Thursday, 20 September 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 28)

Valley Bulldog

Male Valley Bulldog

The Valley Bulldog is rare breed of dog found most commonly in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is a common conception that Valley Bulldog originated in the Annapolis Valley, giving the breed the name "Valley Bulldog".


The Valley Bulldog breed can be traced back to the mid 1900s; although it is possible that it may have existed much earlier. Research has shown that several of today's breeders have produced ten to fifteen generations of pure Valley Bulldogs in their breeding programs.

The genetic origin and foundation of the Valley Bulldog was established on and incorporated the Bulldog and the Boxer. These two breeds were used to incorporate the Boxer's athletic ability and exceptional temperament and the Bulldog's courageous and unwavering spirit. Over the years type has been set and the Valley Bulldog is now a pure bred in both form and type.

The Valley Bulldog was bred as a durable, athletic, working utility dog that was used primarily for farm and ranch work. Valley Bulldogs were used to work cattle and other unruly livestock as well as protect and guard the farm or ranch and its occupants from natural predators.

All of these needs and others have lent to the development of this courageous and durable breed. It should be remembered that the Valley Bulldog of today is truly a working breed. International Olde English Bulldogge Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.

Breed standards

General Description: The perfect Valley Bulldog should be of medium height and size with a large broad head, sturdy muscular body with a thick neck of short to medium length. The Valley Bulldog possesses a broad chest and shoulder area and a thick powerful rear end. Valley Bulldogs should have an excellent temperament and can be quite intelligent. The temperament is to be very stable and trustworthy. Their disposition should be outgoing, playful yet protective when needed.

Head: Large and broad, deeply sunken between the eyes (medial furrow). The circumference of the head should be equal to or greater than the dog's height at the shoulder. Fault: Head too small.

Muzzle: Broad, deep and of medium to short in length. The bite is undershot. Fault: Muzzle too long (more than 3 inches), scissor or even bite.

Eyes: Wide apart and of moderate size. Any color is acceptable. Fault: Completely white / pink rims.

Nose: From the stop to the end of the nose must be at least an inch. Fault: Completely pink nose (a small amount is acceptable).

Neck: Short to Medium in length. Should be thick and muscular.

Chest: Ribs should be well sprung (rounded) and the chest wide and deep. Fault: Too narrow in the chest.

Back: Medium length with a slight rise from the shoulders to the rump (level back is just as acceptable).

Legs: Forelegs should be stout and wide apart, neither bowing out or turning in. Fault: Bowing or turned out resulting in poor movement.

Feet: Round and the pasterns should be strong. Fault: Down in the pasterns or splayed feet.

Height: Males - 15 to 18 inches at the shoulder. Females - 14 to 18 inches at the shoulder.

Weight: Between 45 to 70 lbs. No penalty for dogs above the standard weight as long as the dog is well proportioned.

Color: Various brindles with or without white, white (solid white not preferred), tan, fawn or red. The coat should be short and smooth.

Ears: Short either button or rose.

Tail: Down to hock naturally or screwed. May be docked, of no major importance. International Olde English Bulldogge Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.


Female Valley Bulldog

Female Valley Bulldog

The Valley Bulldog is a loyal and intelligent companion. They desire to be close to their owner at all times and will enjoy intense playtime or rest and relaxation with their owners. Valleys are great companions for the entire family and take very well to small children. Occasionally, you may find a Valley Bulldog that has inherited the Boxer's tendency to be rough at play and may also be quite a jumper. This is a rare occurrence, but should be noted for those owners with small children.


The incorporation of the Boxer with the Bulldog corrected most of the health problems associated with the Bulldog. However, they may suffer from minor breathing problems if their snubbed snout restricts air. In these cases, they should be monitored in hot weather to prevent heat stroke. Valley Bulldogs may be susceptible to minor skin irritations during adolescent stages of growth. The skin irritations are easily corrected and most often disappear once the dog has reached full maturity. They breed and whelp their own litters without any intervention.

Photo gallery

Vizsla / Hungarian Vizsla

The Hungarian Vizsla, pronounced VEEZH-la (zh as in vision), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. Vizslas are known as excellent hunting dogs, and also have a level personality making them suited for families. The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla was created by cross-breeding the Hungarian Shorthaired Vizsla with the German Wirehaired Pointer during the 1930s.


General appearance

A three-month-old Wire-haired puppy

A three-month-old Wire-haired puppy

The Vizsla is a medium-sized hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built; They are lean dogs, and have defined muscles, and are similar to a Weimaraner. The tail is normally docked to two-thirds or one quarter of the original length.

Colour and coats

The coat of both varieties is a golden-rust color. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color, russet gold and dark sandy gold. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the toes are permissible but undesirable.

In the wirehaired variety the coat is wiry, close-lying, strong, and dense. ¾ of an inch to 1¼ inch (2-3 cm) in length with a dense, water-repellent undercoat. The outline of the body is not to be hidden by the longer coat. Pronounced eyebrows along with a strong, harsh beard, ¾ of an inch to 1¼ inch (2-3 cm) long on both sides of the muzzle reinforce the determined expression. The coat should never be long, soft, silky, shaggy, crinkle, woolly, thin, lacking undercoat or lacking brushes on the legs.


The Vizsla is a medium-sized dog, and fanciers feel that large dogs are undesirable. Wirehaired Vizslas are normally slightly taller than smoothhaired Vizslas. The average height and weight:

  • Males
  • Females
    • Height: 21 - 24 in. (53 - 61 cm)
    • Weight: 40 - 55 lb (18 - 25 kg)


A four-month-old Wire-haired Vizsla retrieving a stick

A four-month-old Wire-haired Vizsla retrieving a stick

Vizslas are lively, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked.

They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training (American Breed Standard, AKC). Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly (Gottlieb, 1992). Vizslas are excellent swimmers and often swim in pools if one is available. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy. Thirty minutes to an hour of exercise daily in a large off-leash area is optimal (Coffman 1992).

The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas that do not get enough attention and exercise can easily become destructive or hyperactive. Under-stimulated Vizslas may also become depressed or engage in obsessive-compulsive behaviours such as persistent licking (Coffman 1992). Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children.

The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners if allowed, burrowing under the covers. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed five or six times a year, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish. Lack of undercoat also means Vizslas are hypoallergenic .


Smooth-haired history

Two Smooth-haired Vizslas

Two Smooth-haired Vizslas

The origin of the Vizsla can be traced back to very early times in Hungarian history. Ancestors of today's Vizsla were the toy dogs used by the Magyar tribes living in the Carpathian Basin from the 9th century on. They were widely used for hunting rats.

The first written reference to Vizsla dog breed has been recorded in the Illustrated Vienna Chronicle prepared on order of King Lajos the Great (Louis the Great) by the Carmelite Friars in 1357 (Boggs, 2000:17).

Vizslas faced and survived several near-extinctions in their history, including being overrun by English Pointers and German Shorthair Pointers in the 1800s (Boggs, 2000:19) and again to near-extinction after World War II (Boggs, 2000:21).

The Vizsla was used in development of other breeds, most notably the Weimaraner and German Shorthair Pointer breeds (Boggs, 2000:18). There is much conjecture about those same breeds, along with other pointer breeds, being used to reestablish the Vizsla breed at the end of 19th century. (Boggs, 2000:19). In either case the striking resemblance between the three breeds is indisputable.

Wirehaired history

The Wirehaired Vizsla is a separate breed from its common smooth-coated cousin. The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla was created in the 1930s by the interbreeding of the Vizsla and the German Wirehaired Pointer to get a dog with a heavier coat, suitable for working in the colder weather. The Wirehaired Vizsla is recognized by the FCI, CKC, UKC, and the KC (UK). Currently there are fewer than 400 Wirehaired Vizslas in the United States.

Common Illnesses

Although the Vizsla is not generally considered as a sickly dog, breeding from a small number of dogs has led to heritable illnesses in some offspring, including:

  • dysphagia-megaoesophagus (difficulty swallowing, drooling and muscle wasting)
  • hip dysplasia
  • hypothyroidism
  • sebaceous adenitis
  • digestive problems (including intolerance to certain foods or food allergies)
  • eye conditions such as:
    • ectropion (loose eyelids which give the look of "droopy eyes")
    • entropion (where the hairy skin around the eye rubs against the eye)
  • idiopathic epilepsy is becoming more common in this breed (Gottlieb 2002)

Responsible breeders do not select dogs for breeding if they have such inherent problems.

Vizsla in the U.K.

Approximately 1,000 Vizsla puppies are registered with the Kennel Club of Great Britain (KC) each year, making the breed one of the top 50 most popular. The number is steadily rising year on year as more people recognise the breed. At least two breed clubs for the Vizsla exist in Britain.

Vizsla in the U.S.

A Wirehaired Vizsla pup

A Wirehaired Vizsla pup

Frank J. Tallman and Emmett A. Scanlan imported Vizsla Sari as the first Vizsla in the United States of America.

Sari and her two pups (Tito and Shasta) were delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York from Rome on October 7, 1950. (Boggs, 2000:23). Sari was later bred with Vizsla Rex. The male Vizsla Rex del Gelsimino, born 8/1/49, was purchased for $75 in food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies thanks to an Belgrade's US Embassy employee M.M. Yevdjovich who provided the direct connection to the owner in Stapar, Serbia to Tallman's representative Harry R. Stritman. Rex understood German and Hungarian commands and the claim has been made of history dating back to 1730 although never verified through a Serbian dog book in Yugoslavia.

Rex was delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York via Brussels from Belgrade on June 12, 1951. (Boggs, 2000:26) There is a bit of controversy about Rex's official breeder, verbatim from (Boggs, 2000:26): "The Yugoslavia Kennel Club offered to give temporary registration to Vizslas at a local dog show so as to register future blood lines since many of the dogs in Yugoslavia and behind the Iron Curtain were pure bred, but without registration papers."

