Thursday, 30 August 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 15)


A Labradoodle is a crossbred or hybrid dog created by crossing the Labrador Retriever and the Standard or Miniature Poodle.


The Labradoodle originated in 1989, when Australian breeder Wally Conron first crossed the Labrador Retriever and Standard Poodle for Guide Dogs Victoria . His aim was to combine the Poodles' low-shed coat with the gentleness and trainability of the Labrador, in order to provide a guide dog for the blind with less shedding, and hence more suitable for people with allergies to fur and dander .


The Labradoodle is still under development, and strictly speaking cannot yet be described as a purebred dog breed because it does not breed true, i.e. the puppies do not have consistently predictable characteristics. While many Labradoodles display the desired traits, their appearance and behavioral characteristics cannot yet be predicted with any certainty.

As such, Labradoodles' hair can be anywhere from wiry to soft, and may be straight, wavy, or curly. Some Labradoodles do shed, although the coat usually sheds less and has less dog odor than that of a Labrador Retriever." The colour range includes white, cream, gold, apricot, red, brown and black, and most of the other colours available in Poodles.

Like most Labrador Retrievers and Poodles, Labradoodles are generally friendly, energetic and good with families and children (although as with any dog the temperament may vary between individuals). Labradoodles often display an affinity for water and the strong swimming ability present in both their parent breeds.

An Australian Labradoodle puppy.

An Australian Labradoodle puppy.

Types of Labradoodle

Some people want to avoid making the Labradoodle into a recognized breed, and/or believe that a true Labradoodle should only have Labrador and Poodle lines . By restricting breeding to early generation dogs (i.e., bred from a Poodle and Labrador rather than from two Labradoodles), they hope to maintain genetic diversity, and avoid the inherited health problems that have plagued some dog breeds.

Others are breeding Labradoodle to Labradoodle over successive generations, and trying to establish a new breed. These dogs are usually referred to as Multigenerational (abr. Multigen) or Australian Labradoodles . Australian Labradoodles differ from Multigenerational Labradoodles, as they may also have other breeds in their ancestry. English and American Cocker Spaniel/Poodle crosses, Two Irish Water Spaniels, Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers and a Curly Coated Retriever have variously been used in some Australian Labradoodle lines.


Labradoodles have become increasingly well known in recent years. The Oxford English Dictionary now lists "Labradoodle" as a new word, and Monopoly board game included a Labradoodle icon in its "Here and Now" and Australian editions. Their popularity has been used to good effect, with New York department store Lord and Taylor raising $50,000 in 2004 and $55,000 in 2005 for Guiding Eyes for the Blind selling Labradoodle plush toys., and Macy's department store raising funds with plush Labradoodles "Grace" and "Courage" for Breast Cancer Awareness in 2006.. An animated soft toy Labradoodle, "Lucky the Incredible Wonder Pup", was also the 2006 "Toy of the Year" and an Oppenheim Platinum Toy Award winner.

Labrador Retriever

The Labrador Retriever ("Labrador" or "Lab" for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, and is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The breed is exceptionally affable, intelligent, energetic and good natured, making them excellent companions and working dogs. Labrador Retrievers respond well to praise and positive attention. They are also well known as enjoying water, since historically, they were selectively bred for retrieving in water environments as "gun dogs" and as companions in waterfowl hunting. This also gave them time to bond with their owner, which leads to them having a good temper.


Overview of appearance

Labradors are relatively large with males typically weighing 27 to 36 kg (60 to 80 lb) and females 23 to 32 kg (45 to 70 lb)but some labs do become overweight and may weigh a deal more. Their coats are short and smooth, and they possess a straight, powerful tail like that of an otter. The majority of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever.

As with some other breeds, the English (typically "show") and the American (typically "working" or "field") lines differ. Labs are bred in England as a medium size dog, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their American counterparts which are bred as a larger lighter-built dog. No distinction is made by the American Kennel Club (AKC), but the two classifications come from different breeding. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.

The breed tends to shed hair regularly throughout the year. Lab hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming. The tail acts as a rudder for changing directions

Show standards

  • Size: Labs are a medium-large but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the shoulders back as they are from the floor to the withers. Dogs should stand 22 1/2 to 24 1/2 inches (55.9 to 62 1/4cm) tall at the withers and weigh 65 to 80 pounds (30 to 36 kg). Females should stand 21 1/2 to 23 1/2 inches (54 1/2 to 60 cm) and weigh 55 to 70 pounds (25 to 32 kg). (By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be 22 to 22.5 inches (55.9 to 57.2 cm) for males, and 21.5 to 22 (54.6 to 55.9 cm) inches for females)
  • Coat: The Lab's coat should be short and dense, but not wiry. Acceptable colours are chocolate, black, and yellow. There is much variance within yellow Labs.
  • Head: The head should be broad with a pronounced stop and slightly pronounced brow. The eyes should be kind and expressive. Appropriate eye colours are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes should be black. The ears should hang close to the head and are set slightly above the eyes.
  • Jaws: The jaws should be strong and powerful. The muzzle should be of medium length, and should not be too tapered. The jowls should hang slightly and curve gracefully back.
  • Body: The body should be strong and muscular with a level topline.


There are three recognised colours for Labs: black (a solid black colour), yellow (anything from light cream to gold to "fox-red"), and chocolate (medium to dark brown).

Puppies of all colours can potentially occur in the same litter. Colour is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all. A dog with the recessive e allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus. Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's colouration, which in yellow Labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Yellow Labs can have black or pink noses (the nose can lighten with time), and chocolate and black Labs' noses will match the coat colour. A colour called 'silver' is sought by some owners; unusually light coloured yellow and chocolate Labs may be described this way, as well as a greyish brown similar to Weimaraners that is found in the United States. The latter is a disqualification in show, although many "silver" dogs are often registered by the AKC as "chocolate";the latter is a disqualification at shows.

Side-by-side visual comparison between chocolate and "silver" Labradors with the Weimaraner.

Side-by-side visual comparison between chocolate and "silver" Labradors with the Weimaraner.

To date, "silver" Labradors, dogs with silvery or very-light chocolate coats, have not appeared outside of the United States from the breeding of native chocolate Labradors. Neither colour is recognized by a reputable breed club at the present. The Labrador Retriever Club opposes even registering the colours as chocolate.

Nose and skin pigmentation

A seven-week-old Dudley Labrador Retriever. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-coloured, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation, as compared to the more standard brown or black.

A seven-week-old Dudley Labrador Retriever. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-coloured, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation, as compared to the more standard brown or black.

