Tuesday, 11 September 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 23)


The Saarlooswolfhond (Dutch for "Saarloos Wolfdog") is an established breed of wolf-dog hybrid.


In 1921, Dutch breeder Leendert Saarloos started crossbreeding a German Shepherd Dog male to a female Canadian Timber Wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis). He aimed for an improved version of the German Shepherd Dog which was immune to distemper, and succeeded insofar that the Saarlooswolfdog we know is a strong imposing dog, but they kept their wolflike characteristics; they are cautious, reserved and lack the ferocity to attack; it is not the dog that Leendert Saarloos hoped to get. His theory was also proven wrong, as nearly all the first generation hybrids succumbed to distemper. Until he died in 1969 Leendert Saarloos was in full control over the breeding of his "European wolfdog". The Dutch Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1975. To honor its creator they changed the name to "Saarlooswolfdog". In 1981 the breed was recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). In the past, some Saarlooswolfdogs were trained as guide dogs for the blind and rescue dogs.

Sage Koochee

The Sage Koochee (in Dari this means "Dog of the Nomad") describes a unique breed of dogs found around the northern parts of Afghanistan and the surrounding areas in Central Asia, and anywhere else that these dogs might have travelled with the Koochees (the Nomad people of Afghanistan).

They are very closely related to Central Asian Ovtcharkas (CAO) in that they come from a similar genetic backgroung that the CAO emerged from, before they became the CAO show breed.

Throughout Central Asia, there are many dogs that have a mixture of genes which preserves the common characteristics of ancient working dogs. With time, they acquired different names in different geographical regions.

Breed description

The Sage Koochee have a very rich gene pool which enables this breed to show incredible potential for adaptating to their environment. That also means that the way these genes are expressed can vary greatly from one individual to another.

For that reason, it is often difficult for an unaccustomed observer to see what makes a dog a Koochee dog or what type of a Koochee dog it is.

In general, the Sage Koochee are large, often giant dogs with short-medium to long coat and thick under wool.

They vary in height, from 27 inches (68 cm) to 32" (82 cm) for the females, and from 28" (71 cm) to 35" (89 cm) and more for the males.

The weight ranges from about 84 lbs. (38 kg) to 120 lbs. (55 kg) for the female dogs, and from 88 lbs. (40 kg) to 176 lbs. (80 kg) and more for the male dogs.

The build is molosser-like with lighter and heavier variants, all of them exhibiting a perfect scissor-bite and being free from most genetic defects that plague the contemporary dog world, such as hip dysplasia, especially common among the larger breeds.

The head shape of the Koochee dog can vary from a wedge-type head, to brick-type, or bear-type skull, the last one associated mainly with the dogs of the mountain variety. Their tails are usually docked by about 1/3 length and point straight up or at an angle. Their ears are traditionally cropped almost to the base.

The Sage Koochee are tall dogs, with a straight backline. The front and hind legs and the corpus usually make up a square profile. The neck is usually long and thick, with large skin excess hanging from the base of the jaw to the chest, with the head held horizontally or at a downward angle with eyes looking straight ahead. The muzzle is dry and muscular.

Their body is often covered in darker spots which don't show in the coat, including the inside of the mouth, the bridge of the nose and the belly. The color of the coat is of no consequence and neither is the length or structure of it. Usually, the back is covered by a strip of longer, more wiry hair, while the neck area is packed with thick and slippery underwool and hair slightly longer than the rest of the body.

Teeth can be small in females to very large in males, with the fangs exceeding 1¼". The fangs are either hooking towards the back with a thicker base or can be straighter and tusk-like, much like a wolves.

There are three main regional types recognized that can belong to two body types of dogs, the lion type and the tiger type, depending on the built and the way the animal moves.

Sub-variants and types

The Koochee dogs can be roughly divided into three sub-types: the Mountain-type, the Steppe-type and the Desert-type.

The Mountain-type dogs represent the very large boned, heavy coated variety that is well adapted to living in mountainous regions of the Pamir range. They are usually found at higher elevations, with greater humidity and more extreme cool temperatures.

The Steppe-type dogs are of much lighter built, with medium to long hair. They are faster and more agile on large flats than the mountain variety. They can be characterized as having a mastiff-like built with wind hound habitus.

The Desert-type is a variant most often found in the large desert expanses with little vegetation and hotter climate. They are of medium height and short to medium coat with very thick underwool in the cold season. They can possess characteristics of both of the other types, especially when it comes to the head structure.

Another way to divide the Sage Koochee is into the Lion-type (Djence Sheri) or the Tiger-type (Djence Palangi). These divisions refer mostly to the Desert-type dogs, but it is important to keep in mind that each of the regional types can display characteristics found in other types as well.

The Lion-type dogs are of heavier built with larger heads and deeper chests. Their coat is usually thicker and they are of medium height with a larger, bear-type head.

The Tiger-type dogs are the more athletic looking with long and deep habitus, brick or wedge shaped head and shorter coat. They are often linked with more Steppe-type dogs.

The difference between the two can also be seen in the way they move. The Lion-type are the more majestic in motion, they have a look of pride as they walk with the head most often raised.

The Tiger type has more of a sidewinding, catlike motion with the head usually at the level of the body and front paws swinging inwards when walking or running and jumping. Both types are extremely agile and exhibit tremendous speed when running or attacking.


Throughout history, the Koochees needed their dogs to be extremely vigilant in guarding their livestock and belongings and to safeguard their camps and caravans on their seasonal journeys. They needed their dogs to be extremely tough, not only in the face of danger, but also against the rough environmental conditions that called for unbelievable adaptability.

The Koochees travelled from mountains through deserts, in the freezing cold and in searing heat, through country that, for days, did not offer shelter or food and water. They needed dogs that would survive in all kinds of extremes and still be able to perform their duties without hindering the progress of the caravan, ithout the need to feed and take care of them. Without having to wait for them, if they fell ill, or watch over them, so they don’t fall behind or run off.

The Koochees needed dogs that would be fierce and unmatched in stamina, courage and strength, but at the same time would be extremely intelligent, trustworthy and independent and could function without any special guidance or training.

For centuries, they acquired the experience and expert knowledge on how to breed these types of dogs and have kept the best ancient bloodlines alive.

The fruit of their age-tested labour is still visible today throughout parts of Afghanistan in the form of dogs that still remain true to those high standards. An attempt at transferring some of those bloodlines to the Western world in order to help maintain them is being made as part of an unofficial breeding scheme conducted with the help of a few private individuals in Europe, all under the supervision of a world renowned expert on Central Asian breeds and Koochee dogs, Mr. A. Rasaq Qadirie.

The environment in which the dogs are brought up and the duties that are reserved for them in the traditional setting also make for the outstanding characteristics of those dogs. They will not have a chance to develop and use their full potential if taken out of their original context. Any attempt to do that will likely produce dogs that are unsuitable for keeping in a more civilized environment where they will be smothered by the demands of living in a modern society and deprived of opportunity to perform the work they were bred to do for ages past. The Sage Koochee are proud animals that need to have duties which they can fulfill, otherwise they may act out their frustration and lack of purpose in life in ways that can be unacceptable to their owners or the rest of society.

This is what most people fail to understand and refuse to accept but what truly defines the nature of the Koochee dogs and what sets them apart from any other breed. The Sage Koochee are working dogs which possess all the tools that enable them to do their work. The tools that, sadly, are usually missing from most of the modern breeds. They are also very sensitive animals with high emotional intelligence, requiring partnership and respect from their owners, as well as other people and animals in their immediate environment, to lead a satisfied and harmonious existence. That is why the only Koochee dogs that are ‘true-type’, ‘pure bred’ Koochee dogs are the ones remaining with the people who are the undisputed experts on dog breeding, and raising this amazing, unique breed in general, the Afghan Koochee people.

Breed history

In some areas, one type of dog was favoured more than the other (for example in mountainous regions, a more favourable type would be heavier coated and large boned, while in a desert environment a lighter, more agile built was more desirable). Natural selection occurred due to environmental conditions, as well as human preferences. Over the centuries, the breeds that ‘settled’ would become associated with that region, and some even received names and international kennel breed status. Those would include the Kangal dog of Turkey, the Caucasian Ovtcharka in the Caucasus region and many other breeds like the large shepherd breeds in Europe which are the descendants of this widespread group of dogs.