The American Kennel Club recognized Vizsla as the 115th breed on November 25, 1960.

Volpino Italiano

A Volpino Italiano is a white, spitz-type breed of dog originally from Italy, and modern Switzerland.


Spitz-type dogs were found throughout the ancient world. Specimens from this group have been found preserved in European peat bogs which anthropologists trace to 4000 BC. The remains—with curly tails, foxy heads, and small erect ears—have been found dating back over 5,000 years. These little pets wore decorative ivory bracelets and collars. Engravings of similar dogs were found in Greece, and these have been determined to date to about 400 BC.

The Volpino has been known and loved by Italian royalty for centuries, being a special favorite of the ladies. Although bearing a strong resemblance to the Pomeranian, the breed is much older and thus has a different background. The northern dogs found their way south very early in the history of domesticated dogs. The Italian word for wolf is lupo, and the Keeshond is called both Lupino and Volpino in Italian. Volpe is Italian for "fox", hence volpino means little fox in Italian. Despite his long history, the Volpino is unknown outside of Italy and is now quite rare even in his homeland.

Despite its small size, this dog was originally kept as a guard dog. Its job was to alert the large mastiffs to an intruder. However, due to their lovely temperament and intelligence they also became popular as pets. For unknown reasons the breed's popularity dropped and in 1965 the last dogs were registered. In 1984 an attempt was made to revive the breed. The dogs still living as guard dogs on farms became the new breeding stock. Volpinos remain rare with about 2000 dogs world wide. Most are in Italy but some people are now breeding them in Scandinavia, the UK and the USA. A 2006 survey of kennel clubs found an average of 120 puppies registered each year in Italy (with ENCI) and a total of 200-300 registered each in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Fewer than one dozen were registered in the USA with UKC and CKC.

Vorsteh /
German Shorthaired Pointer

The German Shorthaired Pointer is a breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Germany for hunting. This gun dog was developed by crossing the old Spanish pointer with a number of other breeds and breed types including scent hounds, tracking hounds, French Braques, and English Pointer to create a lean, athletic, and responsive all around hunting dog. Some authorities consider it to be the most versatile of all gun dogs and its intelligence and affectionate nature make it a popular companion dog for active owners.


The breed is streamlined in build yet powerful with strong hindquarters that make it able to move rapidly and turn quickly. It has moderately long flop ears set high on the head. Its muzzle is long, broad, and strong, allowing it to retrieve even heavy furred game. Its profile should be straight or strongly Roman-nosed; any dished appearance to the profile (such as seen in the Pointer) is incorrect. The eyes are generally brown, with darker eyes being desirable; yellow or "bird of prey" eyes are a fault. The tail is commonly docked, although this is now prohibited in some countries. Docking is performed different than it is done in other dog breeds, where only the part after where the caudal vertebrae start to curl are docked, leaving enough to let the dog communicate through tail wagging and movement. Like all German Pointers, they have webbed feet.

Coat and color

The German Shorthaired Pointer's coat is short and flat. It should have a dense undercoat protected by stiff guard hairs that makes the coat water resistant and better suited to cold weather than that of the English Pointer for example. The color can be a dark brown, correctly referred to in English as liver (incorrectly called chocolate or chestnut), black (although any area of black is cause for disqualification in American Kennel Club sanctioned shows), or either color with white. Commonly the head is a solid or nearly solid color and the body is speckled or ticked with liver and white, sometimes with saddles or large patches of solid color. Roan coats are also common, with or without patching. While the German standard permits a slight sandy coloring ("Gelber Brand") at the extremities, this is extremely rare, and a dog displaying any yellow coloring is disqualified in AKC and CKC shows.


Various breed standards set its height at the withers anywhere between 21 and 25 inches, making this a medium breed. Adults typically weigh from 45 to 70 lbs (22 to 32 kg), with the female being usually slightly shorter and lighter than the male.


Since the German shorthaired pointer was developed to be a dog suited to family life and as well as a versatile hunter, the correct temperament is that of an intelligent, bold, and characteristically affectionate dog that is cooperative and easily trained. Shyness, fearfulness, over submissiveness, aloofness, lack of biddability, or aggression (especially toward humans) are all incorrect traits. It is usually very good with children, although care should be taken because the breed can be boisterous especially when young. These dogs love interaction with humans and appreciate active families who will give them an outlet for their energy. Most German Shorthaired Pointers make excellent watchdogs. The breed generally gets along well with other dogs. A strong hunting instinct is correct for the breed, which is not always good for other small pets such as cats or rabbits. With some training, however, it is not unusual for this highly intelligent breed to quickly discern what is prey and what is not, and they can live quite amicably with housecats and the like.

The German Shorthaired Pointer needs plenty of vigorous activity. This need for exercise (preferably off lead) coupled with the breed's natural instinct to hunt, means that training is an absolute necessity. The German shorthaired pointer's distinctly independent character and superior intelligence makes this breed best suited to experienced owners who are confident and capable handlers.

Lack of sufficient exercise and/or proper training can produce a German Shorthaired Pointer that appears hyperactive or that has destructive tendencies. Thus the breed is not a suitable pet for an inactive home or for inexperienced dog owners. The most common cause of death for German Shorthaired Pointers is being hit by a car. Although these dogs form very strong attachments with their owners, a dog that receives insufficient exercise may feel compelled to exercise himself. These dogs can escape from four foot and sometimes six foot enclosures with little difficulty. Regular hunting, running, carting, bikejoring, skijoring, mushing,dog scootering or other vigorous activity can alleviate this desire to escape. Its natural instinct to hunt may result in occasional dead strays, such as cats, rats, pigeons and other urban animals, if not taken to hunting trips often or if not taught to distinguish among what is prey and what is not.

Like the other German Pointers (the German Wirehaired Pointer and the less well known German Longhaired Pointer), this is one of the few hunting breeds that can perform virtually all gundog roles. It is pointer and retriever, an upland bird dog and water dog, can be used for hunting larger and more dangerous game, and in addition has a scent hound's talented nose. It is an excellent swimmer but also works well in rough terrain. It is tenacious, tireless, hardy, and reliable. In short, it is a superb all-around field dog that remains popular with hunters of many nationalities.

This is an intelligent and highly trainable breed. Like the other versatile breeds, the German shorthaired pointer was developed to be comparatively independent and thoroughly capable of working out of sight of its handler. This independence can lead to the dog appearing to have a mind of its own, and so this breed especially requires training to ensure that it understands that the owner is in charge. The dog may, at times, instinctually claim to be the owner of the hunt. Along with its superb hunting ability and companionable personality, its superior intelligence and biddability (trainability) continue to make this one of the more popular large breeds.

During hunting sessions, a completely instinctive scent-hiding activity through rubbing against carrion can be observed.


The Shorthaired Pointer is generally a healthy breed. Epilpetic seizures have been a problem in some lines, and a few individuals may suffer from hip dysplasia, genetic eye diseases, skin disorders and cancerous lesions in the mouth, on the skin and other areas of the body. Most German Shorthaired Pointers are tough, healthy dogs, but according to Margo B. Maloney DVM (NAVHDA Versatile Hunting Dog Magazine, April, 2003) the breed can be subject to a number of hereditary disorders just as any other purebred.

Unexplained swelling and growth of the nipples by age in males, if not sensitive to the touch, are considered normal in this breed and is fairly common. Although a biopsy can reveal more, a simple check by any veterinarian is sufficient. Occasional bleeding may suggest infection or cancer.

As with any other hunting dog, contact with game can cause the spread of fungi that can easily colonise in the gums and bacteria which can cause infections on open wounds and small cuts from scratching against plants and bushes during a regular hunting session.


Its short coat needs very little grooming, just occasional brushing. The dog should be bathed only when needed.

Like all dogs with flop ears, it can be prone to ear infections and its ears require regular checking and cleaning. It has a longer life expectancy than many breeds of this size, commonly living 12 to 14 years, with individual dogs living to 16 to 18 years not uncommon.

As it is a large, active breed, it can require considerable food; however, it can also become obese if too much food is given for its activity level. A healthy weight should permit the last two ribs to be felt under the coat, and the dog should have a distinct waist or "tuck-up".

Due to its short coat, body heat management is easier compared to other breeds. However, the breed-specific high levels of activity require the breed to drink considerable amounts of water to prevent dehydration. Early symptoms of dehydration show itself as thick saliva and urine with an excessively strong and distinct smell.


The German Shorthaired Pointer is descended from the old Spanish Pointer, which was taken to Germany in the 1600s. From that time until the first studbook was created in 1870, however, it is impossible to identify all of the dogs that went into creating this breed. Most-likely candidates for its ancestors include local German breeds such as other hunting dogs, the schweisshund, an early German tracking hound, the Foxhound, various French hounds, assorted Scandinavian breeds, the German Bird Dog, and the Italian Pointer. It is generally accepted that no Bloodhound was used as foundation material. In the late 1800s, breeders included the English Pointer to the foundational breeding program, adding style and run to round out the breed's all-around versatility as a hunting dog. Prince Albrecht zu Solms-Braunfeld of the Royal House of Hanover was credited with encouraging breeders to select early specimens on the basis of function rather than form. It is believed that this enlightened guidance was instrumental in making the breed what it is today.

Modern breeds similar in form and function (but not in color) to the German Shorthaired Pointer include the copper-russet Viszla and the silver-beige or blue-black Weimaraners.

In art and literature

Robert B. Parker's most popular mystery series features a Boston detective known only as Spenser who has had a series of three solid-liver German Shorthairs, all named Pearl: one who stood with him during a bear charge in his rural youth; one given to his girlfriend by her ex-husband; and the third Pearl, to keep company with Spenser and his girlfriend in their late middle age. Author Parker appears on many of the Spenser dustjackets with a solid-liver GSP bitch identical to the three incarnations of Pearl in the series.

