Tibetan Mastiff is known as "the defender of women and children" in its native land.

Like all flock guardian breeds, they are intelligent and stubborn to a fault, so obedience classes are recommended since this is a strong-willed, powerful breed with great size potential. Socialization is also critical with this breed because of their reserved nature with strangers and guarding instincts.


Unlike most very large breeds, its life expectancy is relatively long, some 10-14 years. Due to natural selection the breed has relatively lower comparative incidence of genetic health problems, but cases can be found of hypothyroidism, entropion or ectropion, skin problems including allergies, missing teeth, malocclusion (overbite or underbite), cardiac problems, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and small ear canals with a tendency for infection. As with most giant breeds, some will suffer with elbow or hip dysplasia, although this has not been a major problem in the Tibetan Mastiff. Canine inherited demyelinative neuropathy (CIDN), a rare inherited neural disease that appeared in one bloodline in the early 1980s but it is believed that this problem has been all but eliminated in contemporary breeding lines.


This 5 month old boy has the world in his veins. Taiwan/China/Europe bloodlines are all in his pedigree.

This 5 month old boy has the world in his veins. Taiwan/China/Europe bloodlines are all in his pedigree.

This is an ancient breed, descended from very early large Tibetan dogs from which most, if not all, of today's Mastiff-type and Molossuses are descended. Some of the modern breeds thought to have Tibetan Mastiff ancestry include the St. Bernard,Leonberger, the Newfoundland, the Kuvasz, and even the toy dog breed, the Pug, which itself was a well-established breed before the 1500s[citation needed]. Marco Polo encountered the large Tibetan dogs in his travels and described them as "tall as a donkey with a voice as powerful as that of a lion." They were used as guard dogs outside the sacred city of Lhasa.

The breed originated in Tibet as a flock dog and guard dog and it makes an excellent family protector. In the early 19th century, King George IV owned a pair, and there were enough of the breed in England in 1906 to be shown at the 1906 Crystal Palace show. However, during the war years, the breed lost favor and focus and nearly died out in England. Then, with the 1959 occupation of Tibet, the breed became nearly extinct, with a chosen few exported in the 1960s and 1970's to found the American and European based bloodlines that thrive today.

Gaining in popularity worldwide, there are more and more active breeders, although the breed is still considered somewhat uncommon. Initially the breed suffered because of the limited genepool from the original stock, but today's reputable breeders work hard at reducing the genetic problems through selective breeding and the international exchange of new bloodlines.

Doberman Pinscher

The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or Doberman is a breed of domestic dog. Doberman Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs, watch dogs, or police dogs, this is less common today. In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media stereotyping (see temperament). Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Doberman Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed ideally suited for companionship and family life.

Quick Facts

Doberman Pinscher Quick Facts

Weight: 75-100 for males, 60-85 for females lb
Height: 24-28 in
Coat: Short, coarse
Coat (cont): stiff to touch
Activity level: High
Learning rate: Very High
Temperament: Gentle, loving, loyal, protective
Guard dog ability: Very High
Watch-dog ability: Very High
Litter size: 3-8
Life span: 8-12 years


A red Doberman Pinscher

A red Doberman Pinscher

The Doberman Pinscher is a dog of large size. Although the breed standards vary among kennel and breed clubs, the shoulder height of a Doberman Pinscher bitch is typically somewhere between 24 to 27 inches (61 to 68 cm), and the male typically stands between 26 to 28 inches (66 to 72 cm). The male generally weighs between 75 and 100 pounds and the bitch between 65 and 85 pounds. There is often a slight difference in type between bitches and dogs, with males being decidedly masculine (but not coarse) and females being noticeable feminine (but not spindly).