The Central Asian Ovtcharka was an invention that came out of the desire to classify a highly varied group of dogs of Central Asia into a ‘breed’ that could be bred and then shown in dog shows. Attempts to breed these dogs into massive super dogs through poor breeding practices have produced overly bulky dogs incapable of performing tasks that these dogs were originally meant for. There are still many great ‘CAO’s in Central Asia, but the dog world is now filled to the brim with handicapped behemoths of monstrous sizes and fallible proportions that debilitate the dogs and make them exist as poor reflections of what their predecessors used to be.

Koochee and the Taliban

The Koochee dogs of Afghanistan have largely escaped this fate, thanks to their relative isolation from the outside world because of the turbulent, war-torn history of Afghanistan. Because of the Russian invasion, the Koochee people of Afghanistan have preserved their old ways for a few generations more than was the case in regions annexed into the Soviet empire and those affected by the Western civilizations. This helped the breed of dogs, that was an integral part of Koochee culture, tradition and daily livelihood, survive, unchanged in its special nature, until the modern times.

Sadly, those ways of old are continually disappearing, now faster than ever, since the American invasion of Afghanistan and its liberation from the Taliban.

The Koochees and their dogs never were acceptable to the Taliban regime, and weren’t welcome by the Russians either, but they managed to stay in their old ways because of poor advancement of civilization in the country. They could still live off the land and have been able to preserve the values and traditions that have helped them to survive for centuries. Their dogs played a crucial part in ensuring that survival. Nowadays, that world is shrinking faster than ever due to changing lifestyles where barns replace fields and herds of sheep and goats are replaced by cows and the caravan is replaced by motorized transport.

Preservation of the breed

The Sage Koochee are one of the last true breeds of dogs in the world that remain true to their nature, even though they are not classified by any western Kennel Club organization. This only helped the Koochees maintain good standards of their dogs, without being spoiled by breeding practices that cater to looks and size that translate into profits as the most desirable criteria and sought after characteristics. Such was the case for the now grotesque CAO ‘breed’.

Not all dogs found in Afghanistan are Koochee dogs, even though they may resemble them in many ways. Many breeders in Afghanistan and surrounding countries now advertise their dogs as being Koochee dogs but often that is not the case. Many CAOs have characteristics that make them virtually aesthetically indistinguishable from the Koochee dogs, especially in the young age. While they can still be wonderful dogs, often they turn out to be dogs that have been bred improperly and demonstrate character flaws and problems usually not associated with dogs bred according to traditional standards.

Sakhalin Husky

The Sakhalin Husky, also known as the Karafuto-Ken, is a breed of dog used as a sled dog.


This breed is a spitz type, related to the Japanese Spitz and Akita Inu. The size varies between 56 cm and 66 cm at the withers with a weight range from 30 kg to 40 kg.

The ears are small, pointed, sometimes slightly tilted forwards or sometimes falling. This breed comes in many colours, including but not limited to russet-red and black. The hair is fine and thick, with an undercoat of very dense hair, similar to the hair of the Greenland Dog.


Karafuto-ken breaks down as Karafuto, the Japanese name for Sakhalin; hence, this provides the breed's geographical origin. This breed is used rarely now; therefore, few breeders remain in Japan.

Antarctic expedition

This breed's claim to fame came from the ill-fated 1958 Japanese research expedition to Antarctica, which made an emergency evacuation and was forced to leave behind 15 sled dogs. The researchers believed that a relief team would arrive within a few days, so they left the dogs chained up outside with a small supply of food; however, the weather turned bad and the team never made it to the outpost.

Incredibly, nearly one year later, a new expedition arrived and discovered that two of the dogs, "Taro" and "Jiro", had survived and they became instant heroes. Taro returned to Sapporo, Japan and lived at Hokkaido University until his death in 1970, after which he was stuffed and put on display at the university's museum. Jiro died in Antarctica in 1960 of natural causes and the remains are located at the National Science Museum of Japan in Ueno Park.

The breed spiked in popularity upon the release of the 1983 film, Nankyoku Monogatari, about Taro and Jiro. A second 2006 film, Eight Below, provided a fictional version of the occurrence, but did not reference the breed. Instead, the film features only eight dogs: two Alaskan malamutes and six Siberian huskies.


The Saluki is a breed of dogs known for speed, stamina and endurance. It resembles the Azawakh or Sloughi, which were commonly known as the Royal dog of Egypt. Until the designation of Sloughi as a breed, it was commonly mixed with Sloughis in England and some other European countries. Salukis are perhaps one of the oldest known breeds of domesticated dog.

The Saluki is a member of the sighthound family.


Saluki with light coat

Saluki with light coat

A true Saluki retains the qualities of hunting hounds. They may appear reserved and uninterested. They learn quickly but can get bored with repetition, so training sessions should be short and varied. Salukis need regular exercise, but behave quietly indoors. They do not bark much but "sing" when they feel that something is wrong or when a member of the family is away for a long period of time. They get along well with children, but must be respected when they want to be left alone and rest. Salukis have a fairly long life span, living an average of 12-13 years.

Sensitive and intelligent, the Saluki should never be trained using force or hard-handed methods. They are usually quiet and don't bark unless there is a reason.

According to the National Veterinary Scholars, Salukis should not be allowed off leash. Their strong prey drive can lead them to chase deer and other animals, and they can be difficult to stop, seemingly becoming "drunk" with running. The Saluki Club of America recommends a fence of at least five feet tall, as a Saluki can easily jump anything lower than that.


Like most sighthounds, the Saluki is a very healthy breed. The biggest problem to worry about is their sensitivity to anesthesia as a result of their low levels of body fat.


Dogs of King Antef

Dogs of King Antef

The Saluki has historically served as a courser, a speedy hunting dog that operated in packs. In the Middle East, dogs were always seen as dirty, but the Saluki was treasured by the Bedouin for the "Kiss of Allah" or white spot on the dog. These dogs always hunted in tandem with falcons which would find pray and then the Saluki would chase it down. Bedouin in the Middle East valued Salukis and raised them to be beautiful and to possess hunting qualities. Salukis slept with their owners in their tents to be protected from the heat of the day and the cold of the night. As the desert tribes were nomadic, the habitat of the Saluki comprised the entire region from the Caspian Sea to the Sahara. Naturally the types varied somewhat in this widely scattered area--mostly in size and coat. In ancient Egypt Salukis were used for hunting along with horses. The dogs would lie on the horses' back watching for deer, then leap off in pursuit when they saw one. A Saluki can jump up to 6 metres (20 feet) from a standing start.

Salukis were first brought into England in 1840 from the Middle East. There was no real interest however, until the Hon. Florence Amherst imported the first Arabian Saluki in 1895 from the kennels of Prince Abdulla in Transjordania. Melik Abdulla's hounds were probably originally from Kurdish areas of Syria.

As is the case with some other pedigree breeds in the United States, including the Basenji and Portuguese Podengo, the current population of Salukis is descended from a small number of founders introduced into the country within the last 100 years, and must be carefully mated to avoid inbreeding. However, the original dogs imported into the US came from throughout the whole Middle East, a vast geographical area, unlike most other breeds that come from very small areas, so salukis have the largest genetic base among purebreds. Recently, the AKC (American Kennel Club) has allowed the third generation of COO (Country of Origin) salukis to be registered after inspections by recognized judges so the DNA base will increase even more as more dogs are imported.

Samoyed (dog)

The Samoyed dog takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. An alternate name for the breed, especially in Europe, is Bjelkier. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy, white, smiling dogs to help with the herding, to pull sleds when they moved, and to keep their owners warm at night by sleeping on top of them.


Males typically weigh 20-32.5 kg (44-65 lb), while females typically weigh 17-25 kg (37-55 lb).


Samoyed eyes are usually black or brown, and are almond in shape. Blue or other color eyes can occur but are not allowed in the show ring.

New Zealand Standard: Eyes: Almond shaped, medium to dark brown in colour, set well apart with alert and intelligent expression. Eyerims should be black and unbroken.


Samoyed ears are thick and covered with fur, triangular in shape, and erect.

NZKC Standard: Ears: Thick, not too long and slightly rounded at the tips, set well apart and well covered inside with hair. The ears should be fully erect in the grown dog.