Rick Bass's ruminations on living and hunting with a German Shorthaired Pointer in Montana can be found in the book Colter: The True Story of the Best Dog I Ever Had.

Sportswriter Mel Wallis' memoir Run, Rainey, Run, explores the extraordinary relationship he had with an extremely intelligent and versatile hunting German Shorthaired Pointer.

The logo of the American Kennel Club is a Pointer, not a German Shorthaired Pointer, though frequently mistaken for the latter.

Simon the Pointer by Joan Brown captures the personality of pointing dogs, however, this book is about an English Pointer, not a German Shorthaired Pointer.

List of Dog breeds (Page 27)


The Utonagan is a dog breed (Canis lupus familiaris) that is under development using a procedure called breeding back. The Utonagan strongly resembles a wolf.


The Utonagan is large and well-muscled but with a slender build so as to resemble a wolf as closely as possible. Adult males weigh around 70-110 lb and stand 25"-33" to the shoulder. Adult females are approximately 20lb lighter at between 55-90 lb and stand 24"-26" to the shoulder.

The breed has a thick double coat that appears quite different in winter and summer. The guard hair is straight and slightly coarse to the touch. The pelage can be silver grey, cream, or brown with black overlay and a characteristic wolf mask. It also comes in all white and all black.


They do not eat as much as many other large breeds but are prone to obesity and bloating if overfed.

Some have thick coats that keep them warm in cool conditions but they have great difficulty staying cool in summer. This becomes a problem when walking the dog during hot weather, so owners must be careful not to overexercise the dog and to keep water available when playing.

Utonagan can live up to 10-14 years of age.


The name Utonagan was taken from a Chinook tale and interpreted as "Spirit of the Wolf".

The original dogs were bred by Edwina Harrison, who would often advertise them as wolf dogs. See link to article in external links. Buck, the founding father, looked like a husky. His more wolf-like pups were prized for breeding.

The breed now known as The Utonagan and the breed known as the Northern Inuit shared some common ancestors early in their history. The two breed societies initially both used the same breed name. The Utonagan Society developed its lines by returning to stock from the conceptual breeder, as such the Utonagan and Northern Inuit are therefore now two separate breeds. The breed consist of only three breeds of domestic dog: Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd, and Siberian Husky.

The Utonagan was originally selectively bred from the Malamute, Husky and German Shepherd. The aim being to create a dog that resembles the Wolf as closely as possible by breeding back.

The development of the Utonagan is well under way in Britain with registration and records being held. All breeding stock must be KC/BVA eye tested and Hip Scored

These dogs have been bred in Britain for approximately fifteen years, but only recently has the breed been known as the Utonagan. Although initially record keeping was poor (the breed being at an experimental stage) This has now been rectified with official records being kept by the Utonagan Society of all pedigrees and registrations over the last year or so.

Tuesday, 18 September 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 26)Technorati Profile

Tahltan Bear Dog

The Tahltan Bear Dog was a breed of dog that was indigenous to Canada. It is thought to be extinct by most authorities.


The Tahltan was built somewhere between the lines of the spitz and pariah types. The ideal dog was, above all else, athletic and agile

As they were always bred solely for hunting value, appearance could vary significantly between dogs.

Coat and colour

Its coat was short, thick, and hard in texture. The colours varied greatly, but the most common colour was black with white markings (pictured).

Like others of their group, they had a peculiar yodel. Foxy in appearance, their main distinction among dogs is their novel tail. Short, bushy and carried erect, it has been described variously as a shaving brush or a whisk broom.


Raised by the Tahltan Indians to hunt bear, the Tahltan Bear Dog was a mighty power in a small package. Before a hunt, the dogs were ceremonially bled by stabbing them in the hindquarters with the fibula bone of a fox or wolf. The morning of the hunt, two dogs were carried in a sack over the Indian's shoulder until fresh bear tracks were sighted. Upon release, these little dogs moved lightly over the crust of snow while the bear was slowed down by the deep drifts. Their fox-like staccato yaps harassed the bear into submission or confused him until the Indians could come close enough for a kill. To prepare for a foray against big cats, a claw from a dead lynx was used to ceremonially mark the dog's face.

The Tahltan Bear Dog had the courage to face a bear, but was friendly and gentle with smaller animals and with humans. They lived in the tent with the family, sharing bed and board. A Jesuit of the 17th century described the Indians' communal houses in winter, saying he "could not decide which was worse — the smoke, the fleas or the dogs."

Descended from pariah-type dogs that had come with prehistoric migrations, the Tahltan Dogs were centralized in the remote mountainous areas of northwestern British Columbia and the southern Yukon. Their usual diet was small bits of birds, meat and fish, and they flourished in the bitter cold. Outside their native environment, they succumbed to distemper, heat prostration and problems due to dietary changes. As white explorers came into the territory, bringing a variety of other dogs, the Tahltan Dog became diluted.

Formosan Mountain Dog

The Formosan Mountain Dog, commonly referred to as simply Formosan, and also known as Taiwan Dog (Traditional Chinese: 臺灣犬) or Taiwan Native Dog (Traditional Chinese: 臺灣土狗) is a breed of dog indigenous to Taiwan. Formosans are further classified into Taiya, Bunon, and Plain based on various physical characteristics.Originally kept by aboriginal Taiwanese as hunting dogs, purebred Formosans are extremely rare, so much so that one dog breeder in Taiwan named Chen Ming-nan spent 10 years to find four dogs suitable for breeding.

Chen owned a Formosan as a child, and in the 1980s he established a business dedicated to creating a pure-bred Formosan, beginning with a single puppy that he purchased for NT$30,000 (about US$1,000) from an aborigine man. Characteristics include medium size, firm jaw strength, and triangular face, with upright or semi-folded ears. The tail is upright or curved with a thick coat, but the belly is hairless; the tail is used to warm the belly, and may even be long enough to protect the snout from insects. According to Chen, there is no shortage of stray dogs in Taiwan that could be mistaken for a pureblood Formosan, but purebloods tend to have a strong sense of direction, smell, sight, and hearing.

Of the purebloods that Chen found, blood tests showed that they were related to dogs found in Southern Japan and that they were descendants of the South Asian Hunting Dog. Little known outside of Taiwan, Formosans are recognized with a pedigree from the Taiwan Kennel Club and the International Canine Organization. They are well adapted to the uneven and thickly forested terrain of Taiwan, having become a semi-wild breed prior to the arrival of human Dutch settlers. Notwithstanding these adaptations, Formosans retained the potential to be trained, and are now used as hunting dogs, as guard dogs, as stunt dogs, or simply as companions.

Tenterfield Terrier

The Tenterfield Terrier is a small, lightweight terrier akin to Miniature Fox Terriers, and Rat Terriers. The Tenterfield Terrier has English origins but, like dog breeds such as the Miniature Fox Terrier, the Australian Terrier, the Silky Terrier, and the Australian Cattle Dog, was developed uniquely in Australia.


Breed Origin

As is so often the case, the origins of the breed are somewhat obscure. It is generally believed that smaller puppies from the litters of Fox Terriers were crossed with the progeny of other small breeds. Certainly, by the late 1800s a dog type known as the Little Foxie or the Miniature Fox Terrier (known colloquially as ‘Mini Foxies’) was well established in rural Australia. By the 1920s the dog was a fixture in urban households as well.

The name ‘Tenterfield’ is sometimes incorrectly stated to denote the terrier’s place of origin as Tenterfield, New South Wales. Rather, Tenterfield is only one of many Australian towns and villages in which small dogs of this type were known to exist. The town of Tenterfield is significant in Australian history, and the best-known owner of its saddlery was a man named George Woolnough, who was immortalized by his grandson, entertainer Peter Allen, as the “Tenterfield Saddler”. Mr. Woolnough owned a number of small dogs; however, photographs of these dogs are not available.

The name Tenterfield Terrier was suggested in the 1990s by Don Burke, a television personality of the era, and was adopted by the South Australian Miniature Fox Terrier club.

Breed Development

In 1991 a group of enthusiasts from the state of South Australia formed the autonomous Miniature Fox Terrier Club of South Australia, separate to the Miniature Fox Terrier Club of Australia, which had been operating for some time. In 1992 they met with owners from other states to discuss the future of the Clubs. At that time, it became evident that there were differences as to the preferred type of dog that would represent the Miniature Fox Terrier breed. Further, challenges to the name “Miniature Fox Terrier” were being mounted, and threatened to preclude recognition by an All-Breed club, which was a priority among some breeders. In 1993 fanciers from South Australia and other states formed the Tenterfield Terrier Club of Australia. The breed standard of the Tenterfield Terrier differs from that of the Miniature Fox Terrier, and although they are sometimes confused, the two dogs have been developing along divergent lines for over twenty years and are now separate breeds.

The tireless efforts of Tenterfield Terrier owners were rewarded in 2002 when the Tenterfield Terrier was recognized by the Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) and placed in Group 2, Terriers.

The Tenterfield Terrier Today

As of 2004, the Tenterfield Terrier is a breed under development. There is still variation in the types of dog seen in the show ring from state to state. These differences are small and of little interest to the average dog owner. For breeders and fanciers, however, foot shape, ear shape, colour, and other conformation points have the capacity to change the future look of a breed, and are of the utmost importance. Like the breeders of all other dogs, Tenterfield Terrier breeders work to improve their breeding lines and to assure standardization of type.

Belgian Shepherd Dog (Tervuren)

The Tervuren (sometimes spelled Tervueren, IPA pronunciation: [tʌɹˈvʊɹɛn]), is a member of the Belgian Shepherd Dog family of dog breeds. Its classification varies, being classified under some breed standards as a breed in its own right, and in others as one of several acceptable varations of the Belgian. It is usually listed within breed standards under one or other, or a combination, of these names.