Doberman Pinschers typically have a deep, broad chest, and a powerful, compact, and square muscular body of large size. However, in recent years some breeders have primarily bred, shown, and sold a slimmer or more sleek-looking Doberman Pinscher. This has become a popular body type among many owners, especially those who show their Doberman Pinschers competitively. The traditional body type is still more desirable to many casual owners and to those who want the dog for protection. Furthermore, despite the "ideal" standards, it is impossible to have complete control over the size and weight of dogs. Generally speaking, show animals must fall within the ideal range of both size and weight (for that country's breed standard), but it is not unusual to find male Dobes weighing over 100 pounds or females that are also larger than called for by the breed standards. Larger sizes might lead to additional health problems, although those who are looking for a Doberman Pinscher to provide personal protection or for use in police agencies or the military generally seek out the larger examples and some breeders create specific breeding pairs in the hope of getting a litter of larger dogs.


Most people know the most common black color of a Doberman Pinscher. However, two different color genes exist in the Doberman, one for black (B) and one for color dilution (D), which provides for four different color phenotypes: black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). The traditional and most common color occurs when both the color and dilution genes have at least one dominant allele (BB, Bb, or bB and DD, Dd, or dD), and is commonly referred to as black or black and rust (also called black and tan). The most common color variation occurs when the black gene has two recessive alleles (bb) but where the dilution gene has at least one dominant allele (DD, Dd, or dD), which produces what is called a red or red and rust Doberman Pinscher in America and a "brown" Doberman in the rest of the world, which is a deep reddish-brown with rust markings.

The remaining two colors, "blue" and "fawn", are controlled by the color dilution gene. In the case of the blue Doberman, the color gene has at least one dominant allele (BB, Bb, or bB), but the dilution gene has both recessive alleles (dd). The fawn (Isabella) is the least common color and occurs when both the color and dilution genes have two recessive alleles (bb and dd). Thus, the blue color is a diluted black, and the fawn color is a diluted red. Blue and fawn Doberman Pinschers often suffer from a condition called Color Dilution Alopecia, which can result in severe hair loss.

Since 1994 the blue and fawn colors have been banned from breeding by the Dobermann Verein in Germany and under FCI regulations Blue and Fawn are considered disqualifying faults in the international showring.

A fawn Dobermann

A fawn Dobermann

In 1976, a "white" Doberman Pinscher bitch was born,and was subsequently bred to her son, who was also bred to his litter sisters. This tight inbreeding continued for some time to allow the breeders to "fix" the mutation, which has been widely marketed. Doberman Pinschers of this color possess a genetic mutation, which prevents its pigment proteins from being manufactured, regardless of the genotypes of either of the two color genes; that is, it is an albino. Though some potential Doberman Pinscher owners find the color attractive, albino Doberman Pinschers, like albinos of other species, face increased risk of cancer and other diseases and because of this and because of abnormal development of the retina, should avoid sun exposure as much as possible. The popularity of the "white" Doberman Pinscher has decreased dramatically as these risks have become known, with many people have called for an end to the breeding and marketing of the white Doberman Pinscher because they perceive it as cruelty to the animal. Some countries have made the purposeful breeding of the white Doberman illegal, but breeders who care and take note of the ancestors can avoid breeding albinos as they are all descended from the original female. A list of every descendent of the original albino-producing dogs is available so that breeders can avoid producing this mutant dog.The American Kennel Club registers albino Doberman Pinschers but disqualifies them from conformation shows, and the Doberman Pinscher Club of America has actively worked to discourage breeding to obtain albino Doberman Pinschers.


Doberman with tail

Doberman with tail

Although the Doberman Pinscher has most commonly been seen with a short tail, it is actually born with a tail that is longer than many breeds'. The short tail is the result of docking, a procedure in which the majority of the tail is surgically removed within days of the dog's birth. Today, docking is illegal in many countries, but not in North America. One argument for docking the Doberman's tail is that it completes the sleek look that the dog is supposed to have, since it was the way Louis Dobermann had originally envisioned the dog.

Few potential owners have a choice on the length of their Doberman Pinscher's tail, as docking is normally done soon after the dog's birth. This means that the breeder nearly always makes the decision before their dogs are even put on the market.