The Samoyed tail is one of the breed's more distinguishing features. Like their Siberian Husky cousins, their tail is carried curled over their backs; however, unlike the Husky, the Samoyed tail is held actually touching the back in a tight curl. In cold weather, Samoyeds may sleep with their tails over their noses to provide additional warmth. Some Samoyeds have tails that fall straight down the backside, like many other breeds, but this prevents them from being show quality. However, almost all Samoyeds will allow their tails to fall when they are relaxed and at ease, as when being stroked, but will return their tails to a curl when more alert.

NZKC Standard: Tail: Long and profuse, carried over the back when alert; sometimes dropped when at rest.


A Samoyed Dog in a garden with a toy

A Samoyed Dog in a garden with a toy

Samoyeds have a dense, double layer coat that is typically shed twice a year, although some shed only once a year. The top layer contains long, coarse, and straight guard hairs, which appear white but have a hint of silver coloring. This top layer keeps the undercoat relatively clean and free of debris. The under layer, or undercoat, consists of a dense, soft, and short fur that keeps the dog warm. The standard Samoyed may come in a mixture of biscuit and white coloring, although pure white and all biscuit dogs aren't uncommon. Males typically have larger ruffs than females.

Samoyeds are typically very good about grooming themselves, and upkeep as far as bathing is minimal. Dirt typically falls from the outer layer of fur with little work, making the dog deceptively easy to keep very clean looking. Puppy fur is more porous and will tend to take on the color of grass or mud if the dog spends a lot of time in appropriate environments.

An interesting characteristic of the breed is that these dogs have virtually no smell or "doggy odor" about them, making them especially well-suited to living indoors. The dense coat can make summer temperatures uncomfortable for them in warmer climates, and they prefer to be indoors where the air is cooled. The coat also acts as a natural repellent to fleas and ticks.


Samoyeds' friendly disposition makes them poor guard dogs, but excellent companions, especially for small children or even other dogs, and they remain playful into old age. Samoyeds are also known to be stubborn at times and difficult to train, due to unwillingness rather than lack of intelligence; they must be persuaded to obey commands. With their sled dog heritage, a Samoyed is not averse to pulling things, and an untrained Samoyed has no problem pulling its owner on a leash rather than walking alongside. They will instinctively act as herd dogs, and when playing with children, especially, will often attempt to turn and move them in a different direction. The breed is characterized by an alert and happy expression which has earned the nickname "Sammy smile."


Samoyeds are typically a hardy dog, but do have their share of health concerns.

Samoyed Herediatry Glomerulopathy

Samoyeds can be affected by a genetic disease known as "Samoyed Hereditary Glomerulopathy", a renal disease. The disease is known to be caused by an X-linked recessive faulty allele and therefore the disease is more severe in male Samoyeds. Carrier females do develop mild symptoms after 2-3 months of age, but do not go on to develop renal failure. The disease is caused by a defect in the structure of the type-IV collagen fibrils of the glomerular basement membrane. As a consequence, the collagen fibrils of the glomerular basement membrane are unable to form cross-links, so the structural integrity is weakened and the membrane is more prone to "wear-and-tear" damage. As the structure of the basement membrane begins to degenerate, plasma proteins are lost in the urine and symptoms begin to appear. Affected males appear healthy for the first 3 months of life, but then symptoms start to appear and worsen as the disease progresses: the dog becomes lethargic and muscle wastage occurs, as a result of proteinuria. From 3 months of age onwards, a reduced glomerular filtration rate is detected, indicative of progressive renal failure. Death from renal failure usually occurs by 15 months of age.

As yet there is no genetic screening test available for Samoyed Hereditary Glomerulopathy. Therefore, female Samoyeds known or suspected of being carriers of the disease should not be bred from. If a carrier female is mated with a healthy stud dog, the female offspring have a 50% chance of being carriers for the disease, and any male offspring have a 50% chance of being affected by the disease. The litter-mates of any affected Samoyeds should not be bred from in order to prevent the disease being passed on to future generations.

Other Health Concerns

Hip dysplasia is also a concern for Samoyeds as are eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma and other retinal problems. Like other purebred dogs, Samoyeds are prone to diabetes and other diseases if their owners are not careful. Samoyeds will typically live 10 to 15 years.


In spring and autumn when moulting, the undercoat is renewed; then the old coat comes out in tufts. One can comb it deeply, with a metal comb, which will speed up the shedding process and allow the Samoyed to regain its usual appearance more quickly (without this he may walk about for several days with a hard bald back). Giving a bath itself has several disadvantages, soap or shampoo destroy the skin suint (an oily secretion which makes the coat shine) and remove the dog's own natural protection. Furthermore, water, trapped in the very thick undercoat, has difficulty evaporating and may remain in the fur. Any shampoo or soap left in the coat after bathing will almost always lead to a "hotspot" or a fungal infection within two weeks which is impossible to cure without shaving the affected location. They have to be groomed at least twice a year, more in the spring and autumn when they moult. To keep the Samoyed's coat gleaming, their diet must be looked after carefully and contain a good amount of eggs and cheese.


The Samoyed name quickly became obsolete for the Nenets people after the Russian Revolution (perceived as derogatory; see Nenets article). However, by then, Arctic explorers (for example, Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen) had brought enough of the dogs back to Europe to keep the name and to establish the breed both there and in the US.

Fridtjof Nansen believed that the use of sled dogs was the only effective way to explore the north and used Samoyeds on his polar expeditions. Unfortunately, his plan was disastrous to the animals, as he planned to feed the weaker dogs to the stronger ones as they died during the expedition. In the end, he lost almost all of his dogs due to his plan.

Roald Amundsen used a team of sled dogs led by a Samoyed named Etah on the first expedition to reach the South Pole.

Recent DNA analysis of the breed has led to the Samoyed being included amongst the fourteen most ancient dog breeds , along with Siberian Huskies, Alaskan Malamutes, the Chow Chow, and 10 others of a diverse geographic background.The first Samoyed was brought to United States by fur traders in 1906. The Samoyeds have been bred and trained for at least 3,000 years.


  • The breed is sometimes nicknamed "The Smiley Dog" because they usually have a permanent smiling look that makes them appear pleased to see everyone.
  • While Samoyed are still used to pull sleds, they are seldom used for herding anymore. They also are usually not used for dogsled racing because of the emergence of breeds created specifically for the sport such as the Alaskan Husky.
  • Samoyed fur is sometimes used as an alternative to wool in knitting and in flys for fly fishing.

Famous Samoyeds

  • Kaifas and Suggen, the lead dogs for Fridtjof Nansen's North Pole expedition.
  • Etah, the lead dog for Roald Amundsen's expedition to the South Pole, the first to reach the pole.
  • Soichiro is the name of a Samoyed that belonged to one of the main characters in the popular Japanese anime, Maison Ikkoku. He was featured prominently throughout most of the series, and became a major character in his own right, often serving as comic relief.


The Sapsal is a shaggy Korean breed of dog. The word is followed in Korean by either gae (meaning "dog") or the suffix ee/i, but is most commonly romanized as "Sapsaree". Traditionally, these dogs were believed to dispel ghosts and evil spirits.


Sapsalis are medium sized and slightly longer than tall. Their adult coat is long and abundant, and comes in various colors including solid and/or mixed shades of black, golden yellowish-blonde, reddish-orange, browns, and salt-and-pepper greys. Their hair falls over the eyes in the same manner as that of the Old English Sheepdog. Although Sapsalis resemble herding dogs, they appear to have been bred exclusively as house dogs; their 'work' is spiritual rather than physical.

The Sapsali has been identified and recognized by both leading Korean dog societies, the Korean Canine Club (FCI affiliate) and the Korean Kennel Club, but the only Korean dog that has official international recognition is the Jindo.


In Korea, they are famous for their gentle, protective, and loyal characters. They are friendly and playful with people they are familiar with, but aggressive towards strangers. Not being natural fighters, they are usually peaceful. However, when attacked, they are almost merciless, and they will not stop chasing their aggressor unless commanded to do so by their owners or until their stamina runs out.

Such characteristics may have contributed to their name. The name Sapsali can be divided into two parts: sap, meaning to chase or remove, and sal, meaning bad luck or evil; i is a part of the Korean language to attach behind a name


The Šarplaninac (Serbian: Шарпланинац; Macedonian: Шарпланинец; pronounced "shar-pla-NEE-natz") is a large-sized shepherd dog breed of the Balkan region.