In the United States, the AKC recognizes it under the name Belgian Tervuren. In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club recognizes the Tervuren as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog (prior to 2005, Belgian Shepherd Dogs were called Belgian Sheepdogs).


Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Tervuren is a medium-sized, square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family. Males stand between 24 and 26 inches, and weigh approximately 65 lb. Females are finer and smaller. It is recognized by its thick double coat, generally mahogany with varying degrees of black overlay, including a black mask. A small patch of white on the chest is permissible, as well as white tips on toes. The Tervuren may also be sable or grey, but this may be penalized in the show ring in some countries according to the standard of the registering body.


A Tervuren in an agility competition

A Tervuren in an agility competition

Tervurens are highly energetic, intelligent dogs who require a job to keep them occupied. This can be herding, obedience, agility, flyball, tracking, or protection work. They are also found working as Search and Rescue (SAR) dogs, finding missing persons and avalanche victims.

As companion animals, Tervurens are loyal and form strong bonds with their family, leading some to be aloof with strangers. They are good watch dogs, being very observant and attentive to the slightest change in their environment. Some can be nervous, depending on breeding and early experiences, so care must be taken to adequately socialize Tervuren puppies to a wide variety of people and situations.

Tervuren at 7 months

Tervuren at 7 months

As with all the Belgian Shepherd Dogs, Tervuerens are not generally recommended to first-time dog owners due to their high maintenance level.

Adult males are distinctly masculine and females are likewise feminine. Their appearance projects alertness and elegance. The breed is known for its loyalty and versatility. Those who own them are completely charmed by their intelligence, trainability, and, perhaps most of all, their sense of humor. They excel in many kinds of activities. Today the breed is still relatively rare in the United States, but it is well-established.


See Health Section of Belgian Shepherd Dog for more information.


The Tervuren has a thick, double coat similar to the Groenendael. Regular brushing is necessary to remove loose undercoat, but in general, the fur is not prone to matting. A properly textured Tervuren coat is slightly hard, laying flat against the body (unlike, for instance, the Samoyed's off-standing fur). It naturally sheds dirt and debris, but burrs and seeds may stick to the feathering on the legs.

The Tervuren is shown in a natural state, with minimal trimming and cosmetic products. Bathing, brushing, and trimming the fur on the feet with scissors to emphasize their tight, cat-footed shape is the extent of most exhibitors' grooming routines. Products that alter the coloration of the coat are not allowed in the ring.

Tatra Shepherd Dog /
Polish Tatra Sheepdog

The Polish Tatra Sheepdog is a breed of dog introduced into the Tatra Mountain region of Southern Poland by Wallachian shepherds, probably in the 14th Century, and used to guard and herd sheep.

The Tatras are large (100-150 pounds) white dogs with heavy dense fur. These dogs are very similar in appearance and temperament to the Pyrenean Mountain Dog and the Hungarian Kuvasz.

A Polish Tatra Sheepdog (tentative identification)

A Polish Tatra Sheepdog (tentative identification)

Thai Bangkaew Dog

The Thai Bangkaew Dog is an Asian dog breed. It is a medium-sized Spitz-type dog.


The Thai Bangkaew Dog is compactly built and square in profile. It is well proportioned, with a smooth gait. The double coat consists of a short undercoat, with longer guard hairs growing through it forming the outer coat. The coat is thicker and longer around the neck, chest, and back forming a lion-like ruff, which is more noticeable on dogs than on bitches. The plumed tail is carried with moderate upward curve over the back. The TBD comes in white with shades of red, gray, brown, and black in a wide variety of patterns. The breed has the cutest puppies!


Thai Bangkaew Dogs are alert and watchful, protective of home and family. Bangkaew are devoted to their masters but can be aloof with strangers. Agile and active, they are strong swimmers and voracious diggers. They are highly intelligent but can be stubborn and benefit from training. Positive reinforcement methods work best with this breed. It has been said that these dogs are mixed from a wolf, a fox and a normal house dog or a lab.


Bangkaew is a village located in the Bang Rakam District, Phitsanulok Province in the central region of Thailand. In this district, near the Yom River, there is a monastery called Wat Bangkaew where it is believed that Thai Bangkaew Dogs originated.

Legend has it that the third abbot of Wat Bangkaew Temple, the respected Luang Puh Maak Metharee, was known for mercy and care given to all living things. An old Bangkaew villager named Tah Nim gave the abbot a native bitch. Because she was pregnant, her mating was though to be a jackal; the resulting litter produced longhaired puppies of black and dark brown coloration. Luang Puh Maak Metharee raised the resulting puppies, four females.

Since the hybrid between dog and jackal has been reported to be sterile, it is more likely that the abbot's dogs mated with a long coat herding dog belonging to the Mong hilltribe from the neighbouring village of Huay Chan. The Mong's dog is the only local breed that carries a hair fur. Local residents of the houseboats along the Yom River took these dogs as their pets.

Seasonal rain produced flooding, a natural barrier that excluded other dogs from contributing to the gene pool. The inbreedings that took place led to the creation of the purebred Thai Bangkaew Dogs. From then on the breed has been selectively bred and has become one of the most favored varieties of Thai dogs.

Thai Ridgeback

The Thai Ridgeback is an ancient breed of dog. The breed was formerly unknown outside of Thailand, but is gaining notice in the western world. The breed is still very rare outside of Thailand . The Thai Ridgeback is one of only three breeds that has a ridge of hair that runs along its back in the opposite direction to the rest of the coat. They are also known as a TRD or Mah Thai Lang Ahn.


The Thai Ridgeback is a muscular, medium-sized pariah-type dog with a wedge-shaped head, triangular-shaped prick ears, and a short, smooth coat. It has a pronounced ridge on its back from behind the withers to the hips. Thai Ridgebacks have muscular thighs and a streamlined body, making them extremely agile. The sickle tail is carried upward. It's forehead wrinkles with enormous expression. The tongue can be black or have black marks. Eyes are dark and almond-shaped. The ears are set low and point slightly outward, and have never been cropped. The back is straight and level. The coat is short, hard, and straight and must be solid colors of blue, black, red/flawn,or beige for show ring. However, brindle and white are also natural found. For international show and competition, shoulder height should be 22-24 inches (56-61 cm) in males and 20-22 inches (51-56 cm) in females. The weight should be 51-75 pounds in both genders.

Eight distinctive ridge patterns have been identified: needle, feather, arrow, lute, violin, bowling pin, leaf, and saddleback. All patterns are acceptable, but must be clearly defined and symmetrical. The broader the ridge, the higher is the value.


The origin of the Thai Ridgeback is undocumented, but the breed was developed in eastern Thailand. The history of the breed is the subject of numerous hypotheses. It is generally considered a Pariah-type dating back to ancient times. The Thai Ridgeback may have mutated from another form of Thai dog which has similar appearance but with no ridge on the back. Rock art indicated that Thai dogs had accompanied a hunter since the new stone age of the country (over 2,000 years ago). Due to the isolation of Thai villages in the past, the breed had been inbred within the village for centuries. As a result, the appearance of the breed is quite uniform. Most lethal traits had been discarded through several generations of natural selection. The breed has a low level of inbreeding depression. The relationship between the Thai Ridgeback and the Rhodesian Ridgeback is uncertain, but possibly through Hottentot Dog or Ari Dog. There is no scientific proof that they are related.

The third existing breed of ridgeback dogs is the Phu Quoc Dog of Vietnam, which is somewhat smaller than the Thai Ridgeback. Based on genetic-based hypothesis, both Thai Ridgeback Dog and Phu Quoc Dog are likely to be descended from Funan Ridgeback Dog which originated over 1,000 years ago in Funan Era of the region. The Hottentot Dog or Ari Dog (as called by the tribe), a known African ridgeback ancestor of the Rhodesian Ridgeback, is now extinct. Its link to the Funan Ridgeback Dog is very likely in a historian opinion. The possible genetic connection among the three remaining breeds is being investigated through DNA studies.


The ridgeback is under a control of two groups of epistatic genes. The first determines the existence of the ridge. The other determines the size of the ridge, from none to very large (down to the side). For the latter, the more the genes in the dog,the broader is the ridge. The ridge will appear only if there are at less one dominant alleles in both groups.

Coat color is also under a control of two groups of epistatic genes. The first determines the color of the coat if it should be black, brindle, red/flawn or white. The series of dominance is black to brindle to red/flawn to white. The intensity of the coat color is under control; of a set of modifying genes. The other group control the dilution of the colors. Black can be dilute to gray/silver/blue, and Red/frawn will turn beige. The normal color is dominance over the diluted.


Thai Ridgebacks are an intelligent breed. Due to isolation and lack of human contact, the Thai Ridgeback remains an independent and largely undomesticated breed. They are naturally protective of their home and family and can be aggressive with other dogs, as well as people. They are best kept by dominant owners who have a thorough understanding of dog behavior and aggression. Due to its largely undomesticated nature, the Thai Ridgeback is not recommended for the novice dog handler. They have an excellent jumping ability.


Inbreeding depression has not observed in the breed due to its small domesticated population for several generations in the past. Thai Ridgeback Dogs are prone to dermoid sinus. Modern line of Thai Ridgeback, resulting from interpopulation crosses, may also be prone to hip dysplasia and other genetic disorders. Thai Ridgebacks are very loyal to their master. They love attention. If they are treated well and trained well they are not aggressive towards people.

Teddy Roosevelt Terrier

The Teddy Roosevelt Terrier is a North American dog breed recognized by the United Kennel Club. It is a terrier formerly known as a Type B or Short Legged Rat Terrier. Several independent organizations maintain Type B Rat Terrier registries and it is common to see the terms Type B Rat Terrier and Teddy Roosevelt Terrier applied to the same general dog type.

When the types were separated, the new breed was named in honor of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt as it is believed that he owned this type of ratting terrier.

