Wednesday, 29 August 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 14)

Kai Ken

The Kai Ken, or Tora Dog is a dog breed that hails from Japan where it is a national treasure and has been bred for centuries. It is an extremely rare dog even in its native land and is a relative of the Spitz family.


The Kai Ken is a medium sized dog with a wedge shaped head and prick ears. Males are typically 18 to 22 inches at the shoulder, while the females are slightly smaller, 17 to 20 inches at the shoulder. The tail may be curled over the back, or carried in a sickle position. Limbs should be strong and hocks should be well developed reflecting the dogs’ history of mountain life. The coat is of harsh texture, medium length, and black or brindle in color.


The Kai Ken is intelligent, agile, alert and brave. They are naturally hunters and make good guard dogs, being reserved with strangers but loyal to their families. They are friendly, often good with children and are not dog aggressive.


The Kai Ken is considered to be the most ancient, and purest dog breed in Japan. It was developed in the isolated district of Kai (Yamanashi Prefecture) as a hunting dog. This breed was designated a national monument in Japan in 1934.

In Popular Culture

Kangal Dog

The Kangal Dog is the national dog breed of Turkey. This large dog --which can often grow as large as 140 pounds (64 kg)-- was originally used as a Livestock guardian dog, but has been increasing in popularity as a guard dog. It is of an early mastiff type with a solid, pale tan or sabled coat, and with a black mask; indeed, another name for the breed is Karabash or black head.

The breed is often referred to as a sheep dog, but it does not herd its charges. Instead, it is developed to live with the flock and act as a livestock guardian dog, fending off wolves and jackals. The Kangal Dog's protectiveness and gentleness with small children and animals has led to its growing popularity as a guardian for families as well, as it watches members of its flock with extreme devotion.


The Kangal Dog is a large and impressive dog, mastiff-like but with a more athletic structure. The Kangal Dog exhibits the strength, speed, and courage to intercept and confront threats to the flocks of sheep and goats that it guards both in Turkey and the New World. The head is large and moderately wide, with drop ears that may or may not be cropped, set on a strong, slightly arched neck. The body should be muscular, not fat, with strong shoulders, a deep chest, and a sickle or curled tail carried high when alert. The overall appearance should be of proportions slightly longer in body than in height.

Height at maturity is typically 30 to 32 inches for males and 28 to 30 inches for females. A fit male Kangal Dog should weigh between 110 and 145 pounds. Females in good condition weigh between 90 and 120 pounds. Some dogs are even larger, and are not penalized according to the UKC standard as long as the dog is structurally balanced. However, extreme size and bulk, excess flew development, and other exaggerated features are not desirable for this working dog breed.

Color and Coat

The color and coat are perhaps the most visible traits that distinguish the Kangal from the Akbash and Anatolian. The coat must be short and dense, not long or feathery, and of a pale fawn or tan color with varying amounts of sable guard hairs. All Kangal Dogs have a black facial mask, and black or shaded ears. White at certain points (chest, chin, toes) may or may not be allowed, depending on the standard. Some heavily sabled Kangals also have darker legs and chests. Most importantly, the coat should not be broken, brindled, or spotted.

Split-Lump Controversy

Inside Turkey, the Kangal Dog's breed status and value are unquestioned; it is an object of pride even for urban Turks, and has been declared a National Cultural and Historic Treasure by the Turkish government. Outside Turkey, the Kangal dog's status as a separate breed is disclaimed by fanciers of the Anatolian Shepherd Dog. Anatolian breeders point out that Turkish sheepdogs, collectively, come in a variety of colors and coat lengths, and claim that all of these dogs constitute a single breed that subsumes the regionally-developed Kangal Dogs and Akbash dogs. However, Kangal and Akbash defenders point out that these breeds were developed in historically isolated regions where sheep herding was most intensive, and became distinct from the generic sheepdogs scattered elsewhere in the country. There are no breeders of "Anatolian shepherds" in Turkey; nor is the generic çoban köpegi considered to be a breed. Nowadays it is possible to find karabash-colored dogs being bred throughout Turkey; some are Kangals, many are crossbreeds. It is undeniable that crossbreeding and mongrelization are increasing as Turkey continues to urbanize, and this has led to increased local efforts to preserve the indigenous Kangal and Akbash Dog breeds.

Kangal dog breeders feel that the standard they have laid out for the breed reflects the working dogs of the Kangal region, and feel that mixing Kangal Dogs with other Turkish dogs undermines the preservation of the breed, as well as introducing unwanted temperament traits. They also point to the apparent preference for Kangal breeding stock, and "Karabash" color, by Anatolian breeders in recent years as a tacit admission of the value of the Kangal breed.

In general, the controversy about breed status comes from outside Turkey; Turks remain steadfastly committed to their national breed, and are perplexed by the claims by western canine groups that Kangal Dogs are "the same" as all other "çoban köpegi" in Turkey.

Generally, the arguments seem to boil down to whether the Turkish villagers, university researchers, and government are valid in their description and assessment of their native dog breeds, or whether western dog clubs should be the arbiter of what is and is not a breed in Turkey. Fortunately for the Kangal supporters, increased internet access and education in Turkey has led to a strong movement there to preserve the native breeds, and to establish recognition for Kangal and Akbash dogs with international registries such as the FCI. It is likely that the arguments will be settled by the Turks themselves, along with compelling evidence that is emerging from DNA studies in Turkey and Finland. Suffice to say, both groups consider their dogs true Turkish livestock guardian dogs.


The ideal Kangal dog should be calm, controlled, independent, and protective. They may be aloof towards strangers, but a well-socialized Kangal Dog is friendly with visitors and especially children. They must never be shy or vicious. A well-trained Kangal is sensitive and alert to changing situations, responding to threats with judicious warnings and courageous action if necessary. They make good guardians of livestock and humans alike, but they may not be suitable for inexperienced dog owners, as the independent intelligence of the Kangal makes for a difficult pupil.

Temperament controversy

Unfortunately, some people assume that guardian dog or watch dog means attack dog, and attempt to train this large and hard-to-control dog to be aggressive towards humans. A few also use Kangals and Kangal crosses in dog fighting. These factors led to a brief restriction and banning of Kangals in most parts of Germany. Kangal owners feel unfairly singled out, and point out that aggression towards predators, especially with such an intelligent dog as the Kangal, does not equal aggression towards humans. It is notable that some famous German guard dog breeds, such as the German Shepherd and the Doberman, despite much higher bite statistics, are not thus restricted. Fortunately, the restrictions have been overturned due to diligent efforts of activists in Germany.


The Kangal in Turkey

It is commonly assumed in Turkey that the Kangal dog accompanied Oghuz Turks as working dogs on their long journey from Central Asia to Anatolia. The existence of what might be considered Kangal-type mastiff shepherd dogs in Khorasan, Samarkand and most of Turkmenistan lends credence to this claim. Nomadic Turkic tribes might have used these dogs to bring their livestock with them as they migrated from the steppes and further into Eurasia.

Kangal dogs may also have been introduced by the original Celtic settlers of Galatia who settled in Ancyra or "Anchor" in Celtic (Ankara - modern capitol of Republic of Turkey) in third century BC. The name is assumed to be originated from the Celtic word "kan-gal" which means "the dog of the Galatians".

A contemporary national treasure in Turkey, the Kangal dog is one of over 30 livestock guardian breeds from various countries in Europe and Asia. Each is considered an important part of the culture and history of its region. To protect and conserve the genetic purity of the Kangal Dog, the government of Turkey has established several state-sponsored breeding centers.

In its home district of Kangal, in Sivas province of Turkey, the Kangal Dog is still primarily used as a livestock guardian and is highly prized. As the sheep industry continues to decline in eastern Turkey, purebred Kangals of the classic type are becoming increasingly prized, and sell for high prices. Many animals are brought from the villages to compete for prizes during the annual Kangal Festival.

Nowadays, Kangal Dogs often have jobs as military sentries, guardians of state buildings, or as gifts of international friendship to heads of state. There was also a brief fad of owning Kangals by more well-off city dwellers in Istanbul, but it has quickly died down as the 140 lb (64 kg) dogs are not well-suited for city living.

The Kangal Internationally

Kangal Dogs were exported to Britain over 40 years ago and bred under the name "Karabash Dog." In the US, the first purebred breeding programs for Kangal Dogs began in the early 1980s. The Kangal Dog is recognized by the United Kennel Club in the US, and by the national kennel clubs of South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. Many Kangal Dogs are being bred in Germany as well, mostly by immigrant Turkish workers. Some are registered as Anatolians, that being the only registration option open to them in Germany; most are unregistered. The Turkish Kennel Club is currently petitioning the FCI for recognition of both the Kangal Dog and the Akbash Dog.

