Wednesday, 1 August 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 6)

Cairn Terrier

The Cairn Terrier is a breed of dog of the terrier category. It is one of the oldest terriers, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognised as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs, used for hunting burrowing prey among the cairns.


The breed standard can be found on the Cairn Terrier Club of America website. The current standard was approved on May 10, 1938 and it was adopted from the The Kennel Club of Great Britain. According to the American standard, dogs should weigh 14 pounds and stand 10" at the withers. Females should weigh 13 pounds and stand 9.5" at the withers. A Cairn's appearance may vary from this standard. It is common for a Cairn to stand between 9 and 13 inches (23-33 cm) at the withers and weigh 13 to 18 pounds (6 to 8 kg). European Cairns tend to be larger than American Cairns. Due to irresponsible breeding, many Cairns available today are much smaller or much larger than the breed standard. Cairns that have had puppy mill backgrounds can weigh as little as 7 pounds or as much as 27 pounds.

The Cairn Terrier has a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colors. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917 the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change color throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration.


Cairn Terriers are intelligent, strong, and loyal. Like most terriers, they are stubborn and strong-willed, and love to dig after real or imagined prey. Cairn Terriers have a strong prey instinct and will need comprehensive training. However, they are highly intelligent and, although very willful, can be trained. Although it is often said that they are disobedient, this is not the case provided correct training is applied. These are working dogs and are still used as such in parts of Scotland. Some Cairn Terriers are very independent and do not make good "lap dogs". The image of Cairn Terriers being like "Toto" from the Wizard of Oz is a partial misconception. In reality, these dogs do not always like to snuggle and would heartily object to being kept in a basket.

A Cairn Terrier enjoying the sun.

A Cairn Terrier enjoying the sun.


These dogs are generally healthy and live on average about 15 years. Yet, breeders, owners and veterinarians have identified several health problems that are significant for Cairns. Some of these diseases are hereditary while others occur as a result of nonspecific factors (i.e. infections, toxins, injuries, or advanced age).

Some of the more common hereditary health problems found in the Cairn are:

Currently, the Cairn Terrier Club of America along with the Institute for Genetic Disease Control in Animals maintain an open registry for Cairn Terriers in hopes of reducing the occurrence of hereditary diseases within the breed. Breeders voluntarily submit their dogs' test results for research purpose, as well as for use by individuals who seek to make sound breeding decisions.

Canaan Dog

The Canaan Dog is the national dog breed of Israel. It may have existed in the Middle East for millennia.


Canaan Dog

Canaan Dog

The Canaan Dog is a typical pariah dog in appearance. They have a medium build, natural upright ears, and a short to medium double coat, with a harsh, flat outercoat and soft undercoat. Colour ranges from black to cream and all shades of brown and red between, usually with small white markings, or all white with colour patches.


  • Height: 19-24 inches (48-61 cm)
  • Weight: 37-57 pounds (16-25 kg)


Canaan Dogs are natural, aloof, independent dogs. They are intelligent and learn quickly, but may get bored with repetitive exercises or become oblivious to commands if they find something of more interest. They are cautious with strangers, and will alert to any disturbances with prompt barking, thus making them excellent watchdogs. The Canaan Dog is territorial and should be kept in a fenced-in yard.

Canadian Eskimo Dog

The Canadian Eskimo Dog is a larger breed of rare Arctic dog. Other names include Qimmiq (Inuit for "dog") or what is considered to be the more politically correct Canadian Inuit Dog. Though once a common method of transportation in the Canadian Arctic, it has become increasingly rare as snowmobiles tend to be faster and more efficient.


The Canadian Eskimo Dog should always be powerfully built, athletic, and imposing in appearance. It should be of "powerful physique giving the impression that he is not built for speed but rather for hard work." As is typical of spitz breeds, it has erect, triangular ears, and a heavily feathered tail that is carried over its back. Males should be distinctly more masculine than females, who are finer boned, smaller, and often have a slightly shorter coat.