Theodore Roosevelt's family, with terrier. White House Historical Association

Theodore Roosevelt's family, with terrier.
White House Historical Association


The Teddy Roosevelt Terrier is a sturdy dog in the preferred length-to-height ratio of 10:7 or 10:8. It comes in a variety of colours and markings but must have some white; a solid white dog is acceptable. Merles and any solid coloured coat other than white are disqualified. A square or long-legged dog is disqualified. The dog has a broad wedge-shaped head, v-shaped ears button or erect, slightly oval feet, and a docked tail is preferred. A scissor bite is preferred but a level bite is acceptable.

The breed standard specifies that the dog is to be evaluated as a working terrier and hence ‘honorable scars’ (those received in the field) are not to be penalized.

Tibetan Lhasa Apso

The Lhasa Apso is a small breed of dog originally from Tibet.


Lhasas are about 10 to 11 inches at the withers and weigh about 14-18 pounds. The females are slightly smaller, and weigh between 12-14lbs. The breed standard requires dark brown eyes and a black nose. Texture of the coat is heavy, straight, hard, not woolly nor silky, and very dense. A Lhasa's coat should be of good length. All colors are equally acceptable, with or without dark tips to ears and beard. The tail should be carried in a tight screw over the back. The breed standard currently used by the American Kennel Club was approved July 11, 1978.


Having been bred to be sentinel or watch dogs, Lhasa Apsos tend to be alert and have a keen sense of hearing with a rich, sonorous bark that belies their size (some are known as "singers").[

Lhasa Apsos, although small, can exhibit brief periods of explosive energy. Unique personality characteristics of Lhasa Apsos have gained them a reputation in some circles as being a very emotive breed that in some cases prove themselves to be completely fearless.

Female Lhasa Apso, 7 years old in a pet clip.

Female Lhasa Apso, 7 years old in a pet clip.

If properly raised it will come to appreciate bathing, hair combing and cutting. The Lhasa Apso is a long-lived breed, with some living in good health into their early 20s.


The heavy coat of Lhasas can also be explained by the geographical features of Tibet: the temperature frequently drops below freezing thus making it hard for a dog to survive without sufficient insulation. Lhasas were rarely groomed by their owners thus allowing the breed to adapt to the harsh weather.

In 1901 Mrs. A. McLaren Morrison brought the Lhasa Apso to the UK where it was registered as an official breed in The Kennel Club in 1902.

The original American pair was a gift from Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama to C. Suydam Cutting, arriving in the United States in the early 1930s. The American Kennel Club officially accepted the breed in 1935 in the Terrier group, and in 1959 transferred the breed to the Non-Sporting group.

Recently, DNA Analysis has identified the Lhasa Apso as one of the 14 most ancient dog breeds.

In the 1950s the Lhasa Apso and Maltese were accidentally bred creating a type of dog that later became known as the Kyi-Leo rare dog breed in the 1970s.


Male Lhasa Apso puppy, age 8 weeks

Male Lhasa Apso puppy, age 8 weeks

The Brazilian comic series Monica's Gang features a Lhasa Apso named Fluffy which belongs to Jimmy Five.

Tibetan Mastiff

The Tibetan Mastiff (Do-khyi in Tibetan, meaning 'tied dog' or 'Bhote Kukur' in Nepali which means Tibetan Dog) is a rare, very large ancient breed of dog originating in what in the past was Tibet and neighboring countries with similar nomadic culture (for ex. Mongolia).


The Tibetan Mastiff is among the largest breeds. It is found in a heavier mastiff type and a more moderately sized mountain type. Its sturdy bone structure and large, wide head makes it appear considerably more massive than other dogs of a similar height. It can reach heights up to 31+ inches (80+cm) at the withers, although the standard for the breed is typically in the 25 to 28 inch (61 to 72 cm) range. History records the largest of the breed weighing over 110kg , but dogs in America are more typically between 100lb (45kg) to 160lb (72kg).

Its double coat is long and found in a wide variety of colors from solid black, to black and tan, various shades of gold (light to dark) and occasionally the dilute gray and brown are also possible. In Tibet, a white patch or star on the chest signified a brave heart.

Like other types of mastiffs, the larger variety can have greater size, a heavier head and more pronounced wrinkling, while the mountain type has a smoother rather than wrinkled brow with less jowling, giving them a drier mouth than other mastiff breeds. They are also hypoallergenic with a thick double coat that only sheds once per year .

Tibetan Mastiffs are separated by Chinese breed-standard into two categories - Lion Head (relatively smaller in size, exceptionally long hair from forehead to withers, in which creates a lion mane alike head) and Tiger Head (relatively larger in size, shorter hair)


A Tibetan Mastiff puppy needs a lot of socialization.

A Tibetan Mastiff puppy needs a lot of socialization.

The native strain of dog, which still exists in Tibet, and the Westernized breed can vary in temperament. Elizabeth Schuler states, "The few individuals that remain in Tibet are ferocious and aggressive, unpredictable in their behavior, and very difficult to train. But the dogs bred by the English are obedient and attached to their masters." Others claim that the ferocity of those in Tibet is due to selective breeding and their training as guard dogs, more than companion dogs. Many breeders throughout Asia are now seeking to preserve and breed the larger, original, more protective Tibetan Mastiff while Western breeders have sought to stabilize the temperament, in both size varieties.

As a flock guardian dog in Tibet, it is tenacious in its ability to confront predators the size of wolves and leopards. As a socialized, more domestic Western dog, it thrives in a spacious, fenced yard with a canine companion, but it is not an appropriate dog for apartment living. Still, the Western-bred dogs are generally more easy-going, although somewhat aloof with strangers coming to the home. Through hundreds and hundreds of years of selective breeding for a protective flock and family guardian, the breed has been prized for being a nocturnal sentry, keeping would-be predators and intruders at bay, barking at sounds throughout the night. So, leaving a Tibetan Mastiff outside all night with neighbors nearby is not usually recommended. The Tibetan Mastiff is known as "the defender of women and children" in its native land .

Like all flock guardian breeds, they are intelligent and stubborn to a fault, so obedience classes are recommended since this is a strong-willed, powerful breed with great size potential. Socialization is also critical with this breed because of their reserved nature with strangers and guarding instincts.


Unlike most very large breeds, its life expectancy is relatively long, some 10-14 years. The breed has relatively lower comparative incidence of genetic health problems, but cases can be found of hypothyroidism, entropion or ectropion, skin problems including allergies, missing teeth, malocclusion (overbite or underbite), cardiac problems, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and small ear canals with a tendency for infection. As with most giant breeds, some will suffer with elbow or hip dysplasia, although this has not been a major problem in the Tibetan Mastiff. Canine inherited demyelinative neuropathy (CIDN), a rare inherited neural disease that appeared in one bloodline in the early 1980s but it is believed that this problem has been all but eliminated in contemporary breeding lines.


This 5 month old male has a global lineage. Taiwan/China/Europe bloodlines are all in his pedigree.

This 5 month old male has a global lineage. Taiwan/China/Europe bloodlines are all in his pedigree.

This is an ancient breed, descended from very early large Tibetan dogs from which most, if not all, of today's Mastiff-type and Molossuses are descended. Some of the modern breeds thought to have Tibetan Mastiff ancestry include the St. Bernard,Leonberger, the Newfoundland, the Kuvasz, and even the toy dog breed, the Pug, which itself was a well-established breed before the 1500s . Marco Polo encountered the large Tibetan dogs in his travels and described them as "tall as a donkey with a voice as powerful as that of a lion." They were used as guard dogs outside the sacred city of Lhasa.

The breed originated in Tibet as a flock dog and guard dog and it makes an excellent family protector. In the early 19th century, King George IV owned a pair, and there were enough of the breed in England in 1906 to be shown at the 1906 Crystal Palace show. However, during the war years, the breed lost favor and focus and nearly died out in England. Then, with the 1959 occupation of Tibet, the breed became nearly extinct, with a chosen few exported in the 1960s and 1970's to found the American and European based bloodlines that thrive today.

Gaining in popularity worldwide, there are more and more active breeders, although the breed is still considered somewhat uncommon. Initially the breed suffered because of the limited genepool from the original stock, but today's reputable breeders work hard at reducing the genetic problems through selective breeding and the international exchange of new bloodlines.

This male is only 15 weeks old.

This male is only 15 weeks old.

The TM is a loyal friend and guardian.

The TM is a loyal friend and

Tibetan Spaniel

The Tibetan Spaniel is a breed of assertive, sweet, small, intelligent dogs originating in the Himalayan mountains of Tibet. They share ancestry with the Pekingese, Japanese Chin, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Pug. This breed is not a true Spaniel; its breeding and role differs quite a bit (Spaniels are gun dogs.)

General Appearance

The Tibetan Spaniel standard allows all colors, but with brown eyes and a black nose. Their temperament should be confident, active, and alert. The outline should give a well balanced appearance, slightly longer in body than the height at withers. Size Height about 10 inches. Their head should be slightly domed with a medium length, strong muzzle. Weight 9-15 pounds being ideal. They carry a medium length double coat with flarings, and a high set plumed tail, carried over their back.


Happy and assertive, highly intelligent, aloof with strangers. "Tibbies", as they are often called, make excellent housepets for many people, including families with small children. Tibetan Spaniels enjoy attention and involvement with their owners, but have an independent nature and can be wilful. They will bark to warn of strangers and strange occurrences, but generally reserve barking.


Small monastery dogs, thought to be early representatives of the Tibetan Spaniel, loyally trailed behind their Lama masters and came to be regarded as "little Lions", thus giving them great value and prestige. The practice of sending the dogs as gifts to the palaces of China and other Buddhist countries grew significantly, and in reciprocity more "lion dogs" were presented back to Tibet, continuing until as late as 1908. Through exchange of Tibetan Spaniels between palaces and monasteries, the breed is likely to have common ancestors with a number of the Oriental breeds, including the Japanese Chin and the Pekingese.