Karelian Bear Dog

The ideal Karelian Bear Dog has bright, intelligent eyes

The Karelian Bear Dog is a Finnish or Karelian breed of dog. In its home country it is regarded as a national treasure. In Finland they are more often used for hunting moose and elk although they will hunt any kind of animal. Bear and moose tests are conducted in Finland, Sweden and Norway to determine an individual's ability as a beardog and weighs heavily in the dogs breeding potential. This dog will put a bear to flight or attack it with great pugnacity and will sacrifice its own life for its master. Its quick reflexes and fearless nature have also made it very popular for hunting other aggressive game such as the wild boar. It was the breed's ability to hunt and offer protection against a bear that earned the breed its name.


The dog should be in excellent physical condition. Males stand 54 to 60 cm (22 to 24 inches) at the withers, while females stand significantly shorter at 49 to 55 cm (19 to 22 inches).

The breed has a striking coat of straight, stiff but soft guard hairs and a fine soft undercoat. There should be no curl in the hair at all. The colour must be black with white markings. Often the jet black hair is slightly tinted with brownish highlights on the ends giving it an iridescent quality. This is caused by the sun's "bleaching out" of the jet black hair color. Preferably the color percentage is around 70% black and 30% white. The bushy tail curls over the back in a ring and has a white tip which falls gently onto the dog's back or to one side.


The dog should be brave. Often they tend to be aggressive towards other dogs but usually it is because they are very territorial or they feel threatened. They are cautious around strangers at first but usually warm up to them eventually. They have been bred to be very independent and a good bear dog should be able to actively hunt for hours at a time without any contact with its master.

Proper socialization and training is necessary as these dogs demand proper authority and respect to work well with their master and other animals. Treating them harshly will cause them to mistrust so one must be firm but careful when working with them. They must have a trusting and obedient master/dog relationship for everyone's safety.

They must always hunt only with their master and it is best not to have more than two Karelians hunting together or they will either go off hunting on their own or fight over the prey. They work better with other Karelians with which they are raised.

They are silent but tenacious hunters and only alert when they have the prey at bay. They will keep it there by barking in a very high, fast bark and running back and forth or around the animal until the master comes and kills it. They have been known to hold an animal at bay a very long time. If a bear tries to leave the dog will bite it on the backside and aggravate it to keep it from running away.

They are extremely loyal to their master and love their people. For this reason, they must be around them. They also love children and love to play. It is very unusual for a KBD to bite a human but they will kill another animal if they feel threatened. If more than one lives together there is a hierarchy in the pack much like wolves. One will be the alpha dog or leader and the others will usually defer to him/her.

This is not a dog that can be tied to a lead outside, kept in an apartment or never worked with. They are very social, outside hunting dogs and they need plenty of space to run free and get lots of exercise. If they get bored they will dig up the yard or try to get out to go hunting. These traits tend to prevent the breed from becoming popular companion dogs.

They are very territorial and will alert their master to the presence of any strangers or other animals nearby that they do not know.


Two Bear Dogs from Southern Karelia (circa 1900)

Two Bear Dogs from Southern Karelia (circa 1900)

The history of dogs in every region is linked to the history of the people with whom they lived. The Karelian Bear Dog is the namesake of Karelia, an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia and Sweden. After centuries of conflict among these three peoples, the territory is now divided between the Russian Republic of Karelia, the Russian Leningrad Oblast, and two Regions of Finland: South Karelia and North Karelia

The Komi dog originates in the virgin forests of the Komi Republic to the northeast of Russia. Its people were conquered by Russia in 1472 thus the Russian connection to the bear dog.

The Karelian Bear Dog in Finland is a primitive breed that has not been interbred with any other breeds (including the Russian Laikas) and in Finland there is no confusion between the breeds. "In the native home country of the Karelian Bear Dog, which is Finland, we do not have problems like this, because the Finnish dog breeds are well known here. Both Karelian Bear Dog and Russo-European Laika have their own separate FCI breed standards (the one for Russo-European Laika was not recognized until in the 8O’s), and these two breeds should never under any circumstances be regarded as the same as they are not. The KBDs are bred for their hunting instincts in their home country of Finland and their beauty comes from their abilities in the field. Not every dog makes a good big game hunter and only the best are allowed to breed." (Laukkanen, the Finnish Spitz Club March 1999) This is how the hunting instinct has been preserved as opposed to the KBDs bred in some other countries.

The Karelian Bear Dog should not be confused with the Russo-European Laika. This close relative was bred by Russian hunters who wanted to distinguish their own Karelian Bear "Laika" from the Karelian Bear Dog in Finland, and introduced other strains of native Russian laikas to the breed.

Despite the erroneous information still out there, the Russo-European Laika is not the same dog as the Karelian Bear Dog. “Closely related to the Laika, the Karelian Bear Dog is descended from an old Finnish breed to which Russian breeders introduced Utchak Sheepdog blood. How about “Utchak Dog”? Such a breed did not and does not exist in Russia. We do not know who introduced this false statement about interbreeding with the Utchak Dog, but it was repeated by many, who wrote about the Karelian Bear Dog. Unfortunately Mark Derr also picked this up and included in his article about Karelian Bear Dogs published in Smithsonian. One question remains. What kind of dog the Utchak Dog is? We would like other members of R-PADS and guests to help us to find answer to answer this question."(HISTORY OF THE RUSSO-EUROPEAN LAIKA AND MYTH ABOUT ITS INTERBREEDING WITH THE UTCHAK DOG by Vladimir Beregovoy and Marina Kuzina PAWS 2000)


The Keeshond (IPA pronunciation:[ˈkeɪzhɑnd] or KAYZ-hond; plural: Keeshonden) is a medium-sized dog with a plush two-layer coat of silver and black fur with a 'ruff' and a curled tail, originating in Germany. Its closest relatives are the other German spitzes such as the Pomeranian. Originally called the German Spitz, more specifically the Wolfsspitz, the name was officially changed to Keeshond in England, where it had been known as the Dutch Barge Dog, in 1926.


A member of the spitz group of dogs, the Kees in AKC standard is 17 to 18 inches (about 45 cm) tall and 19.25 (46 cm) +/- 2.4 inches (6 cm) in the FCI standard and weighs 35 to 45 pounds (about 16 to 18 kg). Sturdily built, they have a typical spitz appearance, neither coarse nor refined. They have a wedge shaped head, a medium-length muzzle with a definite stop, small pointed ears and an expressive face. The tail is tightly curled and, in profile, should be carried such that it is indistinguishable from the compact body of the dog.


Like all spitzes, the Kees has a profuse double coat, with a thick ruff around the neck. Typically, the males of this breed will have a thicker, more pronounced ruff than the females. The tail is well plumed, and feathering on the fore and hind legs adds to the soft look of the breed. The coat is shown naturally, and should not be wavy, silky, or long enough to form a natural part down the back.


The Keeshond is a color-specific spitz type; many of the names of the dog refer to the distinctive wolf color of the breed. The color is a mix of grey, black and cream. The top coat is tipped with black, while the undercoat is pale grey, white, or cream (never tawny). The color can range from very pale to very dark, but the Kees should neither be black nor white, and the ruff and "trousers" of the hind legs should be a distinctly lighter grey, white, or cream.

The plumed tail should be of a white or cream color with a black tip on the very end. The tail should be tightly curled over the back. The tail is an important part of the Keeshond's shape. The ears and muzzle are to be black, although some Kees tend to develop "milk mouth" or a white shading around the nose and front of the muzzle. In American shows, this white shading is acceptable, although not desired.

It is also important to note that the feet are to also be of the same cream, or lighter grey color as the legs. Feet that are totally black, or white are not desirable. However, light penciling is accepted.

The other important marking is the "spectacles," a delicate dark line running from the outer corner of each eye toward the lower corner of each ear, which, coupled with markings forming short eyebrows, is necessary for the distinct expressive look of the breed. All markings should be clear, not muddled or broken. Absence of the spectacles is considered a serious fault. The eyes should be dark brown, almond-shaped with black eye rims.

Ears should be small, triangular, and erect.


Samurai, a male Keeshond a few days short of his first birthday, goes for a slice of cucumber

Samurai, a male Keeshond a few days short of his first birthday, goes for a slice of cucumber

Keeshonden tend to be very playful, with quick reflexes and strong jumping ability. They can be stubborn, but they are quick learners and eager to please. Because Keeshonden are quick learners, they also learn the things you didn't necessarily wish to teach them - very quickly. However, Keeshonden make excellent agility and obedience dogs. So amenable to proper training is this bright, sturdy dog that Keeshonden have been successfully trained to serve as guide dogs for the blind; only their lack of size has prevented them from being more widely used in this role.