Doberman with natural ears.

Doberman with natural ears.

Doberman Pinschers will often have their ears cropped, a procedure that is functionally related to both the traditional guard duty and to effective sound localization. Doberman Pinscher ear cropping is usually done between 7 and 9 weeks of age. Cropping done after 12 weeks has a low rate of success in getting the ears to stand. Some Doberman Pinscher owners prefer not to have their pet's ears cropped because the procedure is painful for the animal. The process involves trimming off part of the animal's ears and propping them up with posts and tape bandages, which allows the cartilage to develop into an upright position as the puppy grows. The puppy will still have the ability to lay the ears back or down. The process of posting the ears generally takes about a month, but longer show crops can take several months.

After the initial surgery has been done, the ears are taped. Ear taping uses posts to keep the ears straight in the upright position, allowing them to grow and strengthen the cartilage. There are many variables involved such as crop size, infection, healing, post choice, tape choice, time, etc.

The traditional Doberman has always been the one that has had both tail and ears cropped. In some countries, docking and cropping are now illegal, but in some breed shows Doberman Pinschers are allowed to compete with either cropped or uncropped ears.


Doberman Pinschers are, in general, a gentle, loyal, loving, and highly intelligent breed. Although there is variation in temperament, a typical pet Doberman attacks only if it believes that it, its property, or its family are in danger. According to the US Centers for Disease Control, the Doberman Pinscher is less frequently involved in attacks on humans resulting in fatalities than several other dog breeds such as pit bull-type dogs, German Shepherd Dogs, Rottweilers and Alaskan Malamutes. Those familiar with the breed consider well-bred and properly socialized Doberman Pinschers to be excellent pets and companions, suitable for families with other dog breeds, excellent with young children, and even cats. The modern Doberman Pinscher is well known as a loyal and devoted family member.

The Doberman Pinscher has been used as a protection and guard dog, due to its intelligence, loyalty, and ability to physically challenge human aggressors. Doberman Pinschers were once commonly used in police work and in the military. The breed was used extensively by the U.S. Marines in World War II, and 25 Marine War Dogs died in the Battle of Guam in 1944: there is a memorial in Guam in honor of these Doberman Pinschers.In these roles, they inspire fear. They are often stereotyped in such roles in movies (where they are trained to exhibit seemingly "aggressive" behavior), and video games, consequently many people are afraid of the breed. A related problem is the misunderstanding of their legitimate roles; because guard dogs are trained to neutralize unwelcome intruders, many people mistakenly believe that Doberman Pinschers are vicious.


An average, healthy Doberman Pinscher is expected to live about 10 years. Common health problems are dilated cardiomyopathy, wobbler disease, von Willebrand's disease (a bleeding disorder for which there is genetic testing). Other problems that are less severe or seen less frequently include:


Doberman Pinschers were first bred in Germany around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. After his death in 1894, the Germans named the breed Dobermann-pinscher in his honor, but a half century later dropped the pinscher on the grounds that this German word for terrier was no longer appropriate. The British did the same thing a few years later. Dobermann was a tax collector who frequently traveled through many bandit-infested areas, and needed a protection dog to guard him in any situation that might arise. He set out to breed a new type of dog that, in his opinion, would be the perfect combination of strength, loyalty, intelligence, and ferocity. (He also worked with dogs as a second job, giving him access to dogs for breeding.) Later, Otto Goeller and Philip Gruening continued to develop the breed.

The breed is believed to have been created from several different breeds of dogs that had the characteristics that Dobermann was looking for, including the Pinscher, the Beauceron, the Rottweiler, the Thuringian Shepherd Dog, the black Greyhound, the Great Dane, the Weimaraner, the German Shorthaired Pointer, the Manchester Terrier and the German Shepherd Dog. The exact ratios of mixing, and even the exact breeds that were used, remains uncertain to this day, although many experts believe that the Doberman Pinscher is a combination of at least four of these breeds. The single exception is the documented cross with the Greyhound. It is also widely believed that the German Shepherd gene pool was the single largest contributor to the Doberman breed.