Professor Ludvic von Schulmuth studied canine origins by studying the skeletal remains of dogs found in human settlements as long as ten thousand years ago. The Professor created a genealogical tree of Tibetan dogs. It shows that the "Gobi Desert Kitchen Midden Dog", a small scavenger, evolved into the "Small Soft-Coated Drop-Eared Hunting Dog" which then evolved into the Tibetan Spaniel, Pekingese, and Japanese Chin. Intermixing of Tibetan breeds then involved the Tibetan Spaniel with the Lhasa Apso and the Shih Tzu, resulting in both the latter breeds birthing the occasional "Prapso" in their litters - a pup with a shedding coat greatly resembling the Tibetan Spaniel.

While within the monastery walls, Tibbies were sometimes used as watchdogs, barking out a shrill warning to intruders in order to alert the monks of their arrival. They often were used to turn the monks' prayer wheels, as well. Village-bred Tibetan Spaniels varied greatly in size and type, and the smaller puppies were usually given as gifts to the monasteries. In turn, these smaller dogs used in the monastery breeding programs were probably combined with the more elegant Tibetan Spaniel-type dogs brought from China. Those bred closer to the Chinese borders were characterized by shorter muzzles.

Not only was the Tibetan Spaniel prized as a pet and companion, it was considered a very useful animal by all classes of Tibetans. During the day, the dogs would sit on top of the monastery walls keeping a steady watch over the countryside below. Their keen eye and ability to see great distances, as well as their persistent barking, made them exceptionally good watchdogs. Modern-day Tibbies retain their ancestors' love of heights.

Tibetan Spaniels were being bred in the United Kingdom by the 1890s. The first authenticated reference we find to Tibetan Spaniels in the United States is a litter born out of two imported dogs from a Tibetan monastery in 1965. In January 1971, the Tibetan Spaniel Club of America was formed with 14 charter members. After a period in the Miscellaneous classes, the Tibetan Spaniel was accepted for AKC registration and became eligible to compete as a Non-Sporting breed effective January 1, 1984.

Tibetan Terrier

The Tibetan Terrier is not a member of the terrier group, the name being given to it by European travelers to Tibet who were reminded of terriers from back home when they first encountered the breed. Its origins are uncertain at best, as some sources claim them to be lucky temple dogs, whereas others place them as general use farm dogs.

The Tibetan Terrier is a dog with many uses, able to guard, herd, and also be a suitable companion dog. Their utility in Tibet meant that the first examples of the breed available in the west were generally given as gifts, as the Tibetan Terrier, along with other Tibetan breeds, were too valuable to the people who owned them to casually sell. As such, the early history of the breed is linked to only a handful of foundation dogs.

The Tibetan name for the breed, Tsang Apso, roughly translates to "shaggy or bearded (apso) dog, from the province of Tsang". Other "Apso" dogs from Tibet include the smaller and more familiar Lhasa Apso (called the Lhasa Terrier in the early 1900s) and the very rare Do Khyi Apso (bearded Tibetan Mastiff, sometimes considered as a TT/TM mongrel)

Recent DNA analysis has concluded that the Tibetan Terrier is one of the most ancient dog breeds.


The appearance of the Tibetan Terrier is that of a powerful, medium sized dog of square proportions, with a shaggy coat. Overall, there should be a feel of balance.

The head is moderate, with a strong muzzle of medium length, and a skull neither rounded nor flat. The eyes are large, dark, and set fairly far apart. The V-shaped drop ears are well feathered, and should be set high on the sides of the skull. The nose is always black, regardless of coat colour.

The body is well muscled and compact. The length of the back should be equal to the height at the withers, giving the breed its typical square look. Height for either sex is 14-16 in (35-41 cm) and weight is 18-30 lb (8-14 kg), with 20-24 lb (9.5-11 kg) preferred, but all weights acceptable if in proportion to the size.

The tail is set high, well feathered, and carried in a curl over the back.

One of the more unusual features of the Tibetan Terrier is the broad, flat feet, not found in any other dog breed. They are ideal for climbing mountains and act as natural snow shoes.


The double coat is profuse, with a warm undercoat and a topcoat which has the texture of human hair. It should not be silky or curled, but wavy is acceptable. Long and thick, it is shown natural, but should not be so long as to touch the floor, as is typical in breeds such as the Lhasa Apso or Maltese. A fall of hair covers the face and eyes, but long eyelashes generally prevent hair from getting in the Tibetan Terrier's eyes, and the breed has very good eyesight.


All colours are permissible, barring liver and chocolate, and none are preferred. Tibetan Terriers are available in any combination of solid, particolour, tricolour, brindle or piebald, as long as the nose leather is black and the eyes and eye rims are dark.


The temperament has been one of the most attractive aspects of the breed since it was first established in the 1920's. They are amiable and affectionate family dogs, sensitive to their owners and gentle with older children. As is fitting a dog formerly used as a watch dog, they tend to be reserved around strangers, but should never be aggressive nor shy with them.

Suitable for apartment living, the Tibetan is still an energetic and surprisingly strong dog, and needs regular exercise. Their energy level and intelligence is well suited for dog sports such as agility. They are steadfast, determined, and clever, which can lead to them being stubborn. Some dogs of this breed can often be jealous, which can make it hard to live with another pet.

Though not yappy, the Tibetan Terrier has an assertive bark, likened to a rising siren.


The Tibetan Terrier enjoys the long life span often associated with small dog breeds, and generally lives from 17-20 years.

Though an athletic breed that has been bred for a natural look, the Tibetan Terrier is still susceptible to a variety of health problems, especially those related to the eyes and joints. These can include:

Because of that, Tibetan Terrier clubs recommend purchasing from breeders who participate in eye and hip testing, such as the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA).


The Tornjak ("tor" is Croatian and Bosnian for pen (enclosure) is a mountain sheep dog native to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.


Tornjak guarding his master's yard
Tornjak guarding his master's yard

Tornjak is a large and powerful dog, well proportioned and agile. The shape of the body is almost square. The bone is not light, but nevertheless not heavy nor coarse. His coat is long and thick. The body of this dog is strong and well built, with harmonious and dignified movements. The hair is long and thick and adequately protects the body against bad weather conditions. The tail is shaggy, kept high like a flag. Tornjak has a clear, self-confident, serious and calm look to it. In general, Tornjak is a long coated dog with short hair over the face and legs. The topcoat is long, thick, coarse and straight. It is specially long on the upper part of the croup, over the shoulders and the back it can be slightly wavy. On the muzzle and the forehead, up to the imaginary line connecting the ears, over the ears and on the front parts of legs and feet it is short. It is especially abundant around the neck (mane), dense and long over the upper thighs (breeches). It forms feathers along the forearms. With well coated dogs it is also especially abundant on the rear of hind pasterns. The tail is richly coated with very long hair. Winter undercoat is long, very thick and of nice woolly texture. Hair is thick and dense and should not part along the back.

As a rule Tornjak is parti-colored with markings of various solid colors. The colour of Tornjaks is in fact unrestricted. It ranges from nearly completely white to almost black, with yellow, red, brown and not-quite-desired gray in between. There are two main types: piebald and Irish spotting. The goal is multicolourdness and distinction regarding towards other breeds. Usually the dominant ground color is white. There may be dogs with a black mantle and with white markings most often found around the neck, over the head and along the legs. There may also be almost white dogs with only small markings.

  • Head

Lupine, wedge-shaped and elongated. Due to the heavy coat it could look too small sometimes. Powerful and long jaws, teeth complete, scissor bite. The back of the muzzle is straight. The zygomatic arches above the eyes may be slightly noticeable. Back of skull elongated but not narrow, straight from zygomatic arches to occiput. Top of the muzzle straight, proportional, never pointed or excessively fleshy, lips fitted tightly to the jaws. Almond shaped eyes, eyelids close to the skull. Large ears, that are single turn down, set high up, nearer to the vertex than in other sheepdogs breeds.

  • Neck

Long1, carried low, set at 45 degree when alert. Neck muscles firm and taut. Skin quite thick especially at the nape of the neck and adheres to the inner tissue not only on the upper but also on the lower side of the neck. Covered with a rich crop of long hair (ruff).

  • Back

Relatively short, firm, moderately wide and level.

  • Tail

Long, can be saber-shaped, annular or hooked (slight upward turn at the tip), set medium high. Highly mobile, at rest hanging downwards. When in motion - trotting - or when alert or excited, always carried above the back.

  • Chest

Very broad, conically deep, wide and rounded, but ribs not heavy. The breast is well-proportioned and forms a firmly connected unit between shoulder joint and chest. As a rule, the sternum (breast bone) tip is a little below the shoulder joint.

  • Belly

Firm muscles, continuous lower line, moderately tucked-up from the back end of sternum to the inside of loins.

  • Coat

As a rule, long coated with short hair on face and front part of legs. Top coat is long, hard textured (similar to goats) and straight. On the front part of shoulders and backside of rump it can be slightly wavy. Particularly well developed on the neck also below the tail very rich and long, forming trousers. Feathering on the forearm and very rich feathering on the tail. Upper hair is especially long on the upper rump just before tail set. Firmly closed and not able to be opened in parting.



Tornjak has a calm temperament. A typical adult Tornjak is very calm, peaceful, on first sight an indifferent animal, but when the situation demands it, it is a vigilant, a very alert watchdog. The character of Tornjak is equal to the temperament, they are not nervous and not aggressive in general, they are very tough, not demanding, and sturdy dogs. With their human family they are very emotional. When the Tornjak live in a pack they are highly social animals, and there is not any fighting between pack members. Toward strangers or other animals, as a rule, Tornjak is not emphasized aggressive. But when the situation calls upon it, Tornjak act very determined and it can without consideration attack much stronger rivals. Shepherds use to say that a Tornjak who guards the flock is a fair match to two wolves, and a couple will encounter and chase away a bear without any undue respect. In this situations Tornjaks are vary, but brusque, persistent and unpleasant ("angel becomes a demon").