They love children and are excellent family dogs, preferring to be close to their humans whenever possible. They generally get along with other dogs as well and will enjoy a good chase around the yard. Keeshonden are very intuitive and empathic and are often used as comfort dogs. Most notably, at least one Keeshond, Tikva, was at Ground Zero on 9/11 to help comfort the rescue workers.The breed has a tendency to become especially clingy towards their owners, even in comparison to other dogs. If their owner is out, or in another room behind a closed door, they may sit, waiting for their owner to reappear, even if there are other people nearby. Many have been referred to as their "owner's shadow," or "velcro dogs".

They are known by their loud distinctive bark. Throughout the centuries, the Keeshond has been a very popular watch dog on manors in the Netherlands and middle Europe, as well as being a watch dog on barges. This trait is evident to this day, and they are alert dogs that warn their owners of any new visitors. Despite being a loud and alert watch dog, Keeshonden are not aggressive towards visitors. They generally welcome visitors affectionately once their family has accepted them. Unfortunately, excessive barking may become a problem if not properly handled. As with other watch dogs, Keeshonden have a distinct territory that they want to guard. Therefore, a happy Keeshond should have a yard to watch out for.


The Keeshond is a very bright dog as evidenced by its level of achievement in obedience work. This intelligence makes a Keeshond a good choice for the dog owner who is willing to help a dog learn the right lessons, but also entails added responsibility. Keeshond ownership, when the dog and human have worked together to become a good pet and a good pet owner, is a very positive experience.

Many people purchase a Keeshond thinking that, being a family dog, they must also be an easy to train dog. While affectionate, the Keeshond may not be for the inexperienced trainer. Consistency and fairness is needed with a Keeshond. While most dogs need a structured environment, it's especially necessary with a Keeshond. Their intelligence, in some ways, can be a liability, especially in obedience work, where they can get bored with repetitive training.

Being an intelligent dog, most problems with Keeshonden stem from the dog inventing its own activities (often destructive ones, like digging and chewing). They need daily contact with their owners and lots of activity to remain happy. Therefore, it is not the right choice of breed for those who want a dog that lives happily alone in a kennel or backyard.

Keeshonden can also be timid dogs. It is important to train them to respect their owners and family, but not fear them. Keeshonden want to please their owners so harsh punishment is not necessary when the dog does not obey as quickly as desired.


Keeshonden are prone to hip dysplasia, luxating patellas (trick knee), epilepsy, Cushing's disease, hyperparathyroidism, and hypothyroidism. Von Willebrand's disease has been known in Keeshonden but is not common. An accurate test for the gene causing hyperparathyroidism has recently been developed at Cornell University. Because they are in the category of a "deep chested" dog, that is, dogs with pronounced chests and thinner waists such as greyhounds or St. Bernards, Keeshonden are a prime risk for bloat. This condition usually occurs when a dog eats a large amount of (usually) dry food and then drinks a large amount of water, causing the stomach to twist. Surgery can save the animal, but the experience can still cause long-lasting health problems. As with any breed, it is important when buying a puppy to make sure that the parents have been tested and certified free from inherited problems. A healthy, well-bred Keeshond can be expected to live between 12 and 15 years on average. Also they can get colds if not taken care of properly.


Due to their double coat, a thick undercoat and a long haired coat above that, Keeshonden need regular brushing once every two weeks to maintain the coat and ward off doggy odor normally associated with breeds that have hair. Proper grooming requires about an hour to an hour and a half to groom all the way to the skin. If the undercoat is not groomed out properly then eventually the undercoat will mat and die and the dog may acquire skin problems.

The Keeshond blows its coat twice a year. This entails shedding their undercoats completely during an intense shedding period that can last up to three weeks from start to finish. The hair comes out in large and small clumps and lots of vacuuming and brushing are in order. During the "blow," a Keeshond should be groomed once or twice a week to facilitate rapid removal of the dead undercoat. If the coat isn't combed out properly during the yearly sheds, hairs from that period may be shed for weeks or months after.

A bath once or twice a year may be all that is called for, as Keeshonden often lack the strong doggy smell of other breeds. Loose dirt can be brushed out, though any dog that gets very dirty should be washed.

Keeshonden (or any spitz), unlike breeds such as poodles, should not be clipped or shaved. Doing so has many detrimental effects on the coat, which may grow back improperly, tangled, or not at all. The long coat, which may appear hot during the summer, is in fact light and airy, and protects the Kees from excess sun. The coat is essential for protection against all the elements, and lacking the outer guard coat leaves the dog vulnerable to cold, rain, and insects like mosquitoes and fleas. The dirt-repellent effect of the coat will also be lost, causing frequent bathing to be necessary. The coat also loses its distinct color, as the black tipping on the hairs will be shorn off. If frequent brushing is too much effort, it is better to chose another breed rather than clip the Keeshond short.


The Keeshond was named after the 18th-century Dutch patriot, Cornelis (Kees) de Gyselaer, leader of the Dutch rebellion against the House of Orange. The dog became the rebels' symbol, and when the House of Orange was returned to power, this wonderful breed almost disappeared. The word 'keeshond' is a compound word: 'Kees' is a nickname for Cornelius (de Gyselaer), and 'hond' is a Dutch word for dog. In Holland, "keeshond" is the term for German Spitzes that encompass them all from the toy or dwarf (Pomeranian) to the [Wolfsspitz] (Keeshond). The sole difference between the German Spitzes is their coloring and size guidelines. Although many American references point to the Keeshond as we know it originated in the Netherlands, the breed is cited as being part of the German Spitz family and originating in Germany along with the Pomeranin (toy or dwarf German Spitz), American Eskimo dog (small or standard German Spitz) according to the [FCI].

The first standard for "Wolfsspitze" was posted at the Dog Show of 1880 in in Berlin. The Club for German Spitzes was founded in 1899. The German standard was revised in 1901 to specify the characteristic color that we know today, "silver grey tipped with black". In the late 1800s the "Overweight Pomeranian" a white German Spitz and most likely a Standard German Spitz, was shown in the [British Kennel Club|BKC]. The overweight Pomeranian was no longer recognized by the [British Kennel Club|BKC]in 1915. In the 1920s, Baroness van Hardenbroeck took an interest in the breed and began to build it up again. The Nederlandse Keeshond Club was formed in 1924. The Dutch Barge Dog Club of England was formed in 1925 by Mrs. Wingfield-Digby and accepted into the [British Kennel Club|BKC] in 1926, when the breed and the club were renamed to Keeshond.

Carl Hinderer is credited with bringing his Schloss Adelsburg Kennel, which he founded in 1922 in Germany, with him to America in 1923. His German Champion Wolfsspitz followed him two by two in 1926. As in England, Germany was not regarded fondly in America at the time and the Wolfsspitz/Keeshond was not recognized by the AKC. Despite this, Carl joined the Maryland KC and attended local shows. Due to the lack of AKC recognition Carl had to register each puppy with his club in Germany.

Carl regularly wrote to the AKC including the New York headquarters to promote the Wolfsspitz. While going through New York on his way to Germany in 1930 Carl visited the AKC offices and presented Wachter, his Germany champion, to AKC president, Dr. DeMond, who promptly agreed to start the recognition process, with some caveats including changing the name to Keeshond, and asked Carl to bring back all the relevant data from Germany. Carl also translated the German standard to English for the AKC. The Keeshond was accepted for AKC registration in 1930.

Despite intense lobbying the FCI would not accept the Keeshond as a separate breed since it viewed the Wolfsspitz and Keeshond as identical. In 1997 the German Spitz Club updated its standard so that the typically smaller Keeshond preferred in America and other English speaking countries could be included. This greatly expanded the gene pool and unified the standard internationally for the first time. Now bred for many generations as a companion dog, the Keeshond easily becomes a loving family member.

As a result of the breed's history and friendly disposition, Keeshonden are sometimes referred to as "The Smiling Dutchman".


Breed pronunciation

Out of the 350 some purebreds, the Keeshond has possibly the most mispronounced name. "Kay sawn", "Case-hond", "kās-hond", "keys-hând", "keesh-ond", and "keesh-hond", as so many will say, are all improper pronunciations. The proper pronunciation is "kayz-hond" or "kayz-hawnd" with the proper pronunciation of the plural being "kayz-honden" or "kayz-hawnden".

Colored Keeshonden

Historically, Keeshonden being part of the Germanspitz family had been interbred with their smaller brethren (small, standard, and dwarf Germanspitzes) and came in several colors—white, black, red, orange, orange-shaded white (also called orange and cream), and silver gray. Originally, like the other Germanspitzes, many colours, including piebalds, were allowed, but as time progressed, only the silver-grey and cream (wolf-colored) color was finally established into the Wolfsspitz type.