Dogue de Bordeaux

Dogue de Bordeaux is a breed of dog that is strong, powerful, and imposing, as it was originally bred for dog fighting and guarding. The Dogue has an even temperament and is extremely loyal and devoted to his master and family. However, it is wary of strangers and can display marked dominance towards other dogs. The Dogue must be socialized from an early age and owners must be conscious of the great strength and tenacity of this very large and athletic breed.The Dogue de Bordeaux is the French Mastiff.


The height at the withers is typically 23 to 26 inches for show dogs and the weight of the male Dogues is in excess of 100 pounds. Dogs standing 30 inches tall at the withers and weighing up to 150 pounds (67 kg) are possible.


The Dogue de Bordeaux was known in France as early as the fourteenth century. Dog fighting was popular in the nineteenth century, particularly in southern France in the region around Bordeaux. Hence, the city lent its name to these large fighting dogs.

A uniform breed type of the Bordeaux Dog did not exist before about 1920. The French placed emphasis on keeping the old breeding line pure. Black masks were considered an indication of the crossing in of the Mastiff. As an important indication of purity of the breed, attention was paid to the leather-coloured nose, light eyes, and red mask. Originally bred with huge anatomically incorrect heads; a pioneer for the breed in Germany, Werner Preugschat once wrote:

"What am I supposed to do with a dog that has a monstrous skull and is at most able to carry it from the food dish to its bed."

The Dogue de Bordeaux comes in two varieties, Dogues and Doguins, the former being a considerably larger dog than the latter. Breeding of the Doguins has been seriously neglected in recent years and the variety has dwindled to near nonexistence.

New initiatives will soon be required if the Bordeaux Dog can hope to flourish again both inside and outside of France. It is hoped that the few remaining survivors of this interesting old breed will be sufficient for its recovery.

Drentse Patrijshond

The Drentse Patrijshond (or Drentsche Patrijshond) is a rare dog breed, not widely known even in its country of origin, The Netherlands, although breed clubs operate in Belgium, Denmark and Norway, and a small number of American breeders have recently introduced the dog to the United States. The Drentsche Patrijshond, also known as the Drentse Partridge Dog or Dutch Partridge Dog, bears some resemblance to the spaniel and setter families. An excellent pointer and retriever, this dog is often used to hunt fowl and adapts equally well to the field or marshes.


Valid color is white with brown or orange markings. Mostly white with large brown spots. There is usually one spot on the backside above the tail. Tricoloured, with the addition of tan markings, is permissible. A mantle is permissible, but generally less desired. Size: 55 to 63 cm (22 to 25 in). See further, FCI-Standard N° 224 I 05.05.2003 I GB , link below.


The Drentsche Patrijshond originated in the 16th century from the Spioenen (or Spanjoelen) which came to the Netherlands through France from Spain- whence the spaniel category. In the Netherlands, these dogs were called partridge dogs. In the eastern parts of the country, particularly the province of Drenthe, the dog was kept a purebred.

The rural Province of Drenthe was unusual, in that it allowed "even" the common gentry the right to hunt. Thus, the local mayor, the farmer, and the "landed" population in general needed a dog to support their pursuit of various small game. For over 300 years, the Drent was that dog. Unlike many other hunting breeds, which were developed by, and for, the "upper crust" only to hunt, the Drent was expected to hunt all game, and also pull duty as watch dog, child playmate, etc. Some were even used to pull the dog-carts of the day.

Perfectly suited to the walk-up hunter, the Drent is thorough, in order to find all the game on the smaller plots available in Drenthe. It hunts with good speed, within reach of the gun. As with most European versatile breeds, the Drent points and retrieves, and will hunt "fur", including rabbit, hare and fox.