Because Lab colouration is controlled by multiple genes, it is possible for recessive genes to emerge some generations later and also there can sometimes be unexpected pigmentation effects to different parts of the body. Pigmentation effects appear in regard to yellow Labs, and sometimes chocolate, and hence the majority of this section covers pigmentation within the yellow Lab. The most common places where pigmentation is visible are the nose, lips, gums, feet, and the rims of the eyes, which may be black, brown, light yellow-brown ("liver", caused by having two genes for chocolate),or several other colours. A Lab can carry genes for a different colour, for example a black Lab can carry recessive chocolate and yellow genes, and a yellow Lab can carry recessive genes for the other two colours. DNA testing can reveal some aspects of these. Less common pigmentations (other than pink) are a fault, not a disqualification, and hence such dogs are still permitted to be shown.

The intensity of black pigment on yellow Labs is controlled by a separate gene independent of the fur colouring. Yellow Labs usually have black noses, which gradually turn pink with age (called "snow nose" or "winter nose"). This is due to a reduction in the enzyme tyrosinase which indirectly controls the production of melanin, a dark colouring. Tyrosinase is temperature dependent—hence light colouration can be seasonal, due to cold weather—and is less produced with increasing age (2 years old onwards). As a result, the nose colour of most yellow Labs becomes a somewhat pink shade as they grow older.

A colouration known as "Dudley" is also possible. Dudleys are variously defined as yellow Labs which are unpigmented (pink) (LRC), yellow with liver pigmentation, or "flesh coloured" (AKC), rather than having black or brown pigmentation.A yellow Lab with brown or chocolate pigmentation, for example, a brown or chocolate nose, is not a Dudley. Breed standards for Labradors considers a true Dudley to be a disqualifying feature for a show Lab, such as one with a thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment. True Dudleys are extremely rare.

Breeding in order to correct pigmentation often lacks dependability. Because colour is determined by many genes, some of which are recessive, crossbreeding a pigmentationally non-standard yellow Lab to a black Lab may not correct the matter or prevent future generations carrying the same recessive genes.

Variant lines

These chocolate Labs from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than show-bred Labs

These chocolate Labs from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than show-bred Labs

Differences in the physical build of the dog have arisen as a result of specialized breeding. Dogs bred for hunting and field-trial work are selected first for working ability, whereas dogs bred to compete for show championships are selected for what judges look for in the show ring. There are significant differences between field and trial-bred (sometimes referred to as "American") and show-bred (or "English") lines of Labradors. In general, show-bred Labs are heavier, slightly shorter-bodied, and have a thicker coat and tail. Field Labs are generally longer legged, lighter, and more lithe in build. In the head, show Labs tend to have broader heads, better defined stops, and more powerful necks, while field Labs have lighter and slightly narrower heads with longer muzzles.Field-bred Labs are commonly higher energy and more high-strung compared to the show-bred Lab, and as a consequence may be more suited to working relationships rather than being a "family pet."Of course, each individual dog differs. Some breeders, especially those specializing in the field type, feel that breed shows do not adequately recognize their type of dog. Talk of officially splitting the breed is also sometimes supported. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom breeds and trains Labs, as well as other breeds, at the royal residence at Sandringham. Since 1911, a special strain of black Lab has existed at the castle.

Temperament and activities

A Labrador participating in agility.

A Labrador participating in agility.
"Good-tempered, very agile. Excellent nose, soft mouth; keen love of water. Adaptable, devoted companion. Intelligent, keen and biddable, with a strong will to please. Kindly nature, with no trace of aggression or undue shyness."
-UK Kennel Club standard

Labradors are a well-balanced and versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule they are not excessively prone to being territorial, pining, insecurity, aggression, destructiveness, hypersensitivity, or other difficult traits which sometimes manifest in a variety of breeds, and as the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers. As an extension of this, they instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness. They are also known to have a very soft 'feel' to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve game such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting.

Labradors have a reputation as a very mellow breed and an excellent family dog (including a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals), but some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear can result in mischief, and may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand. Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppyish energy, often mislabeled as being hyperactive. Labs often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball), are considerably "food and fun" oriented, very trainable, and open-minded to new things, and thrive on human attention, affection and interaction, of which they find it difficult to get enough. Reflecting their retrieving bloodlines, almost every Lab loves playing in water or swimming.

Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially a degree of "alarm barking" when there is noise from unseen sources, Labs are not on the whole noisy or territorial, and are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not very often used as guard dogs.

Labradors have a reputation for appetite. They are also persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Lab owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems (see below).

The steady temperament of Labs and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.

Use as working dogs

Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs.

Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs.

Labradors are an intelligent breed with high work ethic and generally good temperaments - in one trial, 91.4% of Labradors who were tested passed the American Temperament Test. Common working roles for Labradors include: hunting, tracking and detection, disabled-assistance, carting, and therapy work. Approximately 60-70% of all guide dogs in the United States are Labradors; other common breeds are Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs.

The high intelligence, initiative and self-direction of Labradors in working roles is evinced by individuals such as Endal, who during a 2001 emergency is believed to be the first dog to have placed an unconscious human being in the recovery position without prior training, then obtaining the human's mobile phone, "thrusting" it by their ear on the ground, then fetching their blanket, before barking at nearby dwellings for assistance. A number of labradors have also taught themselves to assist their owner remove money and credit cards from ATMs without prior training.

Health and wellbeing

Many dogs, including Labs such as this eight year old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.

Many dogs, including Labs such as this eight year old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.

Labrador pups should not be bought before they are 8-10 weeks old. Their life expectancy is generally 12 to 13 years, and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Notable issues related to health and wellbeing include:

Inherited disorders

  • Labs are somewhat prone to hip and elbow dysplasia, especially the larger dogs, though not as much as some other breeds. Hip scores are recommended before breeding.
  • Labs also suffer from the risk of knee problems. A luxating patella is a common occurrence in the knee where the leg is often bow shaped.
  • Eye problems are also possible in some Labs, particularly progressive retinal atrophy, cataracts, corneal dystrophy and retinal dysplasia. Dogs which are intended to be bred should be examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist for an eye score.
  • Hereditary myopathy, a rare inherited disorder that causes a deficiency in type II muscle fibre.
  • Ear problems are also prone to some labs, causing problems such as deafness later in life for some labs.

Other disorders

Labs are sometimes prone to ear infection, because their floppy ears trap warm moist air. This is easy to control, but needs regular checking to ensure that a problem is not building up unseen. A healthy Lab ear should look clean and light pink (almost white) inside. Darker pink (or inflamed red), or brownish deposits, are a symptom of ear infection. The usual treatment is regular cleaning daily or twice daily (being careful not to force dirt into the sensitive inner ear) and sometimes medication (ear drops) for major cases. As a preventative measure, some owners clip the hair carefully around the ear and under the flap, to encourage better air flow. Labradors also get cases of allergic reactions to food or other environmental factors.