While other colored Keeshonden can have terrific conformation, they're not allowed to be shown in the show ring. Colored Keeshonden are considered "pet quality" and thus should be fixed.

Recently, the appearance of oddly-colored Kees in otherwise long, purebred lineages has caused research into the early history of Keeshond coat colors. Because of this, some breeders wonder whether the Keeshond should be bred for colors other than grey. There are many bloodlines carrying the colored gene, and rather than examples of mixed breeding, colors are legitimate throwbacks to an earlier era of the breed.

No one knows the exact number of colored Keeshonden born in the United States. Incorrect, or incomplete, accounts of documentation make it impossible to determine how many colored Keeshonden, and of which colors, have been born in the United States.

Kelb-tal Fenek / Pharaoh Hound

The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog, a hound which has been classed variously as a member of the sighthound and pariah groups. It is the national dog of Malta, where it is called the Kelb tal-Fenek (plural: Klieb tal-Fenek), meaning "rabbit hound". It is rare outside of Malta, and it is number 141 out of 154 breeds by dogs registered in 2005 by the AKC.


At first glance, the Pharaoh Hound should appear both graceful/elegant AND powerful/athletic. Its build should be one of strength without bulkiness or excessive musculature. Its head is elegant without being fine or extreme. The skull should resemble a blunt wedge, and is long and chiseled with only a slight stop and a muzzle of good length. Its eyes are oval with a keen, noble, alert, and intelligent expression. It has a long, lean, and muscular neck that is slightly arched. Its body is slightly longer than its height at the withers. It has a deep chest that extends down to the elbows and a moderate tuck up. Its shoulders are long and well laid back. Its front legs are long and straight. The back legs are moderately angulated, parallel to each other, and must be in balance with the forelegs. It has a long, fine, straight tail that should reach down to a bit below the point of the hocks. The tail is carried down when relaxed but must not tuck between the legs. When the dog is in motion or is excited, the tail is carried up; either level with, or loosely curled above, the back. Its dewclaws may be removed.


It stands between 21 to 25 inches at the withers and weighs between 40 to 60 lbs. Males are typically larger than females.

Coat and colour

Head study of a Pharaoh Hound

Head study of a Pharaoh Hound

The coat is fine and short with no feathering. The texture varies from silky to somewhat hard and it must never be so profuse as to stand away from the dog's skin. It is always red in colour, though the shades of red varies, and accepted shades range from a tan to a deep chestnut and all shades in between. White markings on the chest, toes, tail-tip, center of forehead, and the bridge of the muzzle are accepted, but not required. A white tail-tip is desired by some kennel clubs. In contrast, any white markings on the back of the neck, the sides, or the back of the dog are unacceptable by most standards. Its irises are always amber, and should compliment the coat colour. Though the adult eye color is amber and blending with the coat, Pharaohs are born with blue eyes, which change to a light gold or yellow color during early puppyhood and then begin to darken. Pharaohs' eyes continue to darken well into adulthood. The nose, whiskers, nails, paw-pads, and eye-rims should also be the same colour as the coat. Pharaohs also have a unique trait of "blushing" when excited or happy, with their ears and nose becoming bright pink.


The Pharaoh Hound is an intelligent, trainable, playful and active breed. It is sociable with other dogs and with people, however it can be aloof/reserved with strangers. It is typically very open and affectionate with its family and those it knows, however. It is an independent-minded, occasionally stubborn breed, yet can be very trainable when appropriate positive training methods are used. It has a strong hunting instinct, and caution should be observed when it is around small pets such as cats, birds, and rodents. It is not a demonstrative breed but rather is quietly affectionate. It is a vocal breed without being yappy or barking just for the sake of barking. It makes a good watch dog, however, it is not well suited as guard dog as it is rarely aggressive with people. This is not a breed suited for kennel situations due to its intelligence and activity level. The breed tends to bond deeply with its people and thrives best when it feels included as a member of the family.


The Pharaoh Hound is independent-minded, highly intelligent, and occasionally stubborn, yet very trainable when positive methods are used. It is a very sensitive breed and responds poorly to compulsionary training methods and to being physically punished. Pharaohs can succeed in competition obedience, but they do not take to it naturally as many breeds that were bred to work along side Man. Pharaohs were bred to hunt and think for themselves, and they have retained this trait for thousands of years. They tire/bore easily with repetitive commands, therefore it is the trainer's job to ensure that their training remains interesting and positive in nature.

They have sensitive skin, and shampoo (canine or human) may cause allergic reactions; therefore, it is best to wash them with either a human baby shampoo or gentle dog shampoo. Grooming Pharaohs is as easy as a quick rub with a hound glove or a damp cloth. They are clean dogs, shed very little, and have no noticeable odor, even when wet.

They are a very active breed and need more than just a daily walk; a run every day is required. Though they are active, they should not be hyperactive. Because of their strong prey drive and independent nature, this breed should never be allowed off leash unless in a securely fenced area away from road traffic or other dangers. Their prey drive is so strong that if they see something they think is prey, they will chase after it, and no amount of training can stop them.

They are very adept jumpers, and fences meant to contain them must be more than five feet (1.52 metres) high, six feet (1.82 metres) or higher being preferable. Because they are such good jumpers, they are well suited to the sport of dog agility. They are often classified as sighthounds, and thus compete in lure coursing. Because they maintain very little body fat and have short coats, they are sensitive to cold and cannot be left outside for long in cold climates. Dog coats/jackets are a must for this breed in cold climates. However, many Pharaoh Hounds enjoy snow and will keep themselves warm through running, playing and digging.


Two Klieb tal-Fenek hunting for rabbits in a rubble stone wall in Malta. The dogs indicate a hidden rabbit, to enable the hunter to set a Ferret into the wall

Two Klieb tal-Fenek hunting for rabbits in a rubble stone wall in Malta. The dogs indicate a hidden rabbit, to enable the hunter to set a Ferret into the wall

The first two specimens of the breed were brought to Britain in the 1920s, but at that time, no litter was bred. Again, some dogs were imported to the UK in the early 1960s, and the first litter was born in 1963. The breed standard was recognised by the The Kennel Club in 1974. The breed was called the Pharaoh Hound although this name was already used by the FCI as an alternative name for the Ibizan Hound at that time. When the FCI abolished this name in 1977 and decided to call the Ibizan Hound exclusively by its original Spanish name Podenco Ibicenco, the term Pharaoh Hound was transferred to the Kelb tal-Fenek, whose breed standard had been recognised by the FCI at the same time .

For many years, the Pharaoh Hound was considered one of the oldest dog breeds, because it is thought by some to resemble paintings of dogs featured on the walls of ancient Egyptian pyramids and tombs. Recent DNA analysis reveals, however, that this breed is actually a more recent construction, developed out of different lines of European hunting dogs . This DNA data now puts to rest the "Egyptian Myth" and proves the breed did not originate from Egypt. It is often called a sighthound, particularly in North America, but also hunts by scent and hearing.

A number of other breeds that are similar to the Pharaoh Hound exist in different regions of the Mediterranean. One is the Cirneco dell'Etna from neighbouring Sicily, which is very similar in structure and appearance, but somewhat smaller (43-51cm/17-20in). Other similar breeds include the Ibizan Hound, Podenco Canario, Podengo Português and other local breeds from the Mediterranean. It is not clear whether those breeds have descended from the same anscestral lines, or whether their similarities have developed due to similar environmental conditions.


Pharaohs, being somewhat uncommon, have not been subjected to as much irresponsible breeding as some more popular breeds, because they are not profitable for commercial breeding, thus those who breed them do it for the love of the breed and to have a good show, performance, and/or hunting dog. They try hard to prevent hereditary diseases from entering the gene pool. Thus, Pharaohs are basically free from genetic diseases at this point in time. However, reputable breeders continue to test their breeding stock for genetic conditions such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, and myriad eye conditions just to ensure that these disorders do not become a problem in the future. Reputable breeders should be able to show you documentation of health screening performed on their breeding dogs. Note that Pharaohs, like most sighthounds, are sensitive to barbiturate anaesthetics. Their ears are thin and prone to frostbite when in cold climates.

Kerry Blue Terrier

The Kerry Blue Terrier is a breed of dog named after the County of Kerry in South West Ireland. In its motherland the it is often called the Irish Blue Terrier which is probably a better name because the breed was never restricted to County Kerry. Over time the Kerry became a general working dog used for a variety of jobs including herding cattle and sheep and as a guard dog. It was, however, primarily developed for controlling "vermin" including rats, rabbits, badgers, foxes, otters and hares and dog fighting. Today the Kerry has spread around the world as a companion and working dog. Despite a Kerry Blue winning Crufts - the most important UK dog show - in 2000, it remains an unfashionable breed. Not as threatened as some of the other Irish native breeds (Skye Terrier, Sealyham Terrier, Dandie Dinmont Terrier) but still distinctly uncommon.