Coat and colour

The coat is very thick and dense, with a soft undercoat, and stiff, course guard hairs. The Eskimo Dog has a mane of thicker fur around its neck, which is quite impressive in the males and adds an allusion of additional size. This mane, while present, is smaller in females. Eskimo Dogs can be almost any colour, and no one colour or colour pattern should dominate. Solid white dogs are often seen, as well as white dogs with patches of another colour on the head or both body and head. Solid liver or black coloured dogs are common as well, many of the solid coloured dogs are prone to have white mask-like markings on the face, sometimes with spots over the eyes, others might instead have white socks and nose stripes with no eye spots or mask present.


There is significant variance in size among Canadian Eskimo Dogs, and the weight and height should be proportionate to each other. The average size of Canadian Eskimo Dogs is:

  • Height (at the withers)
    • Males: 58 - 70 cm (23 - 28 in)
    • Females: 50 - 60 cm (19½ - 23½ in)
  • Weight
    • Males: 30 - 40 kg (66 - 88 lb)
    • Females: 18 - 30 kg (40 - 66 lb)


The Canadian Eskimo Dog's temperament reflects its original work and environment. It is tough, intelligent, and alert. It is affectionate and gentle, and develops a deep bond with its owner and is intensely loyal. Canadian Eskimo Dogs are best suited as companions for adults, rather than children, as they can be over-excitable. When used as sled dogs, they were often required to forage and hunt for its own food. Consequently, many Canadian Eskimo Dogs have stronger prey drive than some other breeds. Owing to their original environment, they take pure delight in cold weather, often preferring to sleep outside in cold climates. Like most spitz breeds they can be very vocal.


Canadian Eskimo Dogs need a very large amount of exercise. They cannot just be walked, they need higher intensity work, requiring more exercise than many dog owners can give. This need for work and stimulation also makes them well suited for dog sports, such as carting, mushing, and skijoring. They are very trainable and submissive, unlike many spitz breeds, as well as intelligent. The Canadian Eskimo Dog is best kept in a cold climate, and is prone to heatstroke.

Its coat is fairly easy to care for most times of the year, needing brushing only one or two times a week. However when it sheds (which happens once a year) it will need grooming every day.

Cane Corso

The Cane Corso is an Italian breed of dog used mainly as a guard dog. It is of the large molosser type. The name means "Corso Dog", and if abbreviated should be called a "Corso" as Cane (pronounced kah-nay) simply means "dog" in Italian.


The Cane Corso is a large yet lean molosser-type dog, well muscled and looking more athletic than most other mastiffs. The official FCI standard calls for dogs to stand from 60-68 centimeters at the withers (23.6-26.7 inches), with bitches in the lower region and dogs in the higher. Weight should be in keeping with the size and stature of these dogs, ranging from 40-50kg (88-110lbs). The overall impression should be of power balanced with athleticism.

Its ears are naturally dropped forward, but where legal, many breeders crop them short and close to the head so that the remaining stubs stand upright. Most Corsos have docked tails as well. The standard calls for docking at the 4th vertebra, although many are docked shorter. Tail docking and ear cropping are purely cosmetic operations. The operations are banned in a number of countries, besides being unethical. Most veterinarians regard these operations as cruel and unnecessary: the WSAVA (World Small Animal Veterinarian Association) has issued an official statement declaring tail docking "unnecessary" and "contrary to the welfare of the dog".

Corsos appear in two basic coat colours: black and fawn. This is further modified by genetic pigment dilution to create blue (from black) and formentino (from fawn) colours. Formentino only express the blue colouring on the muzzle. Brindling of varying intensity is common on both basic coat colours as well, creating tigrato (full brindle), black brindle, and blue brindle. Fawn also has a number of different expressions, ranging from the pale of a formentino to 'red' to the more common beige colour, with the back coat hairs ticked with black. In blue dogs, the nose can appear grey, but should be darker than the coat. In all other dogs, the nose should be black. White markings on the chest, toes and on the nose are seen as well, with smaller white patches being preferable.