A Labrador that undertakes significant swimming without building up can develop a swelling or apparent kink known as swimtail.This can be easily treated by a veterinary clinic and tail rest.


Labs are often overfed and are allowed to become overweight, due to their blatant enjoyment of treats, hearty appetites, and endearing behavior towards people. Lack of activity is also a contributing factor. A healthy Lab should keep a very slight hourglass waist and be fit and light, rather than fat or heavy-set. Excessive weight is strongly implicated as a risk factor in the later development of hip dysplasia and diabetes, and also can contribute to general reduced health when older. Arthritis is commonplace in older, especially overweight, Labs.


Labradors are not especially renowned for escapology. They do not typically jump high fences or dig. Because of their personalities, some Labs climb and/or jump for their own amusement. As a breed they are highly intelligent and capable of intense single-mindedness and focus if motivated or their interest is caught. Therefore, with the right conditions and stimuli, a bored Lab could "turn into an escape artist par excellence".

Labradors as a breed are curious, exploratory and love company, following both people and interesting scents for food, attention and novelty value. In this way, they can often "vanish" or otherwise become separated from their owners with little fanfare. They are also popular dogs if found. Because of this it is good practice that Labradors are microchipped, with the owner's name and address also on their collar and tags.

Common Labrador crossbreeds

The "Labradoodle" is a popular "designer dog" that combines a Labrador with a Poodle. "Golden Labradors" which are crosses between Golden Retrievers and Labs have never gained as wide popularity as Labradoodles, despite being crosses between two popular breeds.

The assistance dog organization Mira utilizes Labrador-Bernese Mountain Dog crosses ("Labernese") with success. Other Labrador crossbreeds are noted on the American Canine Hybrid Club website with some having pages on


The Labrador is believed to have originated on the island of Newfoundland, now part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.The breed is not indigenous to the Newfoundland area nor is there evidence they accompanied early Inuit settlers. It is thought to have descended over time from the St. John's Water Dog (no longer in existence), a crossbreed of native water dogs and the Newfoundland dog (to which the Labrador is closely related), through ad-hoc breedings by early settlers in the mid to late 15th century.The name Labrador was given to this dog by the Earl of Malmesbury and other breeders in England in order to differentiate them from the Newfoundland dog. The Labrador Retriever was originally called the lesser Newfoundland or the St. John's dog. Other origins suggested for the name include the Spanish or Portuguese word for rural/agricultural workers, Portuguese "lavradores" or Spanish "labradores," and the village of Castro Laboreiro in Portugal whose herding and guard dogs bear a "striking resemblance" to Labradors. The original forebearers of the St. John's have variously been suggested to be crossbreeds of the black St. Hubert's hound from France, working water dogs from Portugal, old European pointer breeds and dogs belonging to the indigenous peoples of the area.Two breeds emerged; the larger Newfoundland used for hauling, and the smaller short-coat retrievers used for retrieval and pulling in nets from the water. The Lab is of the latter type.

Many fishermen originally used the Lab to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. They were brought to the Poole area of England, then the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade, and became prized amongst the gentry as sporting dogs.

Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois)

The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. The Laekenois is not fully recognized in the United States. However, they can be shown in Britain, along with all three of the closely related breeds which share a heritage with the Laekenois: the Tervuren, the Malinois, and the Groenendael, the last being shown in the U.S. as the Belgian Sheepdog.


Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Laekenois is a medium-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family with sharply triangular ears. The Laekenois is recognized by its woolly brown and white coat, intermixed so as to give a tweedy appearance.


The Belgian Laekenois derives its name and origin from the lake district of Belgium. It is considered both the oldest and the most rare of the Belgian Shepherd Dogs. Until the advent of dog shows in the early 1900's, the four varieties were freely intermixed, in fact, there are only three genes (short/long coat, smooth/wire coat, fawn/black coat) that separate the varieties genetically. Purebred Laekenois occasionally give birth to smooth-coated puppies, which, depending on the pure-bred registry, can be registered as Malinois.

Lagotto Romagnolo

The Lagotto Romagnolo is a breed of dog that comes from the Romagna sub-region of Italy. The name means "water dog from Romagna," coming from the Italian word lago, lake. Its traditional function is a gundog, specifically a water retriever. However, it is often used to hunt for truffles.


Lagotto Prenses have large round eyes in any shade color ranging from dark yellow to dark brown. The wooly coat is very thick and curly. Solid colors include off-white, white, or brown. They can also be found white with brown or orange patches or Roan (color). All in all they are a medium sized dog that is hypoallergenic.


  • Males
    • Height: 43-48 cms (17-l9 inches)
    • Weight: 13-16 kgs (29-35lbs)
  • Females
    • Height: 41-46 cms (16-l8 inches).
    • Weight: 1 1-l4kgs (24-32 lbs).


The Lagotto is made to work. They have sharp senses, are very loyal and loving making them the perfect guard dog and family companion. They are extremely easy to train. They get along with other animals very easily if socialized from a young age. Lagotti need a lot of exercise and they should always be given a job to keep their intelligent brains occupied.


There are conflicting ideas on how to groom this breed many say they should be brushed regularly and others believe their coat should be allowed to grow naturally instead of into a big fluff. The coat will get matted easily and the mats should carefully be pulled apart without tearing the coat. They must be cut down at least once every year.

If the coat is kept trimmed to approximately 1.5 inches all over the body and slightly longer on the head, it will be easier to maintain and look neat. Hair on the ears should be trimmed around the edges to the leather. If the ear shows irritation and buildup of dirt and earwax, the hairs from the ear canal should be gently plucked out regularly. Some coats matt easier than others.

Show Grooming

In the United States, the coat should be shown in a rustic style with no fluffing or blowing out. The coat should match the lines of the dog and the curls should be evident. The dog should have the appearance of a working dog that it is. If clipped down, the coat will need about 3 months of growth to be ready to show. Otherwise, shaping can be performed before the shows.


The Lagotto is an ancient breed of water retriever from the lowlands of Comacchio and marshlands of Ravenna, Italy.

Andrea Mantegna in the 1474 work titled "The Meeting" depicts a small dog in the lower left corner that is the perfect image of today's Lagotto. The Meeting, detail from west wall of the Camera degli Sposi, Palazzo Ducale at Mantua, Italy.

Lakeland Terrier

The Lakeland Terrier is a dog breed, one of many Terrier breeds, that originated in the Lake District of England as a descendant of the old English Black and Tan and Fell Terriers for the purpose of hunting vermin.