A gray adult Kerry Blue Terrier (left), and a darker immature dog

A gray adult Kerry Blue Terrier (left), and a darker immature dog

Some characteristics of the Kerry Blue Terrier include a long head, flat skull, deep chest, and a soft wavy to curly coat that comes in several shades of blue (the term for "gray" in dog coats). Puppies are born black; the blue appears gradually as the puppy grows older, usually up to 2 years of age. The ideal Kerry should be 18-1/2 inches at the withers for a male, slightly less for the female. The most desirable weight for a fully developed male is from 33-40 pounds, females weighing proportionately less.


The Kerry Blue Terrier doesn't shed but the Kerry owner will pay his dues as coat care is extensive. The coat is close to the structure of human hair, similar to that of the Poodle or Maltese, which makes the Kerry an option for some people with pet hair allergies. It should be remembered that allergies are sometimes caused by tiny flakes of the animals' skin rather than the hair itself. If you have a dust allergy (household dust is composed mainly of flakes of human skin!) be very careful in considering any pet.

The coat is soft and wavy but of one layer and not the common terrier structure of a soft undercoat below a harsh outer coat. It never stops growing and so requires regular brushing to prevent matting (at least once a week, daily is better!) and trimming every six to ten weeks. In the past it was the matting of the coat that protected the working Kerries from rain, cold, water and mud. Todays trimmed and groomed pet Kerry should not be kept outside all the time and should be dried immediately when back at home.


Kerry Blue Terriers are strong-headed and highly spirited. They have always been loyal and affectionate towards their owners and very gentle towards children but were often considered downright mean toward other animals including other dogs. In the early days of competitive dog showing the Irish Kennel Club required Kerries had to pass a "gameness" test, known as Teastas Mor certification, before they were deemed worthy of being judged. These tests included catching rabbits and bringing a badger to bay in its set. They were not nicknamed "Blue Devils" for nothing!

Modern breeders have attempted to retain high spirits whilst breeding out aggression. They have achieved a great deal but the Kerry can still be dog aggressive and vocal so socialization from puppy-hood is an absolute necessity to prevent future problems and veterinary bills.

Together with the Airedale Terrier, the Kerry is one of the best-suited terriers for work.[citation needed] They are fast, strong, and intelligent. They do well in obedience, dog agility, sheep herding, and tracking. They have been used as police dogs in Ireland.

As a long-legged breed, the activity level of the Kerry Blue Terrier ranges from moderate to high. They require an active, skilled owner who can provide them with early socialization and obedience training. Kerries require exercise daily; such as walks, jogs, agility-training, or other day care activities to keep them busy and occupied. Combine this with the grooming needs and you have a dog that requires considerable time spent on it. Kerries are not for everyone but in the right home they are a good family companion.


Kerries are fairly healthy, however there are some genetic disorders that are prevalent in the breed. They are prone to eye problems such as Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes), cataracts, and entropion. They sometimes get cysts or cancerous growths in their skin, but these are rarely malignant. Hip dysplasia, hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism have also been reported. Progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) is also seen. This condition is also referred to as Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy (CCA) or Cerebellar Abiotrophy (CA). PNA is a disease of the nervous system, in which the cerebellum loses its ability to coordinate movement. PNA is believed to be genetic, but there is no test available that can detect carriers. PNA is degenerative, with affected dogs beginning to be visibly uncoordinated and unable to stand or move without stumbling at around one year of age. There is no known cure for PNA, and affected dogs will have very poor quality of life, often not able to even sit up or eat as the disease progresses, and should be humanely destroyed.

Another health issue that is skin related is that of spiculosis. This is a skin disorder that produces abnormally thick hairs that are also called thorns, spikes or bristles. These cause pain and need to be removed by hand or when necessary surgically.


The exact origins of the Kerry will probably never be known. There is a romantic story of a blue dog swimming ashore from a shipwreck. The coat of this dog was so lovely that it was mated with all the female Wheaten Terriers in Kerry (or in all Ireland according to some) producing the Kerry Blue. Maybe this is not entirely fantasy as the Portuguese Water Dog is often suggested as part of the Kerry's make up. The Kerry is known as a good swimmer and one of the few breeds used for hunting otter in deep water. Others suggest the Kerry was produced by the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier crossed with the Bedlington Terrier with (or without) some Irish Wolfhound or Irish Terrier blood. The extinct Gadhar herding dog is also mentioned as another possible branch of the Kerry's family tree. One certain fact is the breed became very popular as an all around farm dog in rural Ireland. They are well known for their stubborness. If you are planning on getting a Kerry Blue make sure you are ready for it. They are also fairly hard to train

National Dog of Ireland

With the development of dog shows in the late 19th and early 20th century the breed became standardised and tidied up for the show ring. It was closely associated with Irish nationalism with the nationalist leader Michael Collins owning a famous Kerry Blue named Convict 225. Indeed Collins made an attempt to have the Kerry blue adopted as the national dog of Ireland.

It should be stated, however, that the love of dogs crossed political divides. The first show of the Dublin Irish Blue Terrier club took place outside official curfew hours and was entered by those fighting for and against an Ireland Republic! The Dublin Irish Blue Terrier Club was so successful it led directly to the foundation of the Irish Kennel Club. A Kerry blue was the first dog registered with the Irish Kennel Club.

King Charles Spaniel

The King Charles Spaniel (known as the English Toy Spaniel in the U.S. and Canada) is a breed of small dog in the spaniel category. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a different breed, although it is sometimes referred to as a King Charles Spaniel. The Cavalier is more closely related to Cocker Spaniels, while the King Charles Spaniel is more closely related to the Pug.


The breed originated in Renaissance-era Great Britain as a companion dog for royalty, although in that era the breed more closely resembled the modern Cavalier King Charles Spaniel than contemporary English Toys. Crosses between long-snouted toy spaniels and short-snouted breeds such as the Pug or Japanese Chin in the 18th and 19th centuries led to the breed's current appearance. Weighs around 11 pounds.


Like its larger cousin, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, the King Charles Spaniel has a silky, often slightly wavy coat. It tends to be shorter than that of Cavaliers.

This breed also comes in the same color varieties as the Cavalier: Blenheim (red-and-white), Prince Charles (tricolor), King Charles (black-and-tan), and Ruby (solid red).Originally, each of these color patterns was regarded as a separate breed, but in the late 1800s the four varieties were consolidated into a single breed.

The AKC has two classes: English Toy Spaniel (B/PC) (Blenheim and Prince Charles) and English Toy Spaniel (R/KC) (Ruby and King Charles).


The King Charles Spaniel may have health problems such as heart defects, eye problems, patellar luxation (kneecap slipping), and fused toes, which can cause incorrectly grown toenails. They tend to live 10 to 12 years.

Although there is less information available online, the King Charles Spaniel suffers from the same serious health problems as the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Please see the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel health section for more information.

Kintamani (dog)

The Kintamani is a dog breed native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Kintamani dog is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region of Bali. Kintamani dogs cohabitate with feral Bali street dogs, although folklore has the breed originating 600 years ago from a Chinese Chow Chow. The physical and personality characteristics of the Kintamani dog make it a popular pet for the Balinese, and efforts are currently under way to have the dog accepted by the Federation Cynologique Internationale as a recognized breed. To study the genetic background of the Kintamani dog, 31 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in Kintamani dogs, Bali street dogs, Australian dingoes, and nine American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized breeds of Asian or European origin. The Kintamani dog was identical to the Bali street dog at all but three loci. The Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most closely aligned with the Australian dingo and distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Asian but not European origin. Therefore, the Kintamani dog has evolved from Balinese feral dogs with little loss of genetic diversity.


Kintamani Dogs have a distinctive form and character which sets them apart from the average village dog. Whilst they live much the same kind of life as an average village dog, Kintamani dogs have longer hair and dig holes in which to nest their young. Some even live in small caves among the boulders around Kintamani. Nowadays, these good-looking dogs are increasingly sought after as pets. They have a broad face, a flat forehead and flat cheeks. In this way, they resemble the Chinese mountain dog, the Chow Chow, to which recent genetic studies have confirmed; the Kintamani Dog is distantly related.


Common fur colors include white, beige, and black. Now officially recognized as a separate canine breed, the Kintamani looks something like a mix between the Samoyed and a solid white Malamute. Breeders often confine the dogs to cold dark caves near the Kintamani volcano, insisting it an essential step in developing the thick white coat of Bali's only official breed.