They are not called Italian Mastiff although they are quite often referred to as such.


The Cane Corso should be a confident dog, very devoted to its family, and not pose a threat to strangers welcomed into the home. He is easily trained and generally naturally protective of children. Since the breed is very smart and active, it is advised that owners find activities to stimulate the dog. They also often suffer from separation anxiety. These dogs are very kind gentle and loving, they are basically large lap dogs. A well trained and socialised Corso is not only a good ambassador for the breed, but for canines in general.


The Cane Corso is a recently recovered breed, and its history will probably always be shrouded in mystery and differing opinions. The breed was originally to be found mostly in the south of Italy, Puglia, and also similar dogs were found throughout Sicily. It was a farm dog, used for big game hunting, guarding, and many other purposes throughout its history. Recovered from near extinction through the efforts of a group of enthusiasts in the 1980's, now the Corso is becoming a very popular breed globally.

Probably derived from the same root stock as the Neapolitan mastiff, the Roman war dog "Canis Pugnax", where the Neo went for power and weight, the Corso favoured agilty, speed and stamina.


Estrela Mountain Dog

The Estrela Mountain Dog is a breed of dog that has been used to guard herds in the Estrela mountains for centuries.


The breed exists in two forms, the long- and the shorthaired one. They weigh between 66 and 110 pounds and grow to a height of 24.5 to 28.5 inches.


The earliest of the Estrela’s ancestors were herd-guarding dogs in the Serra da Estrela, in what is now Portugal. Since there are no written records, it is not known for sure whether they were brought by the Romans when they colonized the Iberian Peninsula, or later by the invading Visigoths. Regardless, there is no disagreement that the Estrela is one of the oldest breeds in Portugal.

Those early guardian dogs were not the distinct breed we know today. Rather, the Estrela developed over a period of hundreds of years. Shepherds would have chosen to breed the dogs that had the characteristics necessary to survive in their mountain environment and to do their job: large size, strength, endurance, agility, a deep chest, ability to tolerate a marginal diet, the set of the legs, a powerful mouth, a tuft of hair around the neck, an easy, jog-like gait, a warm coat, and a watchful, mistrustful, yet loyal temperament. Since the region was isolated, there was little breeding with non-native dogs, leading to the purity of the breed.

Life changed little for the people and dogs of the region, even into the 20th century. The isolation of the region meant the breed was relatively unknown outside it until the early 1900’s, and even then, they were mostly ignored in early dog shows. The Portuguese admired foreign breeds much more than their own. Shepherds often castrated their dogs to prevent them from leaving their flocks to mate. These factors were having a negative effect on the Estrela. So from 1908 to 1919, special shows were held to promote and preserve the Estrela breed in the region. During this period there was some attempt at a registry (of which there is no surviving record). Special livestock guardian working trials were included in these shows. The trial consisted of an owner/shepherd bringing his dog into a large field with many flocks of sheep. The dog was observed by judges for it’s reactions coming into the field and as the shepherd was ordered to move the flock, which inevitably produced stragglers. The dog was expected to move from his spot of guarding to bring the stragglers back, and then assume a leadership position at the head of the flock.

Breed standards

The first, tentative, recorded breed standard was published in 1922. This standard just reflected the functional features naturally found in the best dogs of the time, although it did mention the dew claws as reflecting a “perfect” dog. The hooked tail and the turned-back ears, which later became part of the official standard, were not mentioned.

The first official breed standard was written in 1933. This standard attempted to differentiate the Estrela as a distinct breed. This led to the hooked tail and double dew claws becoming a requirement. All colors were allowed. The standard has undergone small refinements since then. For example, dew claws became optional by 1955, and the allowed colors have been limited a few times to achieve today’s current set.