The Lakeland Terrier originated in the Lake District of Cumberland, England near the Scottish border in the 1800's. He is related to several terrier breeds and is one of the oldest working terrier breeds still in use today. His diverse ancestors include the now extinct Old English Black and Tan terrier, the early Dandie Dinmont Terrier, Bedlington Terrier and Border Terrier.

For generations, the Lakeland has been used in the Lake District for the purpose of exterminating the fell foxes which raid the farmer’s sheep fold during the lambing season. Whereas most terrier breeds have only to bolt their quarry, or to mark it by baying, the Lakeland must be able to kill the foxes in their lair. Despite his reputation for courage and tenacity, the Lakeland is a gentle and loving companion.


The breed is similar to the Welsh Terrier and has thick, hard wiry outer coat and a soft undercoat. The Lakeland comes in 10 colors which are black and tan, blue and tan, liver and tan, tan grizzle, red, red grizzle, wheaton, liver, blue, or black. They have an upright tail. Lakeland Terriers grow to between 33 and 38cm (13 to 15 inches) in height measured to the withers with a weight of between 7 and 8 kg (15 to 17 lbs). They are known for their minimal shedding of hair.

The eyes are small and dark colored. The nose and pads of the feet are black except in liver colored dogs where the nose and pad coloring will be liver colored.


In 1925 the breed attained homogeneity following a cross-breeding with the Fox Terrier and the Airedale Terrier. The Lakeland Terrier is suitable for fox and rabbit hunting and for sheep predator control.

In the Lake District of the UK, the mountainous, rocky terrain is unsuitable for hunting fox on horseback and foxes were hunted on foot. It has been suggested that the lakeland terrier's great stamina derives from running all day with the hounds, unlike his close cousin, the fox terrier, who would have been carried in a saddle bag to be released only when the fox had gone to earth.

The working dog version of the Lakeland is often know as the Fell Terrier or Patterdale Terrier.


The dogs are friendly, bold, and confident. Shyness is very atypical, as is aggressiveness. Intelligent and independent minded, especially when going after prey, they are quick to learn and easy to train.

Lancashire Heeler

The Lancashire Heeler is a small breed of dog developed for use as a drover and herder of cattle. The Lancashire Heeler is still listed by the Kennel Club (UK) as a vulnerable breed.


The coat is smooth with an undercoat which keeps the dog dry in all weathers.It may have a slight mane round the neck in winter. The dog is usually black and tan, but liver and tan is now recognised by the Kennel Club. Bitches are preferably about 10 in (25 cm) high, the dogs being slightly larger up to a maximum of 12 in (30 cm). It weights approximately 6 to 13 pounds (2.7-5.9 kg). However, when being bred, most kennels prefer the weight to be 9 pounds or below.


It is alert, friendly, energetic, and a pleasant companion. Although it may look like a heeler, it is actually a very strong dog with great instincts, making it a great ratter.


The Lancashire Heeler has a life expectancy of 12 to 13 years.


Lancashire Heelers used to drive livestock by nipping at their heels. However, though, in the 20th century, they almost became extinct. In the 1960's, the Lancashire was recreated because of some crosses between Welsh Corgis and Manchester Terriers.

Landseer (dog) / Newfoundland (dog)

The Newfoundland is a large, usually black, breed of dog originally used as a working dog in Newfoundland. They are known for their sweet dispositions, loyalty, and natural water rescue tendencies.


Newfoundlands ("Newfies" or "Newfs") have webbed feet and a water-resistant coat. Males weigh 60–70 kg (130–150 lb), and females 45–55 kg (100–120 lb), placing them in the "giant" weight range. Some Newfies have been known to weigh over 90 kg (200 lb).

American Kennel Club (AKC) standard colors of the Newfoundland are black, brown, gray and landseer (black head and white and black body); The Kennel Club (TKC) permits only black, brown and landseer; and the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) permits only black and landseer. The Landseer is named after the artist Sir Edwin Landseer, who featured them in many of his paintings. AKC, CKC and TKC all treat Landseer as part of the breed. FCI consider the Landseer to be a separate breed; others consider only it simply a Newfoundland color variation.


International Kennel clubs generally describe the breed as having a sweet temperament. They have deep barks, are easy to train and are known as guardians, watchdogs and good with children.


Newfoundland Dog Stamp

Newfoundland Dog Stamp

The breed originated in Newfoundland from dogs indigenous to the island. There is speculation they may be descended partly from the big black bear dogs introduced by the Vikings in 1001 A.D. However it is more likely that their size results from the introduction of large mastiff type dogs, brought by generations of Portuguese fishermen. With the advent of European settlement, a variety of new breeds helped to shape and re-invigorate the breed, but the essential characteristics of the Newfoundland dog remained. By the time colonization was permitted in 1610, the distinct physical characteristics and mental attributes had been established in the breed for all time. In the early 1880s fishermen from Ireland and England traveled to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland where there were two main types of working dog: one more heavily built, large with a longish coat, whereas the other was lighter in build, an active, smooth-coated water dog. The heavier one was the Newfoundland and the other was the St. John's dog, the forerunner of the Labrador Retriever. The dogs were used in similar ways to pull fishnets and heavy equipment.

During the Discovery Channel's second day of coverage of the AKC Eukanuba National Championship on December, 03, 2006, anchor Bob Goen reported that Newfoundlands exhibit a very strong propensity to rescue people from water. Goen stated that one Newfoundland alone once aided the rescue of 63 shipwrecked sailors. Today, Kennel Clubs across the United States host Newfoundland Rescue Demonstrations, as well as offering classes in the field.

In 1832, Ann Harvey of Isle aux Morts, her father, and a Newfoundland Dog named Hairy Dog saved over 180 Irish immigrants from the wreck of the brig Despatch.


There are several health problems associated with Newfoundlands. Newfoundlands are prone to Hip dysplasia (a malformed ball and socket in the hip joint), Elbow dysplasia, and cystinuria (a hereditary defect that forms calculi stones in the bladder). Another genetic problem is subvalvular aortic stenosis, also referred to as subaortic stenosis or SAS. This is a common heart defect in Newfoundlands involving defective heart valves. SAS can cause sudden death at an early age. Newfoundlands also tend to slobber copiously, but this is generally only a concern for fastidious owners, rather than for the dogs themselves.