The showbreed "Sar" stands between 26 and 30 inches (65-75 cm) in height and weighs 77 to 99 pounds (35-45 kg). However, the pure breed out of 'old' Yugoslavia generally weighs approximately 165. The coat is dense and medium in length; it can be rough or smooth. The coat is also about four inches (10 cm) long. The coat will benefit from occasional brushings. All Sarplaninac types are always solid in colour: tan, iron grey, white or black. There are no bicolours and no uniformly black-coated dogs among purebreds, but oddly-coloured specimens do exist.


The temperament of the breed is described as independent, aloof with outsiders, and calm until a threat to the flock presents itself, when suddenly the Šar erupts into swift ferocity. The breed has a highly protective nature. In the absence of a flock of sheep, the Šar will often treat its humans as sheep - herding them away from danger or undesirable areas. They are serene and majestic, gentle with children and smaller dogs. They are also highly intelligent and bred to survive without human supervision while guarding the flocks in the high pastures. Young pups can denude a property of small animals until trained not to hunt.


Sarplaninac is a breed of Antiquity, believed by many to be one of, if not the oldest true Molosser in the World. There's an old Balkan folk legend that says the breed remembers the time when everything used to be under water except for the highest mountains, implying the connection to the Biblical flood, but more likely referring historically to the period when the entire region was covered by the Pannonian Sea.It is the Balkans where Molossers come from, having spread on all sides of the world thousands of years ago, influencing the establishment of most modern mastiff and shepherd dog breeds, leading some to conclude that the Sarplaninec is the oldest dog of this type.This breed is most commonly associated with the Sharplanina (Shar Mountains) region which is how it got its name. Prior to the Turkish conquest of the area, all of the shepherd dogs of the Balkans were known under the somewhat romantic name of "Illyrian Mountain Dog", distinguishable as regional Molosser types.

Vane's Arkon from Sterling Heights, Michigan USA

While the origins of the breed are obscured by history, it is believed by some that Šars' ancestry dates back to the time of Alexander The Great. It is also believed that the original mountain shepherd dog (based in the Mollos family) was cross bred with wolves during the Middle Ages to create the 'modern' Sar (certainly the modern Sar resembles a wolf in movement). The pure breed (as opposed to the show breed, which has been recognized since the mid-late 1930s) was protected by the Yugoslavian government until the country broke up. This dog has nothing to do with the Serbian Shepherds its a Ilyrian shepherd, usually known as Shar Mountain Dog.

Working life

Sarplaninac is a reserved and intuitive breed, naturally stubborn and undemonstrative, but once properly trained and handled with authority, it excels at any task. Dog-aggression and wariness of strangers are common traits of the Sarplaninac, which is why early socialization is of utmost importance. But this is also a breed of truly remarkable intelligence and immense loyalty to its owner, as well as genuine love of children, making it an agreeable companion dog.Šarplaninac is one of rare dog breeds which can confront and take down a wolf or a bear. One of the interesting physical characteristics of the Sarplaninac are his unusually large teeth that set it apart from most dogs, further proving its old age of origin. Heavily-boned and muscular, the Sarplaninec has a very rich full top-coat, with an abundant dense undercoat, making it fully weatherproof and suited for an outside life. The breed can also work cattle and serve as a guard dog; it was bred and used as a military dog under Marshal Josip Broz Tito. The Šarplaninac is spreading through ranches in North America as a serious sheep herding dog and a livestock guardian. Predator problems are said to be greatly diminished once a Šar takes responsibility for a flock. The first known F.C.I. registered import to arrive in North America came directly from Skopje, Macedonia near the Sar Planina Mountains in the early 1970s. Vasa Cubaleski, a business owner in Glendale California had a white Sar bitch puppy carried off the mountain on the back of a donkey and flown to the U.S. Ownership of that bitch was eventually transferred to Marjorie E. Rucker, a breed enthusiast. Ms. Rucker had that bitch, Bistra, bred to stock later imported by the New England Dog Project at Hampshire College in New England. Offspring from that breeding as well as later litters are now distributed and working throughout the U.S. on sheep ranches.


A Schipperke (pronounced skipper-kee) is a small Belgian breed of dog that originated in the early 16th century. There has been a long debate over whether this type of dog is a terrier, spitz or miniature sheepdog.


Schipperkes are most commonly all black, which is the only accepted color for show dogs in the United States and members of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. However, other colors are accepted in some countries. They have small and pointed ears that sit atop the head. Schipperkes are also double coated with a soft, fluffy undercoat that is covered by a harsher-feeling outer coat. One of the breed characteristics is a long ruff that surrounds the neck and then trails down towards the rear of the dog. They usually do not weigh more than 18 lbs and their tails are sometimes docked shortly after birth. Most schipperkes, however, are born with little to no tail and are not docked at birth.


Schipperkes were first formed as a breed in the 1880s, their standard being written in 1889. Much of what is known of their origins and early history comes from Chasse et Pêche (French for "Hunting and Fishing") magazine, articles of which were translated into English and published by the English magazine The Stockkeeper.

The breed name of "Schipperke," officially taken in 1888, is traditionally thought to mean "little captain". Beginning in the 1920s, however, it became popular in Belgium to believe that the name was actually a corruption of the Flemish word "Shapocke" or "Scheperke", meaning "little shepherd". It has been suggested that the idea of "little captain" was an invention of the English, who mistook the Schipperke for a Dutch barge dog.

Before the name "Schipperke" was officially taken, the breed was also known colloquially as "Spitzke". It is thought that the name change was to distinguish it from the German Spitz.

Correctly or not, Schipperkes are widely known as "Belgian barge dogs." Some reports say they were found frequently as working dogs aboard barges in the canals of Belgium, with three jobs onboard: security (barking vigorously when anyone approached the barge), keeping the barges free of vermin, and nipping at the towing horses' heels to get them moving to tow the barge. To this day, Schipperkes are known as excellent boat dogs and are often found cruising the world aboard sailing yachts and powerboats. They are not prone to seasickness.

"Schipperke" is actually a Dutch word; "schipper" (pronounced with the throat-clearing sound of the typical Dutch "hard g") means skipper (not captain, which is "kapitein"). Adding "-ke" (or "-je") to pretty much any Dutch noun means it's a smaller version, or is used as a term of endearment.


A Schipperke is an all-around dog: it has strong herding, hunting, and watching instincts. They are fearless and independent, smart and willful. They are a high-energy dog with an intense curiosity about everything and therefore require a great deal of attention and stimulation. Consistent, positive training is a must or life can become a contest of wills. Schipperkes, like many small breeds, seem not to realize that they are small dogs and behave as if they are much larger than they actually are. They are often quoted as being a "90-pound dog in a 9-pound body." They also often act as though they are high in authority in whatever society they live. They also have the nickname little nurse and can be quiet bedside companions to a sick family member. If socialized as a young dog, it also is very friendly to others. Another nickname for them is Townhouse German Shepherd. On dog intelligence the Schipperke ranks 15 out of 80. They love to please their owner and are good for obedience and agility training.


The Schipperke has no particular health problems, and individuals often reach the old age of 17 or 18 years. Nonetheless, inactivity, lack of exercise and over-feeding are very harmful, and can lead to joint and skeleton problems and heart, lung or digestive conditions.

The one minor caveat to the Schipperke's good health is MPS IIIB, a genetic mutation that occurs in at most 15% of the total breed population. The University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine has developed a test for the disease and began accepting samples in April 2003. Their website at http://w3.vet.upenn.edu/research/centers/penngen/faq/mps3b.html has more specifics. If you seek to acquire a Schipperke be sure to ask the breeder if they have tested for the condition. A large effort is underway by many responsible breeders to eliminate this fatal and debilitating disease from the population.


Miniature Schnauzer

A Schnauzer is a German breed of dog. The name comes from the German word for snout because of the dogs' distinctively furry muzzles. Kennel clubs generally subdivide these dogs into three breeds by size:

Distinct breeds today, originating from the Standard of the past, the three share some common features such as intelligence, alertness, strong sense of smell, and loyalty to family.

Miniature Schnauzer

The Miniature Schnauzer is a breed of small dog of the Schnauzer type that originated in Germany in the mid-to-late 19th century. Miniature Schnauzers developed from crosses between the Standard Schnauzer and one or more smaller breeds such as the Poodle, Miniature Pinscher, or Affenpinscher. The breed remains one of the most popular, and is currently the 10th most popular breed in the U.S.