The typical physical appearances of Kintamani and Bali street dogs. The withers height of the female Kintamani dog is 40–50 cm, 45–55 cm for the male. The stature of the Bali street dog is similar. The desired physical traits of the Kintamani dog include erect ears, forwardly curved tail held at the midline, medium to longhaired coat, almond-shaped brown eyes, and black skin pigment. The most desired coat color is white with apricot-tipped ears. However, other coat colors, such as black, are accepted. Bali street dogs come in many colors and coat patterns, and they are almost always shorthaired and straight to curve tailed. Both still whelp in burrows dug into the earth, a feral dog trait. However, the Bali street dog cannot be reliably tamed, even when taken as a puppy. In contrast, the Kintamani dog is gentle around people, yet retains enough assertive behavior to render it a noteworthy (but not vicious) watchdog.


A fiercely independent breed, Kintamani's can be can be aggressively territorial while at the same tender and affectionate with their owning families. While most dog breeds are disinclined to climbing and heights, Kintamani's will climb across roofs and spend parts of the day happily installed sitting or sleeping atop a garden wall. They are light-footed and move freely, smoothly and lithely, and will bark when confronted with an unfamiliar sound or sight.


Genetic studies of the breed have shown that has probably evolved from local Balinese feral dogs, and is distantly related to other Asian breeds.Folklore indicates that the Kintamani began with a Chow Chow around 600 years ago. The Kintamani achieved national recognition as a distinct dog breed in April 2006.

It is also possible that the Kintamani Dog came with the Javanese invaders from the kingdom of Majapahit in 1343 or with the Javanese refugees of the civil war in the 15th century. But of all the hypotheses, about the origins of the Kintamani Dog, only one is really plausible: that sometime between the 12th and the 16th century a Chinese trader named Lee landed in Singaraja in Northern Bali, bringing with him a Chow Chow dog which bred with the local Balinese feral dogs. Lee later in settled in the Kintamani region and raised his family there. Evidence that the Lee family lived in Kintamani exists in the form of a Chinese temple in which people of the Khonghucu faith still worship.


The Komondor is a livestock guardian dog breed originally from Hungary. The plural is Komondorok.


Females are 27 inches (69cm) at the withers. Male Komondorok are a minimum of 28 inches at the withers, but many are over 30 inches tall, making this one of the larger common breeds of dog. The body is not overly coarse or heavy, however, and people unfamiliar with the breed are often surprised by how quick and agile the dogs are.


Its long, thick, strikingly corded white coat (the heaviest amount of fur in the canine world)[citation needed] resembles dreadlocks or a mop. The puppy coat is soft and fluffy. However, the coat is wavy and tends to curl as the puppy matures. A fully mature coat is formed naturally from the soft undercoat and the coarser outer coat combining to form tassels, or cords. Some help is needed in separating the cords so the dog does not turn into one large matted mess. The length of the cords increases with time as the coat grows. Shedding is very minimal with this breed, contrary to what one might think (once cords are fully formed). The only substantial shedding occurs as a puppy before the dreadlocks fully form. The Komondor is born with only a white coat, unlike the similar-looking Puli, which is usually white, black or sometimes grayish. However, a working Komondor's coat may be discolored by the elements, and may appear off-white if not washed regularly.


The origin of the Komondor is debated. Some believe the Komondorok were a dog of the Magyars, while others believe it to be a dog of the Sumerians. The latter is only a nationalistic confabulation. According to the most probable explanation, Komondorok were brought to Hungary by Cumans, the Turkish speaking, nomadic people who settled Hungary during the 12th and 13th century. The name "quman-dur" means "belonging to the Cumans" or "the dog of the Cumans," thus distinguishing it from a smiliar Hungarian sheepdog breed which later merged with the Komondor.

The unique dreadlock appearance gives a hint of common origin with the Puli and the Bergamasco. There might also be a link between the Komondor and the big, white Russian livestock dogs, the South Russian Ovtcharka. The dreadlock coat must have developed under a dry and extreme temperature climate as it provides superb protection against cold and hot weather, but is not too comfortable in wet weather.

The Komondor is built for livestock guarding. It is big, strong, and armored with a thick coat. The coat provides protection against wild animals and the weather and vegetation. The coat is the trademark of the breed.

The Komondor is a rare breed even in Hungary, its country of origin. Many Komondorok were killed during World War II and local stories say that this is due to the fact that when the Germans (and then the Russians) invaded, they had to kill the dog before they could capture a farm or house that it guarded.


The Komondor's temperament is like that of most livestock guarding dogs; it is calm and steady when things are normal. In cases of trouble, the dog will defend its charges. It was bred to think for itself and is usually intelligent. It is extremely affectionate with its family and friends and gentle with the children of the famly. Although wary of strangers, it will nonetheless accept them when it is clear that no harm is meant. It is very protective of its family, home and posessions. It will instinctively guard them. An athletic dog, the Komondor is fast and powerful and will leap at a predator to drive it off or knock it down. It can be used successfully to guard sheep against wolves or bears.


Because of the Komondor's size, power, and speed, its owner must have it under control. Obedience training is a must, preferably starting at an early age (4 - 8 months). Komondorok generally take well to training if started early. Komondorok can become obstinate when bored, so it is imperative that training sessions be upbeat and happy. Praise is a must, as are consistent and humane corrections. Once a Komondor gets away with unfriendly or hostile behavior, it will always think such behavior is appropriate. Therefore, consistent corrections even with a young puppy are necessary to ensure a well-adjusted adult. Socialization is also extremely important. The Komondor should be exposed to new situations, people and other dogs as a puppy. Because it is a natural guard dog, a Komondor that is not properly socialized may react in an excessively aggressive manner when confronted with a new situation or person. Again, puppy training is strongly recommended for all Komondorok.

Given the proper environment and care, a Komondor is a responsible, loving dog. They are devoted and calm without being sluggish. As in any breed, there is quite a range of personalities, so your needs should be outlined clearly to your breeder. An experienced breeder can try to identify that personality which would be happier as an independent livestock dog, or that which wants more to please and would make a good obedience dog or family pet. Adolescence can be marked by changes in a Komondor's temperament, eating habits, trainability and general attitude. Many Komondorok are "late bloomers", not fully mature until nearly three years of age.


Komondorok do not suffer many heredity problems. Perhaps because the breed has descended from centuries of hardy working stock, Komondorok have few genetically linked problems. In particular, there is no evidence of the retinal eye problems found in other breeds, nor is there dwarfism or hereditary blood disorders.

Hip dysplasia

As in all large breeds (and some small ones) there is some hip dysplasia, though the incidence is about 10% of all radiographs submitted, according to statistical studies of the OFA.


There are two eye disorders found in the breed. Entropion is indicated by the curling inwards of either the upper or lower eyelid. This lid deformity causes the lashes to rub against the cornea causing lacerations and infections. More recently, juvenile cataracts have been documented. The Canine Eye Registration Foundation, CERF, located at Purdue University, evaluates eye exams and assigns a CERF number to it if the dog's eyes are free from genetic problems.


There is some indication of bloat, a genetically caused, life-threatening condition. The incidence of bloat is no greater than with any other large breeds.


External parasites can be a problem due to the heavy coat. As with any long-haired dog, a skin check should be part of a regular grooming routine. If fleas or ticks are found, aggressive measures are in order. Shampoos and powders work well, but great care should be observed as it is easy to miss a spot where the fleas can hide. Owners should check anti-flea and tick preparations carefully as Komondorok can be extremely sensitive to some of these products. It is recommended to spot-test the coat before dipping as some flea dips have been known to discolor the white coat. Flea collars can also discolor the hair beneath them, so look for a white or transparent one.


Ear care should also be routine. As Komondorok have ears which prevent air circulation, it is especially necessary to keep them clean and hair-free. Some ear canals are more hairy than others, but commercial powders, cleansing fluids and plucking of the hair can greatly reduce infections.


Thick hair grows between the pads of the feet which also requires maintenance. This hair can pick up burrs, or become a source of irritation and infection when wet. For the health and comfort of the dog, this hair should be cut out with an electric clipper or scissors to keep mats from forming between the foot pads.


As in all breeds one should be careful that Komondorok have the proper vaccines against rabies, distemper, canine parvovirus, etc. Dogs should also be checked periodically for worms and other internal parasites. Like all stock guard dogs Komondorok are usually extremely sensitive to anesthetics. These drugs should always be administered to effect, never by weight.


The Kooikerhondje or Kooiker Hound, is a small spaniel-type breed of dog of Dutch ancestry that was originally used as a working dog, particularly in duck hunting and tolling. Kooikers were popular in the 17th and 18th century and appeared in the paintings of Rembrandt and Jan Steen. The breed is rapidly gaining popularity in the United States and Canada, where it is still relatively unknown.