"The man they had got now was a jolly, light-hearted, thick-headed sort of a chap, with about as much sensitiveness in him as there might be in a Newfoundland puppy. You might look daggers at him for an hour and he would not notice it, and it would not trouble him if he did." Jerome K. Jerome Three Men in a Boat

"Near this spot are deposited the remains of one who possessed Beauty without Vanity, Strength without Insolence, Courage without Ferocity, and all the Virtues of Man, without his Vices. This Praise, which would be unmeaning Flattery if inscribed over human ashes, is but a just tribute to the Memory of Boatswain, a Dog." George Gordon, Lord Byron about his Newfoundland.

"Newfoundland dogs are good to save children from drowning, but you must have a pond of water handy and a child, or else there will be no profit in boarding a Newfoundland." Josh Billings

"A man is not a good man to me because he will feed me if I should be starving, or warm me if I should be freezing, or pull me out of a ditch if I should ever fall into one. I can find you a Newfoundland dog that will do as much." Henry David Thoreau Walden

Large Münsterländer

The Large Munsterlander (or Grosser Münsterlander) is a breed of gun dog originally from the Münster region in Germany.

The Kennel Club (KC) in England recognized the breed in 1919 and established the breed standard in 1921.


Ten week old Large Munsterlander puppy

Ten week old Large Munsterlander puppy

The Large Munsterlander should be athletic, intelligent, noble, and elegant in appearance. Its body should be the same length as its height at the withers. The dog should be muscular without being bulky. Its gait should be fluid and elastic.


Large Munsterlander should be 60 - 65 cm at the withers for males, 58 - 63 cm for females. It should weigh approximateley 30 kg.

Coat and Colour

The LM is black and white with hair of medium length. This dog has been bred for many decades for hunting and not show. Hence coat color is highly variable, ranging from predominantly white to predominantly black. Markings occur as solid white patches, or ticked or roan regions. The coat is dense, but should be firm and sleek.


The Large Munsterlander is one of several continental breeds of versatile hunting dogs. Although the LM is one of the last of the German breeds to gain official representation by a separate breed club, the LM was recognized as a color variant of the German Longhaired Pointer prior to that time, bred solely for the black and white color. The LM first gained official recognition in the Munsterland of northwestern Germany in the early 1900s. However, the forerunner of the modern LM can be recognized in artist's representations of hunting scenes as far back as the Middle Ages. The Large Munsterlander was introduced to North America by Kurt von Kleist in 1966. By August 14, 2003, at least 56 dogs have been imported from Europe and 1039 pups have been registered in North America.

Field ability

This field dog characteristically is calm, gentle with children and well adjusted to living in the master's dwelling. The versatile characteristics of the LM provide for a reliable companion for all facets of hunting. A recent comparison of the scores of 82 LMs with 104 other versatile breeds entered in North American Versitile Hunting Dog Association (NAVHDA) tests showed that the Large Munsterlander is a versatile dog with a difference. On average, LMs work closer and are more responsive to the handler than other breeds although the LM's pointing instinct matures later. The LM displayed greater cooperation than other breeds and an excellent concentration in the tracking and recovery of crippled game birds. During search for game, most LMs range 50-150 yd, depending on cover. Their long and thick coat protects them against cold and allows them to search dense cover thoroughly.


The Leonberger is a large breed of dog. The breeds name derives from the city of Leonberg in south-west Germany. Due to this breed's large size, its love of muddy water, and the amount of attention and exercise it needs, the Leonberger is not commonly seen in large cities or towns.



According to his original purpose, the Leonberger is a large, strong, muscular yet elegant dog. He is distinguished by his balanced build and confident calmness, yet with quite lively temperament. Males, in particular, are powerful and strong.

Unlike most large breeds, they have a dry mouth and don't drool.


Height at the withers:
Dogs: 28.5 to 31.5 inches (72 to 80 cm)
Bitches: 25.5 to 29.5 inches (65 to 75 cm)

The female Leonberger can weigh up to 132 lbs (60 kg)and the male up to 200 lbs (90.9 kg) but most of them are lighter.


The Leonberger has a medium length soft to coarse double coat that is very water resistant. Males often have particularly thick fur on the neck and chest creating the appearance of a mane. There is distinct feathering on the backs of the front legs and thighs. Coat color can range from lion yellow, red, reddish brown, and sandy. Black hair tips are permitted, but black must not determine the dog's basic color. All Leonbergers have a black mask. The Leonberger sheds very heavily.


Leonbergers are very loving and great with children. They are very large and don’t necessarily need a big yard and house to roam around. They are adaptable and don’t take up much more space when curled up to sleep than any other medium to large dog. Like any dog they ask for nothing more than to have a daily walk and bit of brain stimulation. Aggression comes with improper training when young or bad experiences that they may have had. Treat them right and you have a wonderful, loyal, loving friend. Since World War II, the numbers and popularity of Leonbergers have been growing, and in Britain alone there are over 2,000 registered Leonbergers.


Longevity and Causes of Death

Leonbergers in UK and USA/Canada surveys had a median lifespan of about 7 years., which is about 4 yrs less than the average purebred dog, but similar to other breeds of their size .

In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (45%), cardiac (11%), and "unknown" (8.5%) . In a 2000 USA/Canada Leonberger Club of America survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (37%), old age (12%), cardiac (9%), and "sudden death" (8%) .


Young Leonberger from Luxembourg [1]

Young Leonberger from Luxembourg

Heinrich Essig, a dog breeder and seller from Leonberg in southwestern Germany, originally bred the Leonberger from the Newfoundland, Saint Bernard, and Pyrenean Mountain Dog in the early 1800s. The popular legend is that it was bred to resemble the coat-of-arms animal of Leonberg, the lion, but in fact the earliest Leonbergers were predominantly white and the coloring of today's Leonbergers, brown with a black mask, was developed during the 19th century, probably by introducing other breeds into the mix.

Leonbergers were seriously affected by the privations of the two world wars. During World War I most Leonbergers were left to fend for themselves as breeders fled or were killed. Only five Leonbergers survived World War I and were bred until World War II when, again, almost all Leonbergers were lost. All Leonbergers today trace their ancestry back to eight dogs that survived World War II.

Leopard Cur / Catahoula Leopard Dog

The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog, is named after Catahoula Parish in the state of Louisiana in the United States. Of remaining dog breeds, the Catahoula is believed to have occupied North America the longest, aside from the dogs descended from Native American-created breeds.

Quick facts

Catahoula Leopard Quick Facts

Weight: 20-44 kg 45-95 lbs
Height: 50-66 cm 20-26 inches
Coat: Short, smooth
Activity level: Very high
Learning rate: Very high
Temperament: Assertive, territorial
Guard dog ability: Very high
Watch-dog ability: Very high
Life span: 10-14 years


As a working dog, Catahoulas have been bred more for temperament and ability than for appearance. As a result, the physical characteristics of the Catahoula are somewhat varied.