Prior to World War II, the Estrela’s breeders were still primarily the shepherds and farmers of the region. Since they were mostly illiterate, they did not make any attempt to follow the official breed standard, if they even knew one existed. But by the early 1950’s, interest in the breed returned, and annual shows were reinstated. Again the intent was to stimulate interest among the Serra residents and to encourage them to adhere to the official standard. During this period, the long-haired variety was most popular at shows, but “show dogs” represented (and still do) only a small portion of the Estrela population in Portugal. Many of the working dogs were (and are) short-haired.

Early in the 1970s, interest was steeply declining. There was some concern about the degeneration and even possible extinction of the breed. But the Portuguese revolution of 1974 helped save the Estrela. It led to changes both in dog shows in Portugal and in Portuguese dog breeds. Prior to the revolution, dog showing had largely been a pastime of the wealthy, with their preference for non-Portuguese breeds as status symbols. Now, working people could and did show the native dogs they preferred. Also, with the revolution came an increase in crime and thus more interest in guard dogs.

There is no record of Estrelas outside Portugal prior to 1972. While some undoubtedly did leave the country, they were probably interbred with no effort to maintain the breed. In 1972 and 1973, pairs were imported to the U.S. Others were probably imported into the U.S. since then, but it was not until 1998 that the first EMDAA recognized dog was brought over to the U.S. The United Kingdom was the first country to establish the breed outside Portugal in 1972. Today the Estrela can be found in many countries.

Today, the Estrela Mountain Dog remains true to its guardian heritage. It is still a working dog, guarding flocks in its native Portugal and elsewhere. The Portuguese use them as police dogs. It is also an ideal family pet because of its alertness, loyalty, intelligence, and it’s instinct to nurture young; all features it needed in its earliest days.

Portuguese Water Dog

Portuguese Water Dogs are a dog breed bred by the Portuguese at least 500 years ago to help with fishing.


Their closest relatives are the Standard Poodle; and like poodles they may have curly coats, do not shed, and are highly intelligent. However, Portuguese Water Dogs have less curly hair than poodles, feathery tails, and are smaller than the Standard Poodle breed. Male Portuguese Water Dogs usually grow to be about 20 to 23 inches tall, and weigh between 40 to 60 pounds, while the females usually grow to be about 17 to 21 inches tall and weigh between 35 to 50 pounds. The hair is usually worn in a"retriever cut" or a "lion cut." In the lion cut, the hindquarters, muzzle, and the base of the tail are shaved and the rest of the body is left full length. This cut originated with the fishing dogs of Portugal to keep the body warm while allowing movement of the back legs. The retriever cut is left 1" (2.5 cm) long evenly over the body (although some owners prefer the muzzle or the base of the tail shorter). This cut is a more recent style and originated because breeders wanted to make the breed more appealing and less unusual looking for buyers.

Most PWDs, especially traditional show dogs, are entirely black, black and white, or brown; however, it is common to see white chests and legs on black or brown coats. "Parti" coats, with white coat and black spots, are rare but visually striking. "Parti" dogs are becoming more common in the United States. However, in Portugal the breed standard does not allow more than 30% white markings. The hair is either wavy or curly and like poodle hair, will not shed. The hair must be trimmed about every two months and, although it is possible to groom at home, it is usually easier to pay a professional groomer. White hair is finer than black.

Coat Types

In accordance with the breed standard, Portuguese Water Dogs have two coat types, wavy and curly. From the Portuguese Water Dog Club of America Revised Standard for the Portuguese Water Dog:

  • Curly coat: "compact, cylindrical curls, somewhat lusterless. The hair on the ears is sometimes wavy".
  • Wavy coat: "Falling gently in waves, not curls, and with a slight sheen".
White is one of the less-common colours among PWDs

White is one of the less-common colours among PWDs

Occasionally, a dog may have what is termed an "improper" coat. This is an Aesthetic variation that relates to what is believed to be a recessive gene. It causes the dog to have an undercoat (unlike curly- and wavy-coated PWDs), a flatter coat overall, and may have curling on the hocks, and generally appears more Spaniel- or Border Collie-like. Because these dogs do not adhere to the breed standard, they may not be shown in competition, but otherwise are completely healthy and have all the excellent traits of PWDs. Some reports indicate that these coats shed more and are not hypoallergenic, although more study is needed.