Male Kooiker - 9 months old

Male Kooiker - 9 months old

These dogs are around 35 to 40 cm (14 to 16 inches) high at the withers with a nearly square body that is slightly longer than their height at the shoulders. Kooikerhondjes should weigh 9 to 11 kg (20-24 pounds). They have long, hanging ears with wispy tips (called earrings) that are set close to the head and upright, feathered tails. For show dogs, black ear tips and white tails are preferred. Tri-coloration occurs, but is not a recognized variation.

An adult Kooiker

An adult Kooiker

They have shiny bicoloured coats, often predominantly white and chestnut. The fur is medium long and either slightly wavy or straight. The breed has a waterproof coat that does not require clipping, with a well-developed undercoat.


Kooikers are intelligent, alert, active, agile dogs, generally with a benevolent nature. However, they can be extremely territorial and will bark at strangers. They are usually good swimmers and can generally adapt to different levels of exercise.


Kooikers have good appetites and a tendency to put on weight easily. They have a relatively small genetic base, so hereditary diseases are somewhat prevalent. These include:

A kooikerhondje

A kooikerhondje


The Kooikerhondje was developed in the Netherlands around the sixteenth century to be a tolling breed. They were used to lure and drive ducks into koois (canals with traps at the ends), where the hunter could easily catch the fowl. The breed almost became extinct after World War II until Baroness van Hardenbroek van Ammerstol rescued it. The breed was only officially recognised by the Dutch Kennel Club in 1971 and has since been imported into other countries and recognised officially although the breed is still relatively unknown in North America and not yet recognized as a breed in the USA or Canada, although it has been accepted into the AKC's FSS program. In the United States, both the UKC and ARBA recognize the breed.

Korea Jindo Dog

The Korean Jindo Dog (Hangul: 진돗개; Hanja: 珍島개) is a breed of a hunting dog known to have originated on Jindo Island in Korea. Although relatively unknown outside Korea, it is celebrated in its native land for its fierce loyalty and brave nature.




The Jindo is a medium-sized, double-coated spitz-type dog, with prick ears. The body is either square or slightly longer than tall. It has been divided into two body types: Tonggol or Gyupgae and Hudu or Heutgae. The former is very muscular and shorter in body, with a depth of chest equal to one-half the height at the withers and a shorter loin, while the latter is more slender with somewhat less depth of chest and a slightly longer loin, resulting in a height to length ratio of 10:11. Typically, males are larger with heavier heads and females have more fox-like features. These two types are gradually being blended into a third type called Gakgol, which retains the length of body of the Hudu style and the depth of chest of the Tonggol style. "The topline inclines very slightly downward from well-developed withers to a strong back with a slight but definite arch over the loin, which blends into a slightly sloping croup. The ribs are moderately sprung out from the spine, then curving down and inward to form a body that would be nearly oval if viewed in cross-section. The loin is muscular but narrower than the rib cage and with a moderate tuck-up. The chest is deep and moderately broad. When viewed from the side, the lowest point of the chest is immediately behind the elbow. The forechest should extend in a shallow oval shape in front of the forelegs but the sternum should not be excessively pointed.

  • Maturity: May reach full size by 5 months, but takes 2 years to physically and emotionally mature.
  • Height: At maturity, desirable height for male dogs should be 19 1/2 to 21 inches and 18 1/2 to 20 inches for females.
  • Weight: In good condition, males should be 35-45 lb. and 30-40 lb. for a female.
  • Tail: There are two types: ring tail, rolled on its back; erect tail, straight up.
  • Eyes: Gingko nut-shaped yellowish brown eyes with clear pupils. Jindos with reddish eyes are considered better hunters.
  • Ears: Ears start out floppy and usually stand erect by 5 or 6 months. Jindos with ears that straighten later are said to be better hunters.
  • Hair: Coat is of medium length, coarse with a thick undercoat. Jindos shed twice a year.
  • Color: Korean law currently only recognizes white Jindos and red (tan) Jindos, thus they are the most popular colors. Some Jindo Island residents have valued black, black/tan and red/white Jindos for being good hunters over the years. The UKC recognizes five different coat colors: white, fawn, gray, black and tan, and brindle (tiger pattern).




The Korean Jindo Dog is well known for its unwavering loyalty and gentle nature. Because of this there is a misunderstanding that a Jindo will be loyal only to its first owner or the owner when young. However, there are many examples of older Jindos being adopted out of shelters in the United States and becoming very loyal friends to their new owners. They are highly active and are not meant to be indoor-only dogs. Jindo dogs need reasonable space to roam and run. Jindos require a lot of care and attention. They are also known to be escape artists and high jumpers and climbers. If kept in a yard, the fencing must be at least six feet high.

Because the Jindo is an active and intelligent dog, it requires frequent interaction with people or another dog in the family.. The Jindo will commonly think for itself. If left alone by itself for a long stretch, it finds its own entertainment. A Jindo may climb over a fence or wall, dig the ground, or tear up the house if confined indoors. Worse still, a mistreated or badly trained Jindo may roam around the neighborhood and attack neighbors' pets and threaten people.

For this reason many Jindo dogs are found in animal shelters. Also because the breed is not well known, there are many good Jindo dogs available for adoption.

With Jindos, establishing the hierarchy (humans above dogs) with care and affection is essential.

It is important to socialize Jindos at a very early age. As with humans, Jindos will test boundaries to establish themselves at the top of dog hierarchies--a true alpha dog--due to the way in which the breed evolved. This may result in dog aggression in the unsocialized Jindo.

Jindos serve as excellent watchdogs, able to distinguish friend from foe, familiar people from strangers. They are conscious of their owners' reactions towards others and act accordingly. Because Jindos so rarely bark aggressively, especially in familiar environments, an owner may lend special credence to the warning of his/her pet. Many are also finicky eaters and will not take food from strangers.

Many Jindos display a curious aversion from running water and avoid situations that might get them wet. They let themselves be washed, although with great reluctance.

People adopt Jindo dogs because of their beautiful appearance, high intelligence, loyalty, and sometimes for their fighting spirit, then quickly realize that raising a Jindo dog to be a well-behaved member of the family takes a lot of effort and time. Many Jindo Dogs are abandoned in the U.S. because of the difficulty of training them. Potential owners who are prepared and determined to have an intelligent, loyal, but independent companion can adopt a Jindo dog from shelters.


There is no written record of the origin of the Korean Jindo Dog but many authorities agree that the Jindos have originated and existed on the Jindo Island for a long time.

It is said that Jindo Dogs descended from Mongolian battle dogs that were left on Korea's Jindo Island after the 13th-century Mongol invasion of Korea. The Korean King surrendered but some of his armies withdrew to Jindo Island, off the southern coast of Korea, where they continued to fight. This is known as the Sambyeolcho Rebellion. The soldiers' dogs ended up isolated on Jindo Island, where they developed a very pure strain. As the Jindos primarily bred themselves without human selection of traits, only the most dominant dogs reproduced; this resulted in the formation of the highly dominant nature of the Jindo. Jindos served both as hunting and guard dogs in Korea.

In 1962, the Korean government designated the Jindo as the 53rd Natural Monument ; and passed the "Jindo Preservation Ordinance". Jindos marched in the opening ceremonies of the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea. The United Kennel Club recognized the Jindo on January 1, 1998.


Other characteristics

Jindo dogs will housetrain themselves as puppies. Even off lead or without direction, they will often relieve themselves in the farthest corner of the yard. They are also renowned for their almost uncanny homing instinct.




Jindo dogs are not well known and not very common in the United States or generally outside of Korea, especially purebreds, since the Korean government restricts the exportation of this breed.

However, Jindo Dogs are taken into the U.S., England, etc. by former residents of Korea, and are bred for sale there.

Additionally, there are hundreds of Jindos that need homes due to irresponsible breeders and the large number of strays, especially in cities such as Los Angeles. Jindos take awhile to warm up to humans and thus are sometimes overlooked at pet adoptions. They will grow into a loyal, kind, protective, intelligent and interesting pet. They are readily available at many shelters and rescue sites. You may search sites like for possible strays in your area.


The Kromfohrländer is a breed of dog that originates in Germany. It is used as a companion dog.


The Kromfohrländer is sometime said to look like a cross between a retriever and a beagle, and comes in a variety of coat thicknesses: short-haired, long haired and wire-haired. They are white with brown markings ranging from dark to light.


This dog is medium in size Height: 38 cm (15 in.) and 46 cm (18 in.) at the withers. Weight: 10 kg (22 lb) to 14 kg (31 lb)


The Krom is a very good-natured dog, and is a reliable hunter and vigilant watchdog. It isn't especially friendly to children, but will play with kids. It is rather easy to obedience train.