Miniature Schnauzers are quite distinctive in appearance. They should be compact, muscular, and be "square" in build (the height at the withers should be the same as the length of the body). They have long beards, eyebrows, and feathering on the legs. In the USA, ears are sometimes cropped to stand upright and the tail is normally docked short. British Schnauzers have uncropped ears, as ear cropping is illegal in the United Kingdom. Since April 2007, docking has also been banned in the UK.

Their coats are wiry (when hand-stripped) and do not shed, which adds to their appeal as house pets. Miniature Schnauzers that are shown at dog shows needs to be hand-stripped to achieve the wiry texture that the breed standard calls for. Pets that are not shown, can be clippered. This will however turn the coat soft and make the dog lose color. The AKC, CKC and the KC (UK) recognizes only three colours: black, salt and pepper, and black and silver. The FCI, however, also recognizes white Miniature Schnauzers. Some breeders cross-breed Miniature Schnauzers with other breeds to try and introduce new colours, a practice that is discouraged by all major Schnauzer breed clubs. Height is 12 to 14 inches at the withers (American standard) or 30-35cm (FCI, German standard) at the withers, and they generally weigh 10 to 15 pounds (4.5 to 7 kg).

Black Miniature Schnauzer (puppy)
Black Miniature Schnauzer (puppy)


Miniature Schnauzers are known for their lively personality. They are also highly loyal to their owners and can be very energetic, but if not given proper exercise or a balanced diet, they will gain weight very quickly.

Miniature Schnauzers are extremely vocal dogs, and are known for their barking. As such they tend to be excellent watchdogs. They are often guarded of strangers until the owners of the home welcome the guest, upon which they are typically very friendly to them. The breed can be overly vocal, but unnecessary barking can usually be controlled by training if the owner has patience with the dog.

The breed is generally good with children, recognizing that they need gentle play. However, they do have a tendency to bark and sometimes nip at small children.

Miniature Schnauzers are generally highly intelligent and easy to train. They can, however, require a great deal of attention and affection from their owner, regardless if they are to be used as show dogs or home pets. If not given affection on a regular basis the breed can become depressed, which can decrease their mental and physical health.

They are highly playful dogs, and if not given the outlet required for their energy they can become a somewhat difficult breed.


A black-and-silver Miniature Schnauzer with an un-docked tail and natural ears
A black-and-silver Miniature Schnauzer with an un-docked tail and natural ears

The earliest records surrounding development of the Miniature Schnauzer in Germany come from the late 1800s. They were originally bred to be farm dogs in Germany, to keep the rats and other vermin out of the barn. In the breed's earliest stages, several small breeds were employed in crosses to bring down the size of the well-established Standard Schnauzer, with the goal of creating a duplicate in miniature.Crossing to other breeds, such as the Affenpinscher and Miniature Pinscher, had the side effect of introducing colours that were not considered acceptable to the ultimate goal — and as breeders worked towards the stabilization of the gene pool, mismarked particolors and white puppies were removed from breeding programs.

The earliest recorded Miniature Schnauzer was in 1888, and the first exhibition was in 1899. With their bold courage, the Miniature Schnauzer was originally used for guarding herds, small farms, and families. As time passed, they were also used to hunt rats, because they appeared to have a knack for it, and its small size was perfect to get into tight places to catch them.

The AKC accepted registration of the new breed in 1926, two years after they were introduced to the United States. The American Kennel Club groups this breed with the Terriers as it was developed for a similar purpose and has a similar character to the terrier breeds of the Britain and Ireland. The Miniature Schnauzer was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1948. The United kingdom Kennel club however, does not accept the Miniature Schnauzer as a Terrier and lists it in the utility group for shows such as Crufts.

Male (r) and female adult Miniature Schnauzers
Male (r) and female adult Miniature Schnauzers


Miniature Schnauzers are prone to diabetes, bladder stones and pancreatitis. They are occasionally genetically disposed to ideopathic hyperlipidemia (high levels of triglycerides, i.e. fats, in their blood). Hyperlipidemia makes pancreatitis much more likely for the affected dog. With proper care, without feeding the dog sweet or fatty foods, it can usually be avoided. As with many other types of dogs, mini schnauzers are not to be given any chocolate, since in their breed, it can act as a poison. Miniature Schnauzers with uncropped ears are prone to ear infections and deafness later in life if the ears are not checked regularly or dried out after swimming. They should not be overfed since they gain weight easily. They can also develop a type of skin allergy, which shows up as a 'hot spot' often around the neck area, which can be tender for the animal forming a hard crust after weeping.

Standard Schnauzer

The Standard Schnauzer is the original breed of the three breeds of Schnauzer, and despite its wiry coat and general appearance, is not related to the British terriers. Rather, its origins are in old herding and guard breeds of Europe. The breed is a robust, squarely built, medium-sized dog with aristocratic bearing, making it a popular subject of painters Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt.


A Standard Schnauzer pup taking a snooze
A Standard Schnauzer pup taking a snooze

The Standard Schnauzer has a harsh, wiry outer coat with minimal shedding that is salt and pepper or, less often, solid black in color. The hair on the face lengthens to form a beard and eyebrows. The breed is robust and sturdy, and should be "heavy" for its height with lots of muscle and bone. Ideal weight and height ranges vary considerably from one breed club's standard to the next. Males range between 18 and 20 inches (45cm–50cm) high at the withers and generally weigh between 35 and 50 pounds (15.5 kg–22.5 kg). Females are ideally between 17 and 19 inches (42.5 cm–47.5 cm) high at the withers and generally weigh between 30 and 45 pounds (13.5kg–20.2kg). Traditionally the ears were cropped and the tail docked. However, in many European countries and in Australia, ear-cropping and tail-docking are now prohibited and the dogs are shown with natural ears and tail (see illustration). In the United States, many dogs are cropped and almost all have docked tails.

This Standard Schnauzer is unusual in having an un-docked tail
This Standard Schnauzer is unusual in having an un-docked tail
Two female Standard Schnauzers, one with cropped ears and one with natural ears.
Two female Standard Schnauzers, one with cropped ears and one with natural ears.


The Standard Schnauzer is sociable, highly intelligent and alert. Schnauzers can be "comedians", formidable guards, and great family companions. Properly raised and trained, they are reliable companions with children. Schnauzers are a very enthusiastic breed and thrive on interaction with any family activities. Therefore they suit an active family with older children, but can be very gentle with young children if properly trained. If they are not kept involved in family activities, they may invent their own entertainment. They are usually not unnecessary barkers but have a deep, intimidating bark which is useful as a watch dog. Schnauzers are noted for guarding the family home and for displaying devotion to their immediate family and their family's circle of friends. Consequently they may take time to warm up to strangers. They learn easily but can also become bored with repetition. They are often determined and may want to do things their own way, thus owners should be firm and consistent. However, schnauzers do not respond well to harsh treatment. Standards have good hunting instincts, and have been used as retrievers both on land and in the water. Standard schnauzers are also excellent herders of sheep and cattle, which reflects their origin as a general-purpose farm dog, and many have achieved AKC herding titles.


Schnauzers are originally a German breed and are descended from herding, ratting and guardian breeds during the Middle Ages. They may be most closely related to the spitz-type breeds. Dogs very similar to today's schnauzers existed in the Middle Ages, and they have appeared several times in paintings, statues and tapestries with Rembrandt, Dürer and Reynolds all portraying them. Initially a dog of the peasant farmer, in the 19th century this breed captured the interest of the German dog fancy and they began to be bred to a standard of perfection. The word "Schnauzer" (German name for 'small beard') appeared for the first time in 1842 when used as a synonym for the Wire-haired Pinscher (the name under which the breed first competed at dog shows). The Standard Schnauzer is the original Schnauzer from which the Miniature and Giant breeds were developed in the late 19th century. They have been shown from the 1870's onwards and first appeared in the United States about 1900. The Standard Schnauzer has also been used throughout modern history in various roles. For example it was used by the Red Cross for guard duty during World War I and at one point by both German and American police departments. Several Standards have been used in the USA for drug and bomb detection, and also as Search-and-Rescue dogs.

Giant Schnauzer

The Giant Schnauzer is a large, powerful, compact breed of dog. It is one of the three Schnauzer breeds. Like most large breeds, the Giant Schnauzer needs a fair amount of exercise.