The dogs also have an interesting bluish tinge to their skin that is hard to notice underneath their black fur. Predominantly white varieties have pink skin and are more sensitive to exposure to the sun than black or brown dogs. Their paws are slightly webbed for swimming, which one can notice by trying to pass one's finger between the dog's toes. Because the PWD has a single layered coat, they can live extremely well even among people that suffer from dog allergies. This breed does not shed its fur, it only falls out once the hair root has died, just like with human hair.


Portuguese Water Dogs are active and well-suited to many dog sports

Portuguese Water Dogs are active and well-suited to many dog sports

Portuguese Water dogs make excellent companions. They are loving and intelligent. Because they are working dogs, they are generally content in being at their master's side. Owners of this breed will attest that their PWD usually stays in close proximity to them both indoors and outdoors. This is typical of the breed, as it loves attention and prefers to be engaged in activity of all kinds. This is not a breed to be left alone for long periods of time, indoors or out. Do not be surprised if your PWD brings you a "gift" or toy when you get home as a way of controlling his enthusiasm in greeting you. As water dogs, the retrieving instinct is strong (even in those who are smart enough to realize, after the 10th retrieve, that you'll just throw it out again). This breed makes an excellent guard dog due to its determination to defend its territory and a very loud and distinctive bark.

While excellent companions to those who understand their needs, Portuguese Water Dogs are not for everyone. Their intelligence and working drive demand consistent attention in the form of regular vigorous exercise and mental challenges. They look (and are) soft, cuddly, cute -- but are not to be mistaken as "couch potatoes." When bored, PWDs will become destructive. A PWD will get into the garbage, silently snag food off the kitchen counters when your back is turned, and even learn to open cabinet doors. Heavy-duty chew toys can help keep him occupied when the owner is busy. Be sure to Portie-proof your home by keeping all fragile items (especially potted plants) out of reach. Make sure you research what types of plants (such as Poinsettias) and foods (such as chocolate) are poisonous to dogs before getting one.


At home in the water

At home in the water

Originating back to the 1500s in Portugal, Portuguese Water Dogs were originally used by fishermen. They were used to send messages between boats, herd fish into the nets, to retrieve fish and articles from the water, and to guard the fishing boats. They also helped to bring in nets and to save fishermen when they fell in the water. They were very popular, and this might be where they picked up their loyal and dependable characteristics. Eventually commercial fishing equipment made the dogs unnecessary.

They fell out of favor and almost became extinct. At one point in the 1970s, there were only 25 Portuguese Water Dogs in the world. Since then, breeders have been carefully bringing back the breed. The process has been carefully done in order to prevent any defects from inbreeding. There are now over ten thousand PWDs in the U.S.A. alone. There are also many in Finland today, where they are still used by fishermen.

Mudhol Hound

The Mudhol Hound is an Indian breed of dog of the sight hound type. The breed is also known as Caravan Hound and the feathered variety is commonly referred to as a Pashmi. In the villages he is known as the Karwani. It is a common companion amongst village folk in India's Deccan Plateau, who use the dog for hunting and guarding. However it is largely unknown to the general public or dog lovers, both in India and abroad.