The Krom originates from Germany in the 1940s. The first Kroms were the result of an accidental mating of two mutts (or possibly a Fox Terrier and a Grand Basset Griffon Vendeen). The resulting puppies were taken in by an Ilse Schleifenbaum, who thought that the puppies were very attractive and decided to try breeding them. They were first recognized for showing in 1955.

Kunming Dog

The Kunming Wolfdog, or Kunming Dog is an established breed of wolf-dog hybrid.


Kunming Dogs are similar in appearance to the German Shepherd Dog but stand taller in the back and have a shorter coat. The tail is often carried curled high when excited. Coats are marked with a black saddle and muzzle, with other colors ranging from light straw to deep rust.


Height: 25-27 inches (64-68 cm.) Weight: 66-84 pounds (30-38 kg.)

Breed History

The breed was created in the early 1950's to meet the need for military dogs in Yunnan, the capital of which is Kunming. A group of 10 dogs was brought to Kunming from a military K9 training program Beijing in 1953. (Available sources do not state what breed or breeds they were.) These ten dogs were insufficient for the immediate need, and so 50 suitable household dogs from Kunming were 'recruited' as well as 40 similar dogs from the city of Guiyang in Guizhou province. After training, the best twenty of these 90 'civil' dogs were then selected. The 10 'wolfdogs' from Beijing, these 20 'civil dogs' plus an additional 10 'shepherd dogs' imported from Germany constituted the pool from which the Kunming Dog was developed. The Chinese Public Security Bureau officially recognized the Kunming Dog as a breed in 1988. Kunming Dogs are now widely used by the Chinese military and police, and have also found their way into use as civilian watchdogs and guard dogs. They are less commonly kept as pets.


The Kuvasz (pronounced KOO-vahss; plural Kuvaszok, pronounced KOO-vah-sock) is a dog breed of ancient Hungarian origin. Mention of the breed can be found in old Hungarian texts. It has historically been used to guard livestock, but has been increasingly found in homes as a pet over the last seventy years.

The word, contrary to some theories, is probably not of Sumerian origin. It most likely comes from the Turkic word kavas meaning guard or soldier or kuwasz meaning protector. A related theory posits that the word may have originated from the ancient farmers of Russia, the Chuvash, who nurtured the breed for generations and contributed many words to the Hungarian language. The Sumerian-origin theory hypothesizes that the name comes from the Sumerian phrase Ku Assa, meaning dog of the horse, and that the Hungarian word kutya, meaning dog, is also derived from ancient Sumerian.


Kuvaszok are large dogs with dense coats which are usually white in color and can range from wavy to straight in texture. Although the fur is white, the Kuvasz’s skin pigmentation should be dark and the nose should be black. The eyes should have an almond shape. They are larger than the average Labrador Retriever. Females usually weigh between 75-90 pounds (35-40 kg) while males weigh between 100-115 pounds (45-52 kg) with a medium bone structure. Their facial features are very similar to those of a Golden Retriever. The head should be half as wide as it is long with the eyes set slightly below the plane of the muzzle. The stop (where the muzzle raises to the crown of the head) should be defined but not abrupt. The precise standard varies by country. (See the Breed Standards for a more precise description.) To a casual observer, the Kuvasz may appear similar to a Great Pyrenees, Akbash, a Maremma Sheepdog, or a white Poodle and Labrador Retreiver mix.

As with many livestock guardian dogs, the color of the Kuvasz's coat serves a functional purpose and is an essential breed criterion. Shepards purposefully bred the Kuvasz to have a light colored coat so that it would be easier to distinguish the Kuvasz from wolves that would prey on the livestock during the night. Traditionally, the Hungarian Kuvasz's coat could be either white or cream colored with a wavy texture. However, there is some debate, particularly in the United States, concerning the appropriateness of "cream" colored coats in show-quality dogs and whether the coat should be straight or wavy in texture.This division is likely the result of a split in breeding programs that developed after World War II, when the breeding lines in Hungary were isolated from the rest of the world as a result of Soviet occupation (see History, below).


Kuvaszok are relatively intelligent for dogs and are often described as having a clownish sense of humor which can last throughout their adolescence and occasionally into adulthood. They are an intensely loyal yet patient pet who appreciates attention but may also be somewhat aloof or independent, particularly with strangers. In keeping with their origins as a livestock guardian, Kuvaszok are known to be fierce protectors of their families. Given their intelligence, constant awareness of their surroundings, as well as their size and strength, they can be quite impressive in this role. A Kuvasz should be courageous, disciplined and stable, while hyperactivity, nervousness and shyness are to be faulted.

The combination of intelligence, independence and protectiveness make obedience training and socialization necessities. Further, despite their intelligence, they should not be perceived as easily trained. Their independent personalities can make training a difficult task which can wear on the patience of even experienced owners. As a result, they are not recommended for novices and those who do not have time to train and socialize them properly. With a steady hand an adolescent Kuvasz should be able to quickly learn and consistently respond to basic obedience commands, however the instinctive need to investigate strangers and protect its owner may cause the Kuvasz to act independently when off leash and ignore the calls of a frustrated handler. Finally, a potential owner should refrain from purchasing a Kuvasz if barking will be a problem at the home. While not all Kuvasz are prone to barking, many of them fulfill their guardian role by vocally warning off potential threats, both real and imagined. On the other hand, many of these qualities make the Kuvasz excellent guardians for sheep or manors.


The Kuvasz's stiff, dense coat, growing up to 15 cm (6 inches) in length, does not require any special grooming. It needs to be brushed once a week or, better still, every two or three days. For standard grooming purposes, use of a grooming rake or a pin-brush with rounded pins is recommended. To remove stubborn knots, use a curry comb or a large-toothed comb. During the spring and autumn the Kuvasz moults (also known as shedding), and he will lose copious amounts of hair very quickly. Frequent brushing is therefore needed to keep his coat tidy. A Kuvasz should not smell or have an odor; such is usually a sign of illness or a poor diet.


Although generally a healthy and robust breed which can be expected to live approximately 12-14 years, the Kuvaszok are prone to developmental bone problems.Accordingly, owners should take care to provide proper nutrition to their Kuvasz puppy and avoid subjecting the puppy to rough play. As with many large breeds, hip dysplasia, a painful and potentially debilitating condition, is not uncommon. Good genetics and proper nutrition as a puppy are key to avoiding these complications.

A Kuvasz puppy should not be fed a diet high in calories or protein as such diets have been associated with the development of orthopedic disorders later in life. The Kuvasz has a very efficient metabolism and is predisposed to rapid growth -- vitamin supplements are not necessary and, in fact, should be avoided. Cooked bones should never be given to a Kuvasz or any other dog because the cooking process renders the bone brittle and prone to splintering, which can cause serious injury to the dog's mouth and digestive tract.


Although regarded today as one of the Hungarian breeds, the Kuvasz' origins actually lay with a nomadic tribe and may have its true origins from as far as Tibet. Around 2000 B.C., the Magyar tribes moved along the recently established trade routes of the steppes, gradually leading them to the Carpathian Basin in Hungary which they conquered in 896 A.D. With them came Kuvasz-type dogs, which primarily served as a livestock guardian. In 1978, the fossilized skeleton of a 9th Century Kuvasz-type dog was discovered in Fenékpuszta near Keszthely, a discovery which was remarkable in that the morphology of the skeleton was almost identical to modern Kuvaszok. If accurate, such a discovery would mark the Kuvasz as among the oldest identifiable dog breeds as only a few breeds can be dated beyond the 9th Century.

After the Magyar settlement of the Carpathian Basin, the tribes converted to a more agrarian lifestyle and began to devote more resources towards animal husbandry. The Kuvasz and its cousins, such as the Komondor, were an integral part of the economy. Whereas the Komondor was used in the lower elevations with drier climates, the Kuvasz was preferred in the wet pastures of the higher mountains. Later, during the 15th Century, the Kuvasz became a highly prized animal and could be found in the royal court of King Matthias. Kuvasz puppies were given to visiting dignitaries as a royal gift, and the King was said to have trusted his dogs more than his own councilors.After the king's death, the popularity of the breed among the nobles waned but it was still frequently found in its traditional role of protecting livestock.

At the end of World War II, the dog was almost driven to extinction in Hungary, as the Nazi forces (including, most notably, the 2nd SS Division Das Reich) swept across the country. Along with their crimes against humanity, the Nazis bear the responsibility for the near-extermination of several dog breeds, including Bouvier des Flandres]. After the War, it was revealed that there were less than thirty Kuvaszok left in Hungary and some sources indicate the number may have been as few as twelve. Since then, due to many dedicated breeders, Kuvaszok have repopulated Hungary. However, as a result of this near extinction, the genetic pool available to breeders was severely restricted and many were forced to use other breeds, such as the Great Pyrenees, to continue their programs.This problem was particularly acute in countries outside of Europe where Kuvasz populations were limited.

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