When hand-stripped, the Giant Schnauzer has a harsh, wiry outer coat and dense, soft undercoat. Coat color is either black or salt and pepper (grey). It weighs between 70 and 99 lb (32 to 45 kg) and stands 23.5 to 27.5 in (59 to 70 cm) at the withers.

When moving at a fast trot, a properly built Giant Schnauzer will single-track. Back remains strong, firm, and flat.


The Giant Schnauzer is a large, powerful, dominant dog which needs a firm, consistent but friendly handler. Unnecessary harshness will only do harm.

Early and consistent training is necessary as the Giant Schnauzer tends to be very willful and are highly intelligent dogs. Its ability to understand a command does not always translate into obedience however!

Giant Schnauzers are fiercely loyal, often becoming so attached to their owner that they follow them around the house. They are extremely kind natured (similar to that of a retriever or labrador) and a good choice for those with children.

Giant schnauzers need vigorous exercise at least twice every day and can easily make a 15 mile hike. The Giant Schnauzer is a good companion for hunter of raccoons, foxes and even deer.

Health problems in the breed include:


The breed originated in the mid to late 19th century in the Bavarian and Württemberg regions of Germany. Cattlemen wanted a larger version of the Standard Schnauzer for herding and driving, creating it by selectively breeding the Standard Schnauzer with the Black Great Dane, the Bouvier des Flandres, and rough haired sheepdogs. It was a popular herding breed, but its need for more food than some breeds made it less popular for farmers on tight budgets or with limited resources. It was used as a guard dog in breweries and stockyards, a police dog, and during World War I as a military dog. It became scarce during World War II, but its popularity grew again after the war, when it was used as a drover and as a guard dog.

Schweizer Laufhund


The Schweizer Laufhund is of medium size; it has good conformation indicating strength and endurance; it has a lean head and long muzzle with long leathers giving an air of nobility. There are 4 varieties of the Swiss Hound :

  • Bernese Hound,
  • Jura Hound, (no longer seen)
  • Lucerne Hound,
  • Schwyz Hound.

The Swiss Hound has very ancient origins. Its presence in times of the Roman Helvetia is certified on a mosaic, discovered at Avenches, by the representation of packhounds corresponding to the varieties of Swiss hounds. In the 15th century, it was sought after by Italian dog lovers and in the 18th century, by the French, for its exceptional aptitude for hunting hare. Its native lines have certainly been influenced by scenthounds of French breeding brought back to Switzerland by mercenaries. In 1882, a standard was established for each of the five varieties of the Swiss Hound. In 1909, those standards were revised and the total disappearance of the hound of Thurgovie was noted. On 22nd of January 1933, one single standard was established for the 4 varieties of the Swiss Hound. The ancient variety, the hound of the Jura type St. Hubert, has in the meantime disappeared.

Scottish Deerhound

Temperament and Health

The Scottish Deerhound is a large breed with an extremely friendly nature that needs considerable exercise as a youngster to develop properly and to maintain its health. That does not mean it needs a large house to live in; however should have regular access to free exercise in a fenced or otherwise "safe" area. They should not be raised with access only to leash walking or a small yard.

Young Deerhounds can be quite destructive especially if not given sufficient exercise; however, the average adult Deerhound may spend much of the day stretched out on the floor or a couch sleeping. They do require a stimulus, preferably another Deerhound, and a large area to exercise properly and frequently. They are gentle and docile indoors and are generally good around company and children (however they require supervision with young children due to their size).

Barring major medical emergencies, Deerhounds can be expected to live to approximately 9-11 years of age. The serious health issues in the breed include cardiomyopathy, osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and bloat (GDV).


The Scottish Deerhound is believed by some to have existed back to a time before recorded history. In appearance it is similar to the Greyhound and may have been closely related to the "Highland Greyhound". The environment in which it worked, the Scottish Highland moor, is likely to have contributed to the larger, rough-coated appearance of the breed. The Deerhound was developed to hunt red deer by “coursing”, and by “deer-stalking”. The Scottish Deerhound is closely related to the Irish Wolfhound and was the main contributor to the recovery of that breed at the end of the 19th century. The antecedents of the modern Scottish Deerhound may have been common among the Picts and Scots,and would have been used to provide part of the dietary requirements, namely hoofed game. With the eventual demise of the clan systems in Scotland, these hunting dogs became sporting animals for landowners and the nobility but when possible continued to be bred and hunted by common folk. These, fast, silent hunters made quick work of any game from a hare up and were highly regarded by the nobility and poachers alike. In coursing deer, a single Deerhound or more likely a pair of Deerhounds, would be brought as close as possible to red deer, then slipped to run one of them down by speed, which if successful would happen within a few minutes - rarely were there sustained chases.


Scottish Deerhounds compete in conformation, lure coursing, and where it is still legal, in some states of the USA, in hare coursing. A few are trained to succeed in obedience competition and few excel in it, fewer still excel in dog agility or flyball because the courses and activities are generally designed for smaller dogs, with lower body weight and shorter stride.

Scottish Terrier

The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog best known for its distinctive profile.

The Scottish Terrier is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland. The other four are Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and West Highland White Terriers. Its nickname is "little diehard", given to it in the 19th century by George, the fourth Earl of Dumbarton. The Earl had a famous pack of Scottish Terriers, so brave that they were named “Diehards”. They were supposed to have inspired the name of his Regiment, The Royal Scots, "Dumbarton’s Diehards".


A Scottish Terrier is a small but resilient terrier. Scotties are fast and have a muscular body and neck (a typical neck diameter is 14 inches), often appearing to be barrel chested. They are short-legged, compact and sturdily built, with a long head in proportion to their size.

The Scottie should have large paws adapted for digging. Erect ears and tail are salient features of the breed. Their eyes are small, bright and almond-shaped and dark brown or nearly black in colour.

Height at withers for both sexes should be roughly ten inches, and the length of back from withers to tail is roughly eleven inches. Generally a well-balanced Scottie dog should weigh from 19-22 pounds and a bitch from 18-21 pounds.

The Scottie typically has a hard, wiry, long, weather-resistant outer coat and a soft dense under coat. The coat is typically trimmed and blended, with a longer coat on the beard, eyebrows, legs and lower body — traditionally shaggy-to-the-ground. The head, ears, tail and back are traditionally trimmed short.

The usual coat color ranges from dark gray to jet black. Scotties with 'Wheaten' (straw to nearly white) or 'Brindle' coats sometimes occur, but should not be confused with the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier or West Highland White Terrier.


Scotties, like most terriers, are alert, quick and feisty — perhaps even more so than other terrier breeds. The breed is known to be independent and self-assured, playful, intelligent and has been nicknamed the 'Diehard' because of its rugged nature and endless determination. They are widely considered to be especially loyal by their owners, even as compared with other dogs.

Although black is the most traditional colour for a Scottie, wheaten Scotties can also be found, as shown in this picture of a Scottie puppy.
Although black is the most traditional colour for a Scottie, wheaten Scotties can also be found, as shown in this picture of a Scottie puppy.

Scotties, while being very loving, can also be particularly stubborn. Because the breed is inclined to be stubborn, it needs firm, gentle handling from an early age or it will dominate the household.They are sometimes seen as an aloof breed, although it is actually very loyal to its family and they are known to attach themselves to one or two people in their pack. The breed has been described as tempestuous, but also quite sensitive.

The Scottish terrier makes a good watchdog due to its tendency to bark only when necessary and because it is typically reserved with strangers — although this is not always the case and it is important to remember that all dogs differ.It is a fearless breed that may be aggressive around other dogs unless introduced at an early age.

The Scottie is prone to dig as well as chase and hunt small vermin, such as Squirrels, rats, mice and foxes — a trait that they were originally bred for. For this reason it is recommended that they are walked on a leash.


Scottish Terriers have a greater chance of developing some cancers than other purebreds. According to research by the Veterinary Medical Data Program (1986), six cancers that Scotties appeared to be more at risk for (when compared to other breeds) are: (in descending order) bladder cancer and other transitional cell carcinomas of the lower urinary tract; malignant melanoma; gastric carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; lymphosarcoma and nasal carcinoma. Other cancers that are known to commonly affect Scotties include mast cell sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma.