The Mudhol/Caravan of today has well-defined characteristics. The head is long and narrow, broad between the ears with a tapering muzzle. The jaws are long and powerful, with a scissors bite. The nose is large, and may be black, liver, or flesh coloured. The ears are medium sized, very slightly rounded at the tips, and hang close to the skull. The eyes are large and oval in shape, and may be dark or light in colour. The expression is a piercing gaze. The neck is long, clean, and muscular, and fits well into the shoulders. The forelegs are long, straight and well-boned. The males are 68–72 cm in height at the withers and the females are 64–68 cm tall. The back is long, broad and well-muscled. The loins are wide and deep. The chest is strong and deep with well sprung ribs. The abdomen is tucked in. The hind quarters appear wide and well-muscled. The tail is strong at the base, not too long, set low and carried in a natural curve. The gait is high-footed, flexing all four legs, but should not be hackneyed. There are two coat varieties—one with an entirely smooth coat and the other with silky featherings on the ears, legs, and tail. All colours and combinations of colours are acceptable.


The breed is above all a working hound, capable of providing an excellent performance in the field on a consistent basis, under gruelling conditions that would decimate most other dogs. It is therefore elegant, graceful, and courageous. Its physical strength couples with great speed and plenty of stamina to allow it to catch and kill several types of game, from hare to blackbuck, over rough country. It is not an ideal dog for the apartment dweller, as it needs great deal of space to exercise, although if arrangements are made to exercise the dog regularly in a sufficiently large, safely fenced area, it may do well in a flat or any other dwelling.

The breed, if treated with kindness and respect, can be exceptionally loyal. They are not very friendly, and do not like to be touched by strangers. However, a Caravan should never be aggressive, as this sort of temperament is not ideal for a hunting dog, which must tolerate other dogs and human beings, especially when they are not intruding on his territory. It makes a reasonable watch dog, and can protect that which he holds dear, should the need arise. He should always be treated in a kind, consistent, fair, and respectful manner, otherwise he may develop a nervous or vicious nature -- either of which are difficult to live with.


The Mudhol/Caravan is an ancient breed, native to the Deccan Plateau of western India. This region covers parts of the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and, to a lesser degree, Andhra Pradesh. The breed is basically an offshoot of the Saluki and was first introduced into India by traders and mercenaries from various parts of Asia, who traveled in caravans. When local people saw the dogs running alongside the caravans, they began referring to them as “karwani”, meaning “of the caravans”. The name endures to this day in the villages, but it was anglicized to Caravan Hound when the Kennel Club of India recognized the breed.

In Karnataka, the breed is also known as the Mudhol Hound, after a small town in Bagalkot District. A former ruler of Mudhol, Sri Srimanth Raja Malojirao Gorphade (Maloji Rao Ghorpade), is said to have presented a pair of hound puppies to King George V of England. Upon inspecting these curiosities, the monarch found them true to sighthound conformation and dubbed them “the hounds of Mudhol”.

It is found not only in Mudhol, but is widely kept throughout the Deccan; however, the Indian National Kennel Club uses the Mudhol Hound name.

Cardigan Welsh Corgi

The Cardigan Welsh Corgi (IPA: /ˈkɔ(r)ˌgi/) is one of two separate dog breeds known as Welsh Corgis that originated in Wales. It is one of the oldest herding breeds.


The Cardigan is a long, low dog with upright ears and a fox-like appearance. The old American Kennel Club standard called it an "Alsatian on short legs". Unlike Pembroke Corgis, who are bred to have only a small nub of a tail (without docking) the Cardigan's tail is long. Cardigans can be any shade of red, sable, or brindle; they can also be black with or without tan brindle or blue merle (black and gray or marbled) with or without tan or brindle. They usually have white on the neck, chest, legs, muzzle, underneath, tip of the tail, and as a blaze on the head. Other markings include ticking on the legs and muzzle, smutty muzzles, monk's hoods, and others. A few other unofficial colors can occur, such as red merle. An average Cardigan is around 10.5 to 12.5 inches (260 to 315 mm) tall at the withers and weighs from 30 to 38 lb. (13.6 to 17.2 kg) for the male and 25 to 34 lb. (11.3 to 15.4 kg) for the female.