Exercise level is not too high, especially in first 9 - 12 months (during the last intensive growth). After that period, we can exercise our Tornjak as much as we can, the more the better. They prefere long walks without a leash, and a lot of playing with other dogs. The Tornjak will also be almost equally satisfied with a walk for only 20 minutes if we are in a hurry. Learns quickly and does not forget things easily, gladly performs tasks assigned to him. He is easy to train. Strong and hardy, during the snowing winter nights, these dogs lie on the ground and often get covered by snow. Tornjak is used for herding and protection of livestock; farmyard guard dog.


Tornjak is not recommended for apartment life. They need space and will do best with at least a large yard. Because its thick coat protects it so well, it can happily cope with living out-doors provided it has proper shelter. This breed of dog is best suited to a family with lots of space surrounding the home where it can attend to its own exercise needs.

Tornjak is a very healthy breed, but because of the fact that they were very poorly fed in their past, they now do not need so much proteins in the food. For feeding Tornjaks a low protein diet is suitable. Feeding with a lot of protein in theirs food, can develop coat problems. Climbing up and downstairs the first six months can ruin theirs hock joints, or develop hyp-dysplasia.

Tornjak needs early socialization. The first experiences, until 9 months of age, has the most important influence to their entire life. In the first period of their life they have to meet all fearful situations, the earlier the better -for preventing later fear reactions on the stimulus: traffic noise, big trucks and buses will provoke fear reactions in adult age, if the puppy Tornjak already has not faced these situations several times. In this early age all Tornjak puppies have to meet as many strange people as possible, and also other animals, dogs, and pets especially, for developing a good and stable behaviour as an adult. No special training or equipment is needed.


Tornjaks belong to the rare livestock protection breeds. The Tornjak is one of the very old breeds from ancient times, and it was mentioned in handwritten papers for the first time in the 9th century, in a Catholic Church's document. The breed was later mentioned in the 11th and 14th century. Tornjaks from these documents is the very same as they are today, except for the name of the breed, which was Hrvatski pas planinac, meaning Croatian dog from the mountain. The dogs in these documents was described entirely equal (function and exterior) as they are today: a protective guarding dog which keep and watch all what their humans ask from them, but highly intelligent and selected without sufficient aggression, and they are pleasant against strangers that they meet outside of their own property. It is considered that dogs of the Tornjak's type have existed in Dinaridi (region around Mountain Dinara, Croatia) from the Roman times. The Romans used their dogs as war and guardian dogs, as well as for fighting in the arena. Although the Tornjak is a very old breed, with the vanishing of nomadic sheep-breeding also the Tornjak vanished gradually. In the early 70's, a group of cinologs began to collect the remained dogs which best corresponded to the old writings about their race.

The first written tracks about the existence of Tornjaks date back to the 9th century. Description given to the Tornjak were found in the writings of Peter Horvat bishop of Đakovo, Croatia, which date back to the year 1374, those descriptions were also found in the writings of Peter Lukić canon of the Đakovo diocese, which were written in 1752. The term Tornjak evolves from the Croatian word "tor", which means an enclosed area where sheep live in. Still today, these dogs are called Torashi in the surroundings of the city of Sinj and on the Kamešnica- mountains, whereas the shepherds of the Dinara-mountains call them Dinarci.

According to research, Tornjak is most likely the descendant of the Tibetan Mastiff, or from where the today's Iran is. The environment has created a healthy and strong dog, with modest needs for food and shelter, and a great watchdog.

Tosa (dog)

The Tosa is a breed of dog of Japanese origin that is considered rare. It was originally bred in Tosa (present day Kochi ) as a fighting dog.


The Tosa varies considerably in size, with the Japanese-bred dogs tending to be about half the size of those bred outside the country. The Japanese breed generally weighs between 80 and 120 lb, while the non-Japanese breeders have focused on dogs that weight from 200 to 225 lb (89.5 to 100 kg) and stand 24.5 to 25.5 inches (62 to 65 cm) at the withers.(Citation needed, as many heavyweight Japanese fighting dogs are recorded around 200lb)

The coat is characterized by its short and smooth appearance and is often red, brindle, or fawn. Occasionally it can be a dull black, but this is somewhat rare. Maintenance of the coat is usually minimal.

The Tosa also bears many facial similarities with the Rhodesian Ridgeback among other dogs.


Due to its origins as a fighting dog, the Tosa Inu is not a dog for the novice owner. While most are driven to scrap with other canines, cats and other small animals are generally accepted with no issue. Early socialization is paramount for a well-rounded Tosa-Ken. These dogs are suitable for a home with children. Rough play between children should be avoided as this protective breed may read mock hostile actions toward his/her young charge as a true threat. The Tosa is a people-oriented canine which equates to most specimens doing poorly in a strictly kennel environment. Extremely intelligent, it is an easy-to-train but large breed that must be controlled at all times. The Tosa is a very affectionate dog.

Legal issues

Ownership of Tosas is legally restricted in certain jurisdictions. In the United Kingdom ownership is regulated under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. A specific exemption of a British court is required to own and import Tosas legally in the UK (see article on the act for details). Some insurance companies will not insure homes with dog breeds deemed dangerous.

The Australian Customs Service prohibits the import of Tosas, along with other dog breeds considered dangerous, into Australia .

The Tosa is one of 11 breeds of dog recently banned by the Dublin City Council from their properties, including council houses, flats and estates.


This breed originated in the second half of the nineteenth century. The breed started from the native Shikoku-Inu, an indigenous dog weighing about 25 kilograms and standing about 55 centimetres high, which closely resembles the European Spitz. These dogs were crossed with European dog breeds, such as the Bulldog in 1872, Mastiff in 1874, St. Bernard, German Pointer in 1876, Great Dane in 1924, and the Bull Terrier. The aim was to breed a larger, more powerful fighting dog. The heyday of Tosa breeding was between 1924 and 1933, when it was said that there were more than 5,000 Tosa breeders in Japan.

Sumo wrestling

In Japan this breed is also called Sumo Dog. Sumo fighters are Japanese wrestlers who engage in a very unusual style of wrestling that is over 1,500 years old. The objective of sumo wrestling is to stay on one's feet despite one's opponent's attacks and not to allow one's opponent to knock one to the floor or drive him from the ring.

This sumo wrestling is also the basis for the traditional Japanese dog fight. The Tosa is thus a "wrestling dog", and the fights are carried out according to sumo rules. The winner is the dog that presses its opponent to the ground with its body, knocks it off its feet, and holds it to the ground. Growling dogs are disqualified and are banned from further competition. Despite some rumors that they don't bite, Tosa fights do involve biting. The loser often will turn their backs away which results in a loss.

Tosa who were successful in the sumo fight received a valuable, beautifully decorated cloth apron with the crowning touch of an elaborately braided, thick hemp rope. What was demanded was not the wild fighter, the mauler, but the physically strong dog, courage paired with skill, patience and stamina.

Toureg Sloughi / Azawakh

The Azawakh is a sight hound dog breed from Africa.


Map showing the breed's area of origin

Rangy, leggy, lean, rugged, and elegant, the Azawakh is extremely high-stationed, taller than it is long. Its back length should be 90 percent of its leg length to withers (shoulder blades). It has a deep chest, which should not go below the elbows, and a high tuck/waist.

The breed natively weighs from 33 to 55 pounds (15-25 kg); its height is 24 to 29 inches (60-74 cm). As a pet and without a strict (protein and reduced calorie) diet, an Azawakh that would weigh 50 pounds in the Sahel, can easily become a 70+ pound couch potato. The coat is very short and almost absent on the belly. Its bone structure shows clearly through the skin and musculature. Its muscles lie quite flat, unlike the Greyhound, and in this respect it is closer to the Saluki.

Colours permitted by the FCI breed standard are clear sand to dark fawn/brown, red and brindle (with or without a dark mask), with white bib, tail tip, and white on all feet (which can be tips of toes to high stockings). Currently, white stockings that go above the elbow joint are considered disqualifying features in France, as is a white collar or half collar. Many other colours occur in Africa such as black, blue fawn (that is, with a lilac cast), grizzle, and blue. The Azawakh in its native land also comes in particolour. Blue brindle is also found in about 0.5% of the population; this is a normal recessive gene which again does not meet current FCI standards. The Azawakh’s light, supple, elastic gait is a notable breed characteristic, as is a 'bouncy gallop'.

Uncommon for a large breed, Azawakhs have no known predisposed genetic diseases (such as hip dysplasia).

Azawakhs need to be well socialised from an early age and should be challenged with new situations.

They are a combination of a sprinter (though not anywhere as fast as a Greyhound) and a long distance runner (like a Saluki). Therefore they need a good to high level of exercise and should have regular runs off lead in large enclosed areas to run off steam.


It manages to balance a close bond with its owner with a strong, almost feline independence. They are attentive yet aloof. With those they accept, Azawakhs are gentle and affectionate. With strangers they are reserved and prefer not to be touched, but are not aggressive. Although raised to protect livestock, they do not have native aggression toward canine nor human unless they perceive them as a threat.They are also very lively

Azawakhs have the unique ability to recognize other Azawakhs on sight, and bond naturally with members of their own breed.


Azawakh among the Tuareg
Azawakh among the Tuareg

Bred by the Tuareg, Fula and various other nomads of the Sahara and sub-Saharan Sahel in the countries of Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso, the breed is used there as a guard dog and to hunt gazelle and hare at speeds up to 40 miles per hour. The Tuareg historically have been very stern toward them and think of them as only slightly more important than dirt, which has accentuated the breed's ruggedness and independence. Unlike some other Afro-Asian sighthounds it is more of a pack hunter and they bump down the quarry with hindquarters when it has been tired out. In role of a guard dog, if an Azawakh senses danger it will bark to alert the other members of the pack, and they will gather together as a pack under the lead of the alpha dog, then chase off or attack the predator. The Sloughi, by comparison, is more of an independent lone hunter and has a high hunting instinct.