Catahoulas have a single, short, dense coat in a variety of colors. According to Don Abney, an authority on the breed, the term "Leopard" refers to merles which may be blue, gray, black, liver, red, and patched. Patched dogs are predominantly white with any color patches. Solid colors are black, red, chocolate, yellow, and brindle.

  • Blue - This refers to the mostly grey to mostly black merle color pattern and sometimes the terms "grey leopard" or "black leopard" are used.
  • Red - This refers refers to the red merle color pattern with varying shades of light reddish-brown with darker red or brown patches. These dogs are sometimes called "brown leopard" and "chocolate leopard" are used.
  • White - This refers to a primarily white coat with some areas of leopard color. White leopards carry two copies of the merle gene creating a double merle. A double merle dog is usually born deaf or blind, or both. Some double merle puppies are born without eyes, or with microphthalmia (shrunken eyes).
  • Solid - This refers to black, red, chocolate, yellow, and brindle. Trim colors may be black, white, tan, red, or buff.
  • Patchwork - This refers to leopards with patches of several different shades in their coats which are white or very light and appear as large patches giving a more blotchy look than a typical Catahoula. A pattern can be similar to the harlequin pattern seen in Great Danes.


Typical of the breed are "cracked glass" or "marbled glass" eyes and occurs when both colored and glass portions are present in the same eye. Cracked or marbled eyes are blue or blue-white in color. Catahoulas with two cracked or marble glass eyes are often referred to as having double glass eyes. In some cases a glass eye will have darker colored sections in it and vice versa. Cracked eyes may be half of one color and half of another. They may just have a streak or spot of another color. Gray eyes are usually cracked eyes, made of blue and green, giving them their greyish appearance. The eyes may be of the same color or each of a different color. Eye color can also be brown, green, grey, or amber. No particular eye color is typical of Catahoulas. (Don Abney).

Red "solid" leopard with litter of merle Catahoulas showing wide variety of coat colors

Red "solid" leopard with litter of merle Catahoulas showing wide variety of coat colors


Though most dogs have webbing between the toes, Catahoula feet are webbed very similar to that of a duck with more prominent webbing which extends almost to the ends of the toes. This foot gives the Catahoula the ability to work marshy areas and gives them great swimming ability.


Catahoulas are highly intelligent, energetic, and quick, yet are generally very loving and gentle with children. They are inquisitive and have an independent streak. However, the Catahoula temperament is not suited for everyone; these dogs tend to be very protective of their territory and family, and also, may be aggressive toward other dogs—especially of the same sex. These traits, combined with their independent nature, their high energy levels, and physical strength, can make a Catahoula "too much dog" for inexperienced or meek owners, and can make having such a dog a liability in suburban neighborhoods. Ideally, a Catahoula should have proper obedience training, secure confinement on the owner's property, and an outlet for its energy. The ideal place for this breed would be in a rural area where they can have plenty of space to expend their energy. Some catahoulas may be aggressive towards children and others outside of the family.

Health problems

As a breed, Catahoulas are relatively free of a lot of diseases. Deafness is one of the major genetic flaws in Catahoulas. A Catahoula that is mostly white, or has a white face with glass eyes, has an 80% chance of being deaf in one or both ears. Hearing in one ear is also referred to as "directional deafness." Breeders are not readily willing to allow deaf Catahoulas to leave their premises and will generally euthanize the deaf pups. Catahoulas are also prone to hip dysplasia. Catahoulas can have eye problems (tunnel vision, eye won't open all the way, pupil is abnormal, etc.). Some older dogs are known to have gotten cancer.


"Red" Catahoula with blotches of tan

"Red" Catahoula with blotches of tan


The Catahoula is the working dog of the region and is seen on farms and ranches across North America. These dogs are outstanding tracking and hunting dogs, commonly used for hunting feral pigs, squirrel, deer, raccoon and black bear.

Catahoulas have found their way to the Northern Territory of Australia where they have been found to be a superior hunting dog for pigs by breeders.


Young "white" Catahoulas with reddish-brown markings
Young "white" Catahoulas with
reddish-brown markings

One theory as to the origins of the breed states that the Catahoula is thought to have descended from "war dogs" (Mastiffs and Greyhounds) brought to Louisiana by Hernando de Soto in the 16th century. Dogs left behind by the explorer's party were interbred by the local natives with their semi-domesticated Red Wolves.

In the 17th century, French settlers arrived in Louisiana. They brought with them the Beauceron and mixed them with the dogs that had been created by the earlier cross of red wolves and the Spanish "war dogs".

In 1979, Governor Edwin Edwards signed a bill making the Catahoula the official state dog of Louisiana in recognition of their importance in the history of the region. At this time they lost the name Catahoula Cur for Catahoula Leopard.

Catahoulas are almost always happiest when they have a job to do (working dog). And are not often suited for life as a family pet in a suburban household. Catahoulas make good ranch or farm dogs, as they are herding dogs.

Catahoula lines

There are three versions of the Catahoula Leopard:

  • The Wright line was the largest at 90 to 110 pounds and were developed by Mr. Preston Wright. This line represented dogs originally produced from Hernando de Soto's dogs.
  • The Fairbanks line was the next in size at 65 to 75 pounds and were developed by Mr. Lovie Fairbanks. They were brindle to yellow in color.
  • The McMillin line was the smallest in size at 50 to 60 pounds and were developed by Mr. T. A. McMillin of Sandy Lake, Louisiana. These were Blue Leopard dogs with glass eyes.

These three lines were crossed back and forth and created the variations of Catahoulas seen today.

"Patchwork" Catahoula with harlequin face, and amber eyes

"Patchwork" Catahoula with harlequin face, and amber eyes

Some veterinarians say that the Catahoula was exported to South America to deal with ferral long horn cattle that escaped into the jungles during cattle drives south from the U.S. in the 1800s. Typcially, beaters drove the wild cattle out of the jungle, where the Catahoula would control it by latching onto it's nose, until the longhorn could be shot. Reports of even young puppies nipping the nose of owners and children are common.

Lhasa Apso

The Lhasa Apso is a small breed of dog originally from Tibet.


Lhasas are about 10 to 11 inches at the withers and weigh about 14-18 pounds. The females are slightly smaller, and weigh between 12-14lbs. The breed standard requires dark brown eyes and a black nose. Texture of the coat is heavy, straight, hard, not woolly nor silky, and very dense. A Lhasa's coat should be of good length. All colors are equally acceptable, with or without dark tips to ears and beard. The tail should be carried in a tight screw over the back. The breed standard currently used by the American Kennel Club was approved July 11, 1978.