Originally bred for herding sheep and cattle, they have proven themselves as excellent companion animals and are outstanding competitors in sheepdog trials and dog agility. Cardigan Welsh Corgis were bred long and low to make sure that any kicks by cattle would travel safely over the dogs without touching them. Like most herding breeds, Cardigans are highly intelligent, active, athletic dogs. Affectionately known as "a big dog in a small package," Cardigans are affectionate, devoted companions that can also be alert and responsible guardians. Cardigan Corgis are typically a 'one-man dog'. They are quite wary of strangers and prefer to reserve their affection for a select few with whom they are familiar.


A blue merle-colored Cardigan

A blue merle-colored Cardigan

Cardigans are said to originate from the Teckel family of dogs, which also produced Dachshunds. They are among the oldest of all herding breeds, believed to have been in existence in Wales for over 3,000 years. Although originally the breed included only brindle and red variants, through crossbreeding with collies, the colors of the Cardi grew to include tricolor and blue merle. The phrase "cor gi" is sometimes translated as "dwarf dog" in Welsh. The breed was often called "yard-long dogs" in older times. Today's name comes from their area of origin, Cardiganshire, Wales. Originally used only as a farm guardian, they eventually took on the traits of a cattle drover, herder, and many more. They are still highly valued for their herding, working, and guarding skills, as well as their companionship.

Carolina Dog

The Carolina Dog is a type of wild dog discovered in the late 1970s.They were located living in isolated stretches of longleaf pines and cypress swamps in the Southeastern United States.


Carolina Dog puppies

Carolina Dog puppies

Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin Jr., a Senior Research Ecologist at the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Lab, first came across a Carolina Dog while working at the Savannah River site. Horace, a stray white dog with brown markings, was wandering the site’s boundary when he caught Brisbin’s attention. Brisbin, who had seen many rural dogs chained to the back of porches and doghouses, assumed this was just a normal stray. Many of these dogs roamed the woods and would turn up in humane traps, and Brisbin began to wonder how many more of these were in the wild. On a hunch, he went to the pound and was surprised by the resemblance the dog had to dingoes.

Evidence of ancient roots


Carolina Dog / American Dingo

Carolina Dog / American Dingo

Some ancient paintings and rock art of Native Americans depict dogs that have physical traits similar to those of Carolina Dogs. Carolina Dogs also have a ginger-colored coat that is found on other wild dogs, including Australian Dingoes and Korea’s native dog, the Jindo.[3] Experts have said that Carolina Dogs are seemingly indistinguishable from the Jindo[citation needed]. Also, fossils of the dogs of Native Americans exhibit similar bone structures to Carolina Dogs. Brisbin found a resemblance between 2,000-year-old skulls and those of the Carolina Dogs, but concluded that there was too large a difference to prove any connection. Along with this, behavioral attributes and DNA testing have pointed to a link[citation needed].


An intriguing trait of Carolina Dogs is their feral tendency, never before observed in domesticated dogs. In the 1980s, most Carolina Dogs were removed to captivity for study.

Female dogs had thrice annual estrus in quick succession, which settled into seasonal reproductive cycles when there was an abundance of puppies. Brisbin noted that this was most likely to ensure quick breeding before diseases, like heartworm, take their toll. Some pregnant dogs also dug dens in which to give birth. After they gave birth or while pregnant, the bitch would carefully push sand with her snout to cover her excrement. The dogs also dug “snout pits”, or hundreds of tiny holes in the dirt that perfectly fit their muzzles during this time. More bitches dug them than males.

The pack dynamic was also unique. When hunting, Carolina Dogs used an effective pack formation. They used a whip-like motion when hunting snakes.

In the wild, Carolina dogs live in swampy, sparsely settled land instead of the highly populated areas stray dogs commonly occupied.