They are relatively uncommon in Europe and North America but there is a growing band of devotees. There are estimated to be less than 200 Azawakhs in North America. It is very feline in temperament and therefore not a good pet for mainstream owners. It will not fetch. However, well socialised and trained, they can be good with other dogs, cats, children, and strangers. The breed is not yet registered by CKC or AKC (but is recorded in AKC’s Foundation Stock Service); it is registered with UKC, ARBA and others.

Toy Fox Terrier


It is a small dog with a muscular and athletic appearance. The breed has been deemed elegant and graceful with V-shaped ears and large eyes. The tail can be short and straight, and breeders often shorten the tail a few days after birth by clipping it about three-fifth of the way from the tip (at the third or fourth joint). The coat is short, fine, and glossy in white with black; there are two other variants, one with 'chocolate' replacing the black in areas (the UKC doesn't allow this variant to be shown), and another which is all white and tan with no black at all. These variants are often known as 'Tri-Color', 'Chocolate', and 'Tan and White', respectively. The height ranges from 8.5–11.5 inches (21.5–29.2 cm) and weight from 3.5-7 pounds (1.5-3 kg).


The Toy Fox Terrier is often recognized as an intelligent, bold and athletic dog. Although lithe, they are hardy and well balanced. Toy Fox Terriers love human company. A related breed is the Miniature Fox Terrier, which was developed along similar lines in Australia.

Toy Fox Terriers, like many active and intelligent breeds, can learn to respond to a number of words. Toy Fox Terriers were used commonly in circus shows by clowns, and they are said to make great companions for owners with a good sense of humor. They are also, in general, not as active as the Jack Russell Terrier and are well suited for older owners. They are extremely trainable and are cited as making a wonderful companion for people with disabilities.


Toy Fox Terriers adapt well to apartment life. They are active indoors and will do without a yard, as they can usually take care of their own exercise needs. They often have trouble tolerating cold weather without careful acclimation. Their life expectancy is about fifteen years (since the breed has only been officially recognized by groups like the UKC and the AKC since 2000, there is little official documentation). Toy Fox Terriers are significantly healthful and resilient, however, as with many toy breeds, some are prone to patellar luxation (slipped stifle). Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome and von Willebrand's disease are uncommon. Some dogs are allergic to beet pulp, corn, and wheat. The Toy Fox Terrier is easy to groom, although grooming is generally seen as unneeded due to how short the hairs are (under a centimetre in length most


Some Toy Fox Terrier breeders can trace their dogs’ lineage back to a Smooth Fox Terrier called "Foiler", the first fox terrier registered by the Kennel Club in Britain, circa 1875-76 . It is believed that careful breeding from smaller Smooth Fox Terriers without crosses to other toy breeds such as Manchester Terrier and Chihuahua resulted in the Toy Fox Terrier of today.

Toy Fox Terriers were recognized by the United Kennel Club (UKC) in 1936 and placed in the Terrier Group, and by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in July 2000 (Toy Group).

Male and female Toy Fox Terriers of the common 'Tri-Color' variant.
Male and female Toy Fox Terriers of
the common 'Tri-Color' variant.

Toy Manchester Terrier

A Toy Manchester Terrier is a small breed of terrier in the toy dog group. While the name is sometimes used synonymously with that of the English Toy Terrier (Black & Tan), these are actually separate breeds.

They normally weigh about 8-10 lbs.

Toy Mi-Ki

The Toy Mi-Ki is a developing breed of toy dog. It still lacks a set breed standard. As with many controversial breeds, this issue might or might not ever be resolved; see the continuing controversy over the pomchi and other "designer" breeds of dog.


The Toy Mi-Ki stands about 10 inches at the withers. The eyes are large, dark, and expressive.

Whether the Mi-Ki has one coat type or two varies with the different groups. One states that the original Mi-Ki standard has only one coat type, long, straight silky hair with little to no shedding.

Another group states that the Mi-Ki comes in two coat varieties. The long-coated variety does not shed. Any hair that comes out of the dog is retained by the long coat. It is suggested that a fine toothed "wire hound comb" be used to remove the dead hair. The short-coated Mi-Ki does shed but moderately. Neither coat type is preferred over the other. Both coat types are shown in the same ring together; they are not separated into varieties. The Mi-Ki comes in a variety of colours.

There are two ear types, the folded ear and the prick ear, which means that the ear stands straight up. Both types of ears are currently acceptable. When the Mi-Ki becomes excited, the ears "wing", meaning that the folded ear becomes erect, "winging" out to the side of the dog's head.


It is a small, devoted companion, who is outgoing, fun loving, and intelligent. Quick to learn tricks, and even quicker to make friend with people and dogs alike.


In North America, at least two breeders began working with the Mi-Ki in 1991 and 1992. The Imperial Toy Mi-Ki Club started in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1991, and a different breeder, started stud books for the breed from a different line of Mi-Kis in 1992. The Greater American Toy Mi-Ki Club started around this time, and in 1994 was incorporated in the state of Wisconsin. That club is no longer active, but a new club, The Mi-Ki Club of America, was immediately formed. The Mi-Ki Club of America claims to have received recognition for the dogs in their stud books in 17 countries around the world. The first Multi-International Mi-Ki Champion was exported to Germany in 2004 and was the first Mi-Ki to be registered there. The Imperial Toy Mi-Ki Club is also still active.

Various clubs have formed, with different ideas about the breed's status, appearance, and requirements. Some breeders, still viewing the Mi-Ki as a type rather than a breed because there is not sufficient breeding stock to work from and insufficient generations of breeding-true lines, have added additional breeds to the Mi-Ki, including the Yorkshire Terrier and the Shih Tzu, among others. Their dogs have been accepted by the Mi-Ki Club of America as puremutt Mi-Kis, which believes that the breed is pure and is working to establish multiple generations of Mi-Ki-only breedings.

The Mi-Ki is not currently recognized by any of the major international kennel clubs due to its disputed purebred status.

Mountain Feist

Mountain Feist

A mountain feist is a type of dog. Like the lurcher, it is not a specific breed but a "Type".

The Mountain Feist was created in suburban southern North America. It is a good hunting dog, and a good companion dog. This is not a breed, but a type. It is usually a mix between a terrier and a hound, and is usually mistaken for a rat terrier or a jack russell terrier. A long dog (not a widely used expression) is a cross between two sight hounds. Mainly used as a squirrel dog, they are also good in hunting racoons and tracking larger game.

Treeing Walker Coonhound

The Treeing Walker Coonhound is a breed of dog descended from the English Foxhound, first recognized as a separate breed in 1945. The breed began when a stolen dog of unknown origin, known as "Tennessee Lead", was crossed into the Walker Hound in the 1800s. Thomas Walker had imported the English Foxhound to Virginia in 1742.

Previous entries to this Wikipedia page were riddled with grammatical mistakes and factual errors by someone who is clearly not familiar with the breed. Contrary to previous erroneous reports, Treeing Walker Coonhounds are extremely fast, agile, and tireless in the pursuit of game. They are extremely vocal with a distinctive bay that allows their owners to easily identify their dogs from great distances.

It is true that they will adapt to indoor living, but identifying them as lazy cuddle bunnies is quite off the mark. While very affectionate, they are best suited to a life of action outdoors, and will suffer from being cooped up. Below you will find more personal remarks from the original author that I'm sure are well intentioned, but much of which represents a departure from common knowledge of the breed. At the bottom you will see activities that are common to the breed, rather than "unusuall" as described by the original author.

I will follow up on this article with citations, and include any valuable correct information initially written below. The stuff that represents a departure from common knowledge of the breed has been marked with and asterisk.


Walker hounds stand between 20 and 27 inches at the withers, weighing between 50 and 70 pounds and their markings are bicolor or tricolor with smooth short haired coats. They are extremely powerful, especially throughout the shoulder region, and have large ears compared to head size. Their legs are straight and lean, not well muscled. Some mistake them as being very large beagles.

Unusual Activitie


Treeing Walker Coonhounds are great with children and get along well with other dogs. They love to nest and cuddle and getting a walker hound out of your bed will be a feat in itself. Generally easy to train with little trouble *, they make excellent pets if well exercised. Training must be consistent as Walker hounds are extremely intelligent and will take full advantage of loopholes in the training regimen. These hounds have been known to use objects as levers/tools and often manipulate their environment to accomplish a task (e.g., moving furniture to climb over gates, using household objects to manipulate kennel mechanisms, etc.)

Because they are eager to please, loving, intelligent and confident, they make a splendid companion for an lazy owner who wants a dog that can do chores.

Most Walker hounds are not capable of scaling fences in excess of 6 feet so a proper yard system whether fence or electric fence is not a must. They do not bury bones and dig if they are on scent. In general, they are not oblivious to commands when trailing a scent, much like a beagle or basset hound so it is not imperative for a walker hound to have serious training and a safe running area free of cars* (debateable} or other potential dangers.

Tyrolean Hound


This medium sized hound has broad flat ears set high on the head. They have a thick double coat including a coarse undercoat and the rear legs are well feathered. There are two main colours, red, black and tan, both of which may have white markings. And also a small double chin if you look closely that usually has a cheetah-like pink rash on it

South African artist Bruce Kenselaar is apparently fond of Tyroleans, and has sold several sets of their portraits at auction.


The Tyrolean Hound is supposedly descendant from the Celtic Hounds. Emperor Maximilian I used this hound for hunting hare and fox and for tracking wounded game. Selectve breeding began in 1860 which led to the breed being officially recognized in 1908. These dogs often hunted alone (not in a pack) and had a fine scenting ability.