The breed was officially recognized by the Raad van Beheer op Kynologisch Gebied in 1943, although its presence had been visible for centuries, including in Dutch master paintings (see Rijksmuseum online for portraits by Vermeer, Rubens, et al. that include this breed.) Today, the Drent is a favorite hunting dog throughout its native country of The Netherlands, with approximately 5,000 dogs registered with the breed club.


Though the breed shows a strong hunting instinct in the field, and can be quite driven, these dogs tend to be more relaxed in the home than many of the hunting breeds. They are strongly attached to family members, loyal, and of sweet disposition, particularly with children.


The Drever is a short-legged European hunting hound also known as the "Swedish Dachsbracke". "Drev" is the Swedish word for "hunt". Most breeds with similar physical traits are bred for a single purpose, but the Drever has been bred to hunt both hares and roe deer, and is also used to hunt fox and red deer. Its body is just as large as the body of the common hunting hounds, but it has short legs. The maximum height of a Drever is 41cm, which is about 15cm (approx. 6") shorter than a normal-sized hunting hound.

The Drever has a lot of stamina, and has become a popular hunting hound for deer hunters in northern Norway and Sweden. Roe deer are nervous quarry, and the hounds which are used to hunt them must move slowly, especially in areas where you can expect heavy snow in late autumn. Thus, the breeding of a dog with a medium-sized body but short legs has a practical application.

This breed is usually kept as a hunting hound and is not usually found as a companion animal. The Drever is alert and self-possessed, has an affable, even temperament, and is rarely overly aggressive or shy. The Drever is relatively uncommon in North America but has been recognized in Canada since 1956.


The Drever is originally a Swedish breed which combined the German Dachsbracke with the beagle and is considered a scent hound. The first dogs were registered in Sweden in 1913.

Hungarian Vizsla

The Hungarian Vizsla, pronounced VEEZH-la (zh as in vision), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. Vizslas are known as excellent hunting dogs, and also have a level personality making them suited for families. The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla was created by cross-breeding the Hungarian Shorthaired Vizsla with the German Wirehaired Pointer during the 1930s.


A Wire-haired Vizsla

A Wire-haired Vizsla

Smooth-haired appearance

The Vizsla, as described in the American Kennel Club (AKC) standard, is a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built; the coat is a golden-rust color. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color. They are lean dogs, and have defined muscles, and are similar to a Weimaraner. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the toes are permissible but undesirable. The tail is normally docked to two-thirds of the original length. The ideal male is 22 inches(0.55 m) to 24 inches (0.61 m). The ideal female is 21inches (0.53 m) to 23 inches (0.58 m). Commonly weighing 40-65 lbs (18.14-29.48 kg). Because the Vizsla is meant to be a medium-sized hunter, any dog measuring more than 1½ inches (3.8 cm) over or under these limits must be disqualified.

Wirehaired appearance

The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla is a medium-sized, wire-coated hunting dog developed in the 1930s (see History below), with a distinguished appearance and bearing. They have a lean build and are very robust. Coat: Various shades of russet gold and dark sandy gold: wiry, close-lying, strong, and dense. ¾ of an inch to 1¼ inch (2-3 cm) in length with a dense, water-repellent undercoat. The outline of the body is not to be hidden by the longer coat. Pronounced eyebrows along with a strong, harsh beard, ¾ of an inch to 1¼ inch (2-3 cm) long on both sides of the muzzle reinforce the determined expression. The coat should never be long, soft, silky, shaggy, crinkle, woolly, thin, lacking undercoat or lacking brushes on the legs. The tail is docked 1/4 in countries where docking is permitted. Ideal males: 22¾ to 25¼ inches (58 - 64 cm) Ideal females: 21¼ to 23¾ inches (54 - 60 cm)


Vizslas are lively, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked.