Research has suggested that Scottish Terriers are 20 times more likely to get bladder cancer than other breeds and the most common kind of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC). Dr. Deborah Knapp of Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine has commented "TCC usually occurs in older dogs (average age 11 years) and is more common in females (2:1 ratio of females to males)." Symptoms of TCC are blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and frequent urination — although owners noticing any of these symptoms should also be aware that the same symptoms may also be indicative of a urinary tract infection. Veterinary assistance should be sought, and an ultrasound should be requested to confirm.

The most common and effective form of treatment for TCC is Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that "allows the cancer cells to kill themselves." In order to help prevent cancer in a dog, an owner should ensure that their dog has minimal exposure to herbicides, pesticides, solvents and cigarette smoke; use caution when treating dogs with some flea medications; provide a healthy, organic, vitamin-rich diet (low in carbohydrates, high in vegetables) and plenty of exercise.

Two other genetic health concerns in the breed are von Willebrand disease (vWD) and craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); Scottie cramp, patellar luxation and cerebellar abiotrophy are also sometimes seen in this breed. Scottish Terrier owners are advised to have DNA tests performed to screen for von Willebrand's disease. Scotties typically live between 11 and 13 years.


The Scottie is often thought to be the oldest of the Highland terriers, although this contention has not been proved. Because several of the highland terriers (including the Scottie) were initially grouped under the generic name, Skye terriers, it has caused some confusion in the breed’s lineage. There is much disagreement over whether the Skye terriers mentioned in early 16th century records actually descended from forerunners of the Scottie or vice versa. It is certain, however, that Scotties and West Highland White Terriers are closely related — both their forefathers originating from the Blackmount region of Perthshire and the Moor of Rannoch. Scotties were originally bred to hunt and kill vermin on farms and to hunt badgers and foxes in the Highlands of Scotland. Scotties are natural "diggers," like other terriers, whose name derives from the same root as "terre," French for "earth."They were bred with strong tails so that their owners could pull them out of holes when they would dig after vermin and voles.

The actual origin of a breed as old as the Scottish Terrier is somewhat obscure and undocumented.The first written records about a dog of similar description to the Scottish Terrier dates from 1436, when Don Leslie described them in his book "The History of Scotland 1436-1561". Two hundred years later, Sir Joshua Reynolds painted a portrait of a young girl caressing a dog remarkably similar to a Scottie. King James VI of Scotland was an important historical figure featuring in the Scottish Terrier's history . In the 17th century, when King James VI became James I of England, he sent six terriers — thought to be forerunners of the Scottish terrier — to a French monarch as a present. His love and adoration for the breed increased their popularity throughout the world.

Many dog writers from the early 1800s on seem to agree that there were two varieties of terrier existing in Britain at the time — a rough haired Scotch Terrier and a smooth haired English Terrier. Thomas Brown, in his Biological Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs (1829) states that "the Scotch terrier is certainly the purest in point of breed and the (smooth) English seems to have been produced by a cross from him". Brown went on to describe the Scotch Terrier as "low in stature, with a strong muscular body, short stout legs, a head large in proportion to the body" and was "generally of a sandy colour or black" with a "long, matted and hard" coat. Although the Scotch Terrier described here is more generic than specific to a breed, it asserts the existence of a small, hard, rough-coated terrier developed for hunting small game in the Scottish Highlands in the early 1800s; a description that shares essential characteristics with what was once known as the Aberdeen Terrier and is today known as the Scottish Terrier. In addition the paintings of Sir Edwin Landseer and a 1835 lithograph, entitled "Scottish Terriers at Work on a Cairn in the West Highlands", both depict Scottie type terriers very similar to those described in the first Scottish Terrier Standard.

In the 1800s, the Highlands of Scotland, including the Isle of Skye, were abundant with terriers originally known by the generic term "short-haired" or "little Skye terriers." Towards the end of the 19th century, it was decided to separate these Scottish terriers and develop pure bloodlines and specific breeds. Originally, the breeds were separated into two categories – Dandie Dinmont terriers and Skye terriers (not the Skye terrier known today, but a generic name for a large group of terriers with differing traits all said to originate from the Isle of Skye). The Birmingham England dog show of 1860 was the first to offer classes for these groups of terriers. They continued to be exhibited in generic groups for several years and these groups included the ancestors of today's Scottish Terrier. Recorded history, and the initial development of the breed started in the late 1870’s with the growth of dog shows. The exhibiting of dogs required that they be compared to a standard for the breed and the appearance and temperament of the Scottie was written down for the first time.Eventually, the Skye terriers were further divided into what are known today as the Scottish terrier, Skye Terrier, West Highland white terrier and Cairn terrie

While identification of the breed was being sought through the late 1800s, the Scottish terrier was known by many different names: the Highland, the Cairn, Diehard, and most often, the Aberdeen Terrier — named because of the dogs abundancy in the area and because a J.A. Adamson of Aberdeen had a lot of success exhibiting his dogs during the 1870s. Roger Rough, owned by Adamson, Tartan, owned by Mr Paynton Piggott, Bon Accord, owned by Messrs Ludlow and Bromfield and Splinter II, owned by Mr Ludlow, were early winners and are the four dogs from which all Scottish Terrier pedigrees ultimately began. It is often said that all present day Scotties stem from a single bitch, Splinter II, and two sires. In her heavily researched book, The New Scottish Terrier, Cindy Cooke refers to Splinter II as the "foundation matron of the modern Scottish Terrier." Cooke goes on to say "For whatever reason, early breeders linebred on this bitch to the virtual exclusion of all others. Mated to Tartan, she produced Worry, the dam of four champions. Rambler, her son by Bonaccord, sired the two founding sires of the breed, Ch. Dundee (out of Worry) and Ch. Alistair (out of a Dundee daughter)" (The New Scottish Terrier, 1996). From Splinter and her sires are descended all the show champions on both sides of the Atlantic.

Captain Gordon Murray and S.E. Shirley were responsible for setting the type in 1879. Shortly afterwards, in 1879, Scotties were for the first time exhibited at Alexander Palace in England, while the following year they began to be classified in much the same way as is done today. The first written standard of the breed was drafted by J.B. Morrison and D.J. Thomson Gray and appeared in Vero Shaw's Illustrated Book of The Dog, published in 1880, and ultimately was extremely influential in setting both breed type and the Scottish terrier name. The standard gave the dog colouring as "Grey, Grizzle or Brindle", as the typically Black colouring of Scotties was not fashionable or favoured until the 1900s.

In 1881 the "Scottish Terrier Club of England" was founded, being the first club dedicated to the breed. The club secretary, H J Ludlow, is responsible for greatly popularising the breed in the southern parts of Great Britain. The "Scottish Terrier Club of Scotland" wasn't founded until 1888, seven years after the English club. Following the formation of the English and Scottish clubs there followed several years of differences and arguments with regards to what should be deemed as the correct and official standard of the breed.Things were finally settled by a revised standard in 1930, which was based on four prepotent dogs. The dogs were Robert and James Chapman's Heather Necessity, Albourne Barty, bred by AG Cowley, Albourne Annie Laurie, bred by Miss Wijk and Miss Wijk's Marksman of Docken (the litter brother of Annie Laurie). These four dogs and their offspring modified the look of the Scottie, particularly the length of the head, closeness to the ground and the squareness of body. Their subsequent success in the show ring led to them becoming highly sought after by the British public and breeder As such, the modified standard completely revolutionized the breed.This new standard was subsequently recognised by the Kennel Club UK circa 1930.

Scotties were introduced to America in the early 1890's but it was not until the years between World War I and World War II that the breed became popular. A club was formed in 1900 and a standard written in 1925. The Scottish Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1934.By 1936, Scotties were the third most popular breed in the United States. Although they did not permanently stay in fashion, they continue to enjoy a steady popularity with a large segment of the dog-owning public across the world.

Famous Scotties

Barney, the Scottish Terrier belonging to President George W. Bush, on the presidential stand.
Barney, the Scottish Terrier belonging to President George W. Bush, on the presidential stand.

The Scottie is the only breed of dog that has been in the White House three times. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was renowned for owning a Scottie named Fala. Fala was a gift to the President from his cousin, Margaret Stuckley. The President loved Fala so much that he rarely went anywhere without him. Roosevelt had several Scotties before Fala including one named Duffy and another one named Mr. Duffy.

More recently, President George W. Bush has become known for owning two Scottish terriers, Barney and Miss Beazley.