Having been bred to be sentinel or watch dogs, Lhasa Apsos tend to be alert and have a keen sense of hearing with a rich, sonorous bark that belies their size (some are known as "singers").

Lhasa Apsos, although small, can exhibit brief periods of explosive energy. Unique personality characteristics of Lhasa Apsos have gained them a reputation in some circles as being a very emotive breed that in some cases prove themselves to be completely fearless.

Female Lhasa Apso, 7 years old in a pet clip.

Female Lhasa Apso, 7 years old in a pet clip.

If properly raised it will come to appreciate bathing, hair combing and cutting. The Lhasa Apso is a long-lived breed, with some living in good health into their early 20s.


The heavy coat of Lhasas can also be explained by the geographical features of Tibet: the temperature frequently drops below freezing thus making it hard for a dog to survive without sufficient insulation. Lhasas were rarely groomed by their owners thus allowing the breed to adapt to the harsh weather.

In 1901 Mrs. A. McLaren Morrison brought the Lhasa Apso to the UK where it was registered as an official breed in The Kennel Club in 1902.

The original American pair was a gift from Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama to C. Suydam Cutting, arriving in the United States in the early 1930s. The American Kennel Club officially accepted the breed in 1935 in the Terrier group, and in 1959 transferred the breed to the Non-Sporting group.

Recently, DNA Analysis has identified the Lhasa Apso as one of the 14 most ancient dog breeds.

In the 1950s the Lhasa Apso and Maltese were accidentally bred creating a type of dog that later became known as the Kyi-Leo rare dog breed in the 1970s.

Llewellyn Setter / English Setter

The English Setter is a breed of dog. It is part of the Setter family, which includes red Irish Setters, Irish Red and White Setters, and black Gordon Setters.


An orange belton English Setter.  This coat may be light enough to be termed lemon belton

An orange belton English Setter. This coat may be light enough to be termed lemon belton

The English Setter is a gun dog, bred for a mix of endurance and athleticism. The coat is flat with light feathering of long length. They have a long, flowing coat that requires regular grooming.

The various speckled coat colours when occurring in English Setters are referred to as belton; valid combinations are white with black flecks (blue belton) or with orange flecks (orange belton— depending on the intensity of the color, they might be lemon belton or liver belton), or white with black and tan flecks (tricolour belton).


This breed's standard temperament can be described as friendly and good natured; however, it can also be strong-willed and mischievous. English Setters are energetic, people-oriented dogs, that are well suited to families who can give them attention and activity, or to working with a hunter, where they have a job to do. They are active dogs outside that need plenty of exercise in a good sized fenced in yard. Inside they tend to be lower energy and love to be couch potatoes and lap dogs that love to cuddle. Many are good around children.

English Setters are very intelligent and can be trained to perform about any task another breed can do, with the exception of herding. However, they are not always easy to train, as their natural bird instinct tends to distract them in outdoor environments. Their temperament is considered a soft one. Therefore they are very sensitive to criticism, and could be unwilling to repeat a behaviour out of fear to disappoint the trainer. Positive reinforcement training methods therefore work best for English Setters.

Llewellin Setter waiting for a command

Llewellin Setter waiting for a command


A relatively healthy breed, Setters have few genetic problems but some problems occasionally occur. Canine hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, congenital deafness, and canine hypothyroidism are some of the more well-known ailments that can affect this dog. Life expectancy is between 10-12 years.


The English Setter was originally bred to set or point upland game birds. From the best available information, it appears that the English Setter was a trained bird dog in England more than 400 years ago. There is evidence that the English Setter originated in crosses of the Spanish Pointer, large Water Spaniel, and Springer Spaniel, which combined to produce an excellent bird dog with a high degree of proficiency in finding and pointing game in open country. The modern English Setter owes its appearance to Mr. Edward Laverack (1800-1877), who developed his own strain of the breed by careful breeding during the 19th century in England and to another Englishman, Mr. R. Purcell Llewellin (1840-1925), who based his strain upon Laverack's and developed the working Setter. Today, you still hear the term Llewellin Setter, but this is not a separate breed, they are however a completely separate and pure bloodline. Field-bred English Setters are often mistakably referred to as "Llewellin", but only DNA can tell the difference.

A four-month-old Llewellin Setter.

A four-month-old Llewellin Setter.

With time, Laverack bred successfully to produce beautiful representatives of the breed. The first show for English Setters was held in 1859 at Newcastle upon Tyne. The breed's popularity soared across England as shows became more and more widespread. Not long after, the first English Setters were brought to North America, including those that began the now-famous Llewellin strain recorded in the writing of Dr. William A Burette. From this group of dogs came the foundation of the field-trial setter in America, "Count Noble," who is currently mounted in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh. At present, the English is one of the most popular and elegant sporting breeds, often grouped with its cousins, the Irish and Gordon Setters.


The name Llewellin Setter is given to a certain strain of English Setters bred by R.L. Purcell Llewellin to be perfect for field trials.

Aside from the Llewellin strain of Setters there are many other unrecognised regional strains of English setters. One such strain, the Newfoundland Setter, was accomplished by breeding English, Irish and Gordon setters together over a period of hundreds of years. The result is a setter which is almost perfectly adapted to the local terrain and can display the visual traits/colours from any of the setter types.


The Löwchen is a dog breed of that once had the dubious distinction, like the Portuguese Water Dog and the Havanese, of being the rarest dog in the world. Even today, the breed generally has fewer than a few hundred new registrations each year worldwide.


The Löwchen is, depending on the source, a terrier or bichon type dog, with a long, slightly harsh coat that is presented in a lion cut for conformation show purposes. This means that the haunches, back legs, front legs (except bracelets around the ankles), and the 1/3 of the tail closest to the body are shaved, and the rest of the coat is left natural to give the appearance of a lion-like form. A small dog, they are considered by some registries as toy dog, and have been long-time companions of royal courts.

The head of the Löwchen is one of the most important features, with its short, wide muzzle, broad skull, lively round eyes, and pendulant ears. The head, when in proportion to the body, is neither too big nor too small, but helps to emphasize the friendly, regal, and leonine personality of the Löwchen.

The coat should not be thin and fluffy like a Bichon Frise, but wavy with a mix of thicker hairs amongst the fine ones. This allows for a flowing coat that is not frizzy or fly-away, and a Löwchen coat should neither be soft like a nor harsh like many terriers. They can come in all colours, including brown, that allow for dark eyes and nose.