They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training (American Breed Standard, AKC). Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly (Gottlieb, 1992). Vizslas are excellent swimmers and often swim in pools if one is available. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy. Thirty minutes to an hour of exercise daily in a large off-leash area is optimal(Coffman 1992).

The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas that do not get enough attention and exercise can easily become destructive or hyperactive. Under-stimulated Vizslas may also become depressed or engage in obsessive-compulsive behaviours such as persistent licking (Coffman 1992). Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children.

The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners if allowed, burrowing under the covers. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed five or six times a year, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish.


Smooth-haired history

Vizslas love to fetch.

Vizslas love to fetch.

The origin of the Vizsla can be traced back to very early times in Hungarian history. Ancestors of today's Vizsla were the hunting dogs used by the Magyar tribes living in the Carpathian Basin from the 9th century on. They were widely used for hunting boar.

The first written reference to Vizsla dog breed has been recorded in the Illustrated Vienna Chronicle prepared on order of King Lajos the Great (Louis the Great) by the Carmelite Friars in 1357 (Boggs, 2000:17).

Vizslas faced and survived several near-extinctions in their history, including being overrun by English Pointers and German Shorthair Pointers in the 1800s (Boggs, 2000:19) and again to near-extinction after World War II (Boggs, 2000:21).

The Vizsla was used in development of other breeds, most notably the Weimaraner and German Shorthair Pointer breeds (Boggs, 2000:18). There is much conjecture about those same breeds, along with other pointer breeds, being used to reestablish the Vizsla breed at the end of 19th century. (Boggs, 2000:19). In either case the striking resemblance between the three breeds is indisputable.

Wirehaired history

The Wirehaired Vizsla is a separate breed from its common smooth coated cousin. The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla was created in the 1930s by the interbreeding of the Vizsla and the German Wirehaired Pointer to get a dog with a heavier coat, suitable for working in the colder weather. The Wirehaired Vizsla is recognized by the FCI, CKC, UKC, and the KC(UK). Currently there are fewer than 400 Wirehaired Vizslas in the United States.

Common Illnesses

Although the Vizsla is not generally considered as a sickly dog, breeding from a small number of dogs has led to heritable illnesses in some offspring, including:

  • dysphagia-megaoesophagus (difficulty swallowing, drooling and muscle wasting)
  • hip dysplasia
  • hypothyroidism
  • sebaceous adenitis
  • digestive problems (including intolerance to certain foods or food allergies)
  • eye conditions such as:
    • ectropion (loose eyelids which give the look of "droopy eyes")
    • entropion (where the hairy skin around the eye rubs against the eye)
  • idiopathic epilepsy is becoming more common in this breed (Gottlieb 2002)

Responsible breeders do not select dogs for breeding if they have such inherent problems.

Vizsla in the U.K.

Approximately 1,000 Vizsla puppies are registered with the Kennel Club of Great Britain (KC) each year, making the breed one of the top 50 most popular. The number is steadily rising year on year as more people recognise the breed. At least two breed clubs for the Vizsla exist in Britain.

Vizsla in the U.S.

A Wirehaird Vizsla pup

A Wirehaird Vizsla pup

Frank J. Tallman and Emmett A. Scanlan imported Vizsla Sari as the first Vizsla in the United States of America.

Sari and her two pups (Tito and Shasta) were delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York from Rome on October 7, 1950. (Boggs, 2000:23). Sari was later bred with Vizsla Rex. The male Vizsla Rex del Gelsimino, born 8/1/49, was purchased for $75 in food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies thanks to an Belgrade's US Embassy employee M.M. Yevdjovich who provided the direct connection to the owner in Stapar, Serbia to Tallman's representative Harry R. Stritman. Rex understood German and Hungarian commands and the claim has been made of history dating back to 1730 although never verified through a Serbian dog book in Yugoslavia.