Other famous people who are known to have owned Scotties include: Humphrey Bogart; Bette Davis; Julie Andrews; Liza Minnelli; E.B. White; Queen Victoria; Ronald Reagan; Theodore Roosevelt; Dorothy Lamour and Shirley Temple among others.

A famous fictional Scottie is Jock from the Disney feature film Lady and the Tramp, where he acted as the retired captain with a Scottish tartan overcoat. In 1955, when the movie was originally released, Jock became one of the most popular dog names of the time. A Scottish Terrier and a Westhighland White Terrier are also featured on the Black & White whisky label.

A Scottie dog is also renowned for featuring in the popular board game, Monopoly, as a player token. When the game was first created in the 1930s Scotties were one of the most popular pets in America. It is also one of the most popular Monopoly game tokens, according to Matt Collins, vice president of marketing for Hasbro.

In May 2007, Carnegie Mellon University officially named the Scottish Terrier its official mascot. The Scottie had been a long-running unofficial mascot of the university, whose founder's Scottish heritage is also honored by the official athletic nickname of "Tartans."

Sealyham Terrier

The Sealyham Terrier is a dog breed, one of many Terrier breeds. The Sealyham Terrier originates from Wales and was bred by crossing Basset Hounds, Bull Terriers, the Fox Terrier, the West Highland White Terrier, and the Dandie Dinmont Terrier.

The Sealyham Terrier derives its name from Sealyham, Haverfordwest, Wales, the estate of Captain John Edwards, who developed a strain of dogs noted for their prowess in quarrying small game. He crossed the various breeds and tested the offspring, shooting those who did not measure up.


The Sealyham Terrier is an intelligent and charming dog, although it can be stubborn and very terrier-like at times.


The first Sealyham Terrier's club was created in 1908 and the breed was officially recognised in 1910. The Sealyham Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1919. Sealyham Terriers are today found mainly in the UK and South Africa. The Sealyham was once one of the more popular terriers and one of the best known Welsh breeds. Today, however, it is distinctly rare considered by the (British) Kennel Club as amongst the most endangered native breeds. The Corgi is without doubt the best known Welsh dog breed today.

Segugio Italiano

The Segugio Italiano is an Italian breed of dog of the scenthound family. It comes in both short-haired and wire-haired varieties. It is thought to be an ancient breed, descended in pre-Roman eras from progenitor scenthounds in ancient Egypt.

The Segugio is a square dog, whose length should be equal to its height at the withers. It is fawn-coloured or black and tan. The dogs are 20-23 inches tall at the withers and roughly 20-23 Kgs in weight. Its determination to complete a scent is similar to that of a Bloodhound but unlike the Bloodhound the segugio is also interested in the capture and kill of its victim

Seppala Siberian Sleddog

A rare working dog breed, the Seppala Siberian Sleddog is developed for the purpose of pulling a sled in cold country. It is a moderate-sized dog averaging 40 to 50 pounds (18 to 23 kg) weight and 22 or 23 inches (56 to 58 cm) height. Colours and markings are considered of little importance; eyes may be brown, blue or any combination of the two colours. Seppalas are active and energetic but very docile and trainable.

Seppalas show a primitive canine type, never having been bred or selected for beauty or for the show ring. The breed shares its ancestral base with the Siberian Husky and for half a century shared the same registry with that breed, but was bred always exclusively as a working sleddog breed in its own right and kept apart from show bloodlines. In the late 1990s, it was recognised by Canadian agricultural authorities as a new “evolving breed” and in 2002 a similar separate breed initiative was started in the USA.


Bred by the legendary dog driver Leonhard Seppala from dogs imported into Alaska from eastern Siberia, the Seppala Siberians became famous in Alaska for their domination of the All-Alaska Sweepstakes distance race in the period from 1914 to 1917. Later they became popular in New England when Seppala raced there and ran a kennel in Poland Spring, Maine.

In 1939 the last Siberia imports, along with several of Seppala’s dogs, became the breed foundation for the “Siberian Huskie” in Canada. The Canadian Seppala Kennels of Harry R. Wheeler in St. Jovite Station, Quebec, developed and bred Seppala Siberians until 1950 in genetic isolation from the developing Siberian Husky breed in the USA, which gradually became oriented more and more toward conformation dog shows. A succession of Seppala breeders kept the strain alive through the 1950s and 1960s.

In 1963, the third Seppala Kennels, run by C. S. MacLean and J. D. McFaul in Maniwaki, Quebec, closed without a successor kennel and by 1969 the unique Leonhard Seppala strain faced extinction. It was primarily saved by the timely action of two breeders: Markovo Kennels in Canada and Seppineau Kennels in the USA. The bloodline was then carried forward and developed as a serious mid-distance racing sleddog by Douglas W. Willett of Sepp-Alta Kennels in the state of Utah. The pure, original Seppala bloodlines are rare but found in small numbers in several Canadian provinces, the main population occurring in the Yukon Territory.

The Seppala Siberian Sleddog Project that was started in 1993 by the protagonists of the Markovo rescue effort won Agriculture Canada’s recognition for Seppalas in July of 1997. The fourth historic Seppala Kennels in the Yukon Territory carried the breeding forward. In July of 2002, Doug Willett undertook a similar breed initiative through the Continental Kennel Club’s registry in the USA. At present two disparate populations use the same breed name: the original Agriculture Canada recognised population in Canada, identified by the Working Canine Association of Canada and its descendants elsewhere, registered by the International Seppala Association; and the Continental Kennel Club population, which is not descended from the Canadian original. A third group of "Seppalas" is distinguished simply as an A.K.C.Siberian Husky bloodline.

Team of Seppala Siberians
Team of Seppala Siberians


Seppalas of today differ markedly from many other Siberian Husky bloodlines in physical appearance, being in general less flashily marked, longer in leg and body length, and lighter in weight and physical build than some Siberian Husky show dogs. Pure-strain Seppalas have dense, smooth coats of medium length with an undercoat nearly as long as the guard hairs. Their ears are taller, set close together and strongly erect; the "stop" of the head less well-defined than that of Siberian Huskies. The tail is held high in a sickle curve over the back when alert, never "snapped" flat to the back or curling down the flank. They tend to be more trainable than other sled dogs and to be more highly bonded to their owners. The Seppala Siberian Sleddog disposition is active, merry, and often quite inquisitive, although sometimes showing great reserve with strangers. A stable and serious temperament, neither nervous nor aggressive, is characteristic. Natural, innate sleddog mentality is a primary characteristic of Seppala dogs. Their nature is highly cooperative. They show great seriousness in their work in harness.

Many Seppalas are pure white or buff and white. Others are very dark, black, or charcoal grey with dark faces and white only on the feet and tail tip. There are many varied shades of grey, brownish grey, and blue-grey. “Sable” reds with black-tipped guard hairs and black noses occur, but the liver-nosed “copper” phase seen in other lines of Siberian Huskies is unknown in pure Seppalas. Agouti "wild type" coloration and piebald spotting are common.

Seppalas are known for their extremely smooth and well-coordinated gait and for the consistency and strength with which they pull in harness. Although they appear to the inexperienced eye to be rather small and lightly built for sleddogs, actually they are far more efficient pullers than some larger northern breeds. They are capable racing sleddogs, particularly in middistance events, although perhaps not as speedy as world-class Alaskan huskies or pointer-crossed hybrids.

Like other northern breeds, they shed their coats hugely once or twice a year, cannot safely be allowed to run free off leash, and love to hunt small game. They are generally robust and healthy, living twelve to sixteen years, usually working well in harness up to ten or eleven years of age. Health issues for the breed are those common to all northern breeds, such as allergies, cancer and eye problems. They are highly efficient in their use of food, eating relatively little but requiring very high-quality nutrition that is rich in animal protein, animal fat, and fish oil.

The defining characteristics of the breed are its natural, primitive appearance, its highly developed work ethic, and its affectionate, cooperative, and highly bonded nature.

Serbian Hound

The Serbian Hound, previously known as the Balkan Hound, is a pack hunting dog breed used in Serbia. It is red or tan with a black saddle, neck and cranium and red or tan face. Its head is flat and sloping, its muzzle pointed, with drop ears of the usual scent hound type. The Balkan Hound stands 17 to 21 inches (43-53 cm) in height and weighs about 44 pounds (20 kg). It is smooth-coated and coarse-haired. Described as pleasant natured and obedient, the breed is thought to descend from dogs left in the Balkan region by the Phoenicians in ancient times.

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