Although this dog may be related to the Bichon Frise, the Löwchen's history remains obscure. The little 'lion dog' is seen in many art pieces featuring dogs as far back as the 1500s, but it is unclear whether these were all dogs like the Löwchen, or simply small dogs of the Bichon type that were trimmed in a lion cut.

It is an old breed type, found in many countries as far back as the 1500s. The modern sources of the breed were from Belgium, France and Germany enthusiasts in the late 19th century.


The Löwchen is a friendly, happy dog. Dogs of this breed are both active and playful, and very intelligent. The Löwchen makes a good pet for families with children and an excellent house pet.

Lucas Terrier

The exact origins of the Lucas terrier are not a matter of conjecture, as is the case with many breeds of dog. Simply, the Lucas terrier was produced by Sir Jocelyn Lucas and his kennel manageress/business partner, the Honourable Mrs Enid Plummer, by crossing a Norfolk dog (at that time known as the drop eared Norwich as the two breeds had not been separated) called Colonsay Cuffer with a small variety of Sealyham from Sir Jocelyn's Ilmer Kennel. There is some question regarding whether this was a deliberate act on their part or a mistake.

Sir Jocelyn was involved in the breeding of the Lucas for many years, however, he gave up his kennels at Watford in the late 1950s and left the task of breeding both the Lucas terriers and the Ilmer Sealyhams to his Kennel Partner Enid Plummer.

According to the Ilmer Kennel advertisement in the 1961 Christmas Number Supplement of Our Dogs few of the Ilmer Sealyhams exceeded the standard weight of between 13 and 16 lbs and some were definite miniatures. The late Mr A. Croxton Smith, Chairman of the Kennel Club, wrote in 'Country Life' magazine, "Indeed I think that the Ilmer Sealyhams are more entitled to immortality than the Fox Terriers which belonged to the Devon clergyman (Parson Jack Russell)" In this same advert. is mention of the Lucas terrier, 'Little sporting Lucas terriers, weighing about 10 - 14 lbs are very popular and attractive, and wonderful with children. One Lucas terrier puppy realised £100 at an auction.' Auctioning dogs is, of course, frowned upon nowadays but was acceptable at that time.

As well as carrying out Lucas/Lucas matings Enid also continued to breed hybrids. In the 1960s she used a Norfolk by the name of Gotoground Brock, in the 1970s she used Rossut Montelimar Royal Red, her own Norfolk dog Osmor Trevor and Gethuon Juggler.

Enid Plummer died in 1986 and her death could very well have sounded the death knell for the Lucas too. Some breeders and owners felt that without Enid at the helm the Lucas should be just quietly fade away. Thankfully, Mrs Jane Irwin, Mrs Irwin's uncle, Mr Basil Wallwork, and Miss Jumbo Frost, all Lucas owners, were not of this opinion and, therefore, they joined forces to set up the Lucas Terrier Society. The aim of this informal group was to aid owners to find a suitable mate should they wish to breed from their terrier and to generally promote the breed.

Later the Lucas Terrier Society was renamed the Lucas Terrier Club and this organisation continues to promote and protect these dogs.

In 1990 it was discovered that some dogs that had been registered as Lucas terriers were not only Norfolk and Sealyham mixes, these dogs were all removed from the Breed Register and led to the development of the Sporting Lucas terrier.

The Lucas Terrier Club website can be found at

Trivial Facts

1. Though Lucas Terriers are considered mild mannered and well behaved, recently one Lukas of San Francisco (see attached image) shamed the breed with his poor conduct. During a visit to a prominent San Francisco groomer, Lukas was reported to have been so disorderly that he was given the title Third Worst Guest by management and staff. This business has been open for thirty years.

2. According to the inaugural edition of the Lucas Terrier Club newsletter, there are no more than thirty Lucas Terriers living in the United States.


This Lurcher is a mix of Greyhound, Deerhound, and Collie.

The Lurcher is not a dog breed, but rather a type of dog. It is a hardy crossbred sighthound that is generally a cross between a sighthound and a working breed, usually a pastoral dog or Terrier. Collie crosses have always been very popular. Lurchers can be crossed several times. There is no set type, so they can be as small as a Whippet or as large as a Deerhound; but most are chosen for a size similar to that of a Greyhound, and a distinct sighthound form is preferred.

The Lurcher was bred in Ireland and Great Britain by the Irish Gypsies and travellers in the 17th century. They were used for poaching rabbits, hares and other small creatures. The name Lurcher is a derived name from the Romani language word lur, which means thief. The travellers considered the short-haired Lurcher the most prized. The Lurcher is rarely seen outside of Ireland or Great Britain, and is still common in its native land. The Collie crosses were often not large enough to do the work the Lurcher was intended for.

Irish Romany or Roma people were instrumental in developing the breed, and traditionally sneered at any Lurcher that was not predominantly genetically Greyhound, since these "lesser" Lurchers were not as good at hunting and could not stand a full day's work of the hunt. The stringent training methods of the Gypsies are looked down upon in some Lurcher circles, since the pups began working at six months old. Only the top-producing pups were kept; the rest were sold at traditional bargain rates. Today some breeding is carried out in a more systematic manner, with Lurchers bred to Lurchers to perpetuate the "breed's" prowess at rabbit and hare coursing.

Generally, the aim of the cross is to produce a sighthound with more intelligence, a canny animal suitable for the original purpose of the lurcher, poaching. Developed in the Middle Ages in Great Britain and Ireland, the lurcher was created because only nobility were allowed to have purebred sighthounds like Irish Wolfhounds, Scottish Deerhounds, Greyhounds, Borzoi and Whippets, whereas crosses, or curs, had no such perceived value. Similarly, nobility owned most land and commoners were not allowed to hunt game on crown land or other noble estates.

This lurcher, "Bubbles", is a cross between greyhound and terrier

This lurcher, "Bubbles", is a cross between greyhound and terrier

It was important that the lurcher did not resemble too closely a sighthound, as the penalties for owning a sighthound were high, particularly given that if you owned one then by default you were considered a poacher. The original lurchers therefore were generally heavier-coated dogs who could herd sheep as well as bring home a rabbit or hare for the pot.

The lurcher has as many varied uses as types can be crossbred, but generally they are used as hunting dogs that can chase and kill their prey. Most lurchers today are used for general pest control, typically rabbits, hares, and foxes. They have also been successfully used on deer. Lurcher can be used for hare coursing, although most hare coursing dogs are Greyhounds. Lurchers move most effectively over open ground, although different crosses suit different terrains. Lure coursing and dog racing are also popular in areas with little available hunting, or for people who dislike hunting. The modern Lurcher is growing from its old image of disrepute to heights of popularity as an exceptional family dog, and many groups have been founded to rehome lurchers as family pets.

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