Rex was delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York via Brussels from Belgrade on June 12, 1951. (Boggs, 2000:26) There is a bit of controversy about Rex's official breeder, verbatim from (Boggs, 2000:26): "The Yugoslavia Kennel Club offered to give temporary registration to Vizslas at a local dog show so as to register future blood lines since many of the dogs in Yugoslavia and behind the Iron Curtain were pure bred, but without registration papers."


A Dunker is a breed of dog also known as the Norwegian Hound. It was bred by Wilhelm Dunker by crossing a Russian Harlequin Hound with dependable Norwegian scent hounds.


The breed is named after the Norwegian Wilhelm Dunker who bred this dog for hunting hares, at the beginning of the 19th century.


The Dunker has round, tipped, smooth ears and sloping shoulders. It also has a reasonably long muzzle and a thick coat.


This is quite a friendly and relaxed breed. It will provide these traits only to owners who will offer lots of activity.


Occasionally, cases of hip dysplasia can occur.

Dutch Shepherd Dog

The Dutch Shepherd Dog is a breed of dog. It was developed in the Netherlands for use as a herding dog.


The Dutch Shepherd's body is rather muscular and symmetrical. The chest is deep. The dog's muzzle is long. The body is slightly longer than tall (at a ratio of 10 to 9).

Coat varieties

The Dutch Shepherd Dog comes in three varieties: short-haired, long-haired, and rough haired. Although the coat types vary, the permissible colours are the same in all these three types. The long-haired Dutch Shepherd is a rare variety. The short-haired variety is rather widespread in the Netherlands. The long haired and rough haired (or wire haired) types are less common than the short-haired.


There are two acceptable colours: silver brindle and gold brindle. Both are a standard brindle pattern, the difference being that gold brindle has a golden brown background while silver brindle has a grey background.


  • Height: 56 - 64 cm (22-25 inches).
  • Weight: 29 - 30 kg 55-67 pounds.


A long-coated Dutch Shepherd

A long-coated Dutch Shepherd

The Dutch Shepherd is intelligent, loyal, has strong protective instincts, and excels as a guard dog . It tends to be dominant by nature, however once its trainer has the dog's respect it is very tractable and obedient, and because of its intelligence it responds very quickly to firm, consistent training methods. Dutch Shepherds are often "one person" dogs, being the most loyal to just one person. However, they make good family dogs as they are playful, affectionate, and active.

Working Ability

A silver brindle wirehaired Dutch Shepherd Dog

A silver brindle wirehaired Dutch Shepherd Dog

The short-haired Dutch Shepherd is used extensively throughout Europe and the United States as a working dog, primarily in police service, although they are also used in search and rescue as well. One reason Dutch Shepherds are increasingly popular with police agencies is because they are smaller than German Shepherds, and therefore easier for handlers to pick up and carry, when duty necessitates doing so. The courage of Dutch Shepherds is quickly becoming legendary among police K9 handlers. Another reason for this increase in popularity is that the Dutch Shepherd breed has not been subject to extensive breeding for type as has the German Shepherd. This type of breeding can adversely affect the health and temperament of the individual dog as well as the breed. For example the preference for the German Shepherd's sloping back has resulted in a 10% incidence of hip dysplasia compared to a 1% incidence found among the Dutch Shepherd breed.



Dutch Shepherds are very active dogs. They need an activity to do in order to be happy, and easily become bored and destructive[citation needed]. They have a strong "work ethic", constantly wanting to work and move. Thus, it is exceptionally suited for all types of dog sports, particularly schutzhund, competitive obedience, agility, flyball, and sheepdog trials. The Dutch Shepherd is also used as a police dog and a sniffer dog in Europe. It makes an excellent guard dog, and is loyal, detirmined[citation needed], and brave when it feels that its master is threatened.


The long-haired version needs to be groomed about once a week, or more frequently depending on work and environment. Over-bathing this breed should be avoided to prevent dryness in the coat which may cause the dog to chew or scratch.


This breed typically lives 12 to 14 years.