DNA testing

The preliminary DNA testing provided an intriguing link between primitive dogs and Carolina Dogs. Brisbin stated, “We grabbed them out of the woods based on what they look like, and if they were just dogs their DNA patterns should be well distributed throughout the canine family tree. But they aren't. They're all at the base of the tree, where you would find very primitive dogs.” This wasn’t conclusive, but it did spark interest into more extensive DNA testing.

Breed recognition

Carolina Dog

Carolina Dog

Carolina Dogs can be registered with the American Rare Breed Association and the United Kennel Club. ARBA includes the breed in its "Spitz and Primitive Group", which includes primitives such as the dingo and Canaan Dog. The UKC has classified them as a pariah dog, a class which includes other primitive breeds such as the Basenji of Africa and the Thai Ridgeback. The type designations "pariah" and "primitive" are commonly used interchangeably in cynology.

Catahoula Leopard Dog

The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog, is named after Catahoula Parish in the state of Louisiana in the United States. Of remaining dog breeds, the Catahoula is believed to have occupied North America the longest, aside from the dogs descended from Native American-created breeds.

Quick facts

Catahoula Leopard Quick Facts

Weight: 20-44 kg 45-95 lbs
Height: 50-66 cm 20-26 inches
Coat: Short, smooth
Activity level: Very high
Learning rate: Very high
Temperament: Assertive, territorial
Guard dog ability: Very high
Watch-dog ability: Very high
Life span: 10-14 years


As a working dog, Catahoulas have been bred more for temperament and ability than for appearance. As a result, the physical characteristics of the Catahoula are somewhat varied.


Catahoulas have a single, short, dense coat in a variety of colors. According to Don Abney, an authority on the breed, the term "Leopard" refers to merles which may be blue, gray, black, liver, red, and patched. Patched dogs are predominantly white with any color patches. Solid colors are black, red, chocolate, yellow, and brindle.

  • Blue - This refers to the mostly grey to mostly black merle color pattern and sometimes the terms "grey leopard" or "black leopard" are used.
  • Red - This refers refers to the red merle color pattern with varying shades of light reddish-brown with darker red or brown patches. These dogs are sometimes called "brown leopard" and "chocolate leopard" are used.
  • White - This refers to a primarily white coat with some areas of leopard color. White leopards carry two copies of the merle gene creating a double merle.
  • Solid - This refers to black, red, chocolate, yellow, and brindle. Trim colors may be black, white, tan, red, or buff.
  • Patchwork - This refers to leopards with patches of several different shades in their coats which are white or very light and appear as large patches giving a more blotchy look than a typical Catahoula. A pattern can be similar to the harlequin pattern seen in Great Danes.


Typical of the breed are "cracked glass" or "marbled glass" eyes and occurs when both colored and glass portions are present in the same eye. Cracked or marbled eyes are blue or blue-white in color. Catahoulas with two cracked or marble glass eyes are often referred to as having double glass eyes. In some cases a glass eye will have darker colored sections in it and vice versa. Cracked eyes may be half of one color and half of another. They may just have a streak or spot of another color. Gray eyes are usually cracked eyes, made of blue and green, giving them their greyish appearance. The eyes may be of the same color or each of a different color. Eye color can also be brown, green, grey, or amber. No particular eye color is typical of Catahoulas. (Don Abney).

Red "solid" leopard with litter of merle Catahoulas showing wide variety of coat colors

Red "solid" leopard with litter of merle Catahoulas showing wide variety of coat colors


Though most dogs have webbing between the toes, Catahoula feet are webbed very similar to that of a duck with more prominent webbing which extends almost to the ends of the toes. This foot gives the Catahoula the ability to work marshy areas and gives them great swimming ability.


Catahoulas are highly intelligent, energetic, and quick, yet are generally very loving and gentle with children. They are inquisitive and have an independent streak. However, the Catahoula temperament is not suited for everyone; these dogs tend to be very protective of their territory and family, and also, may be aggressive toward other dogs—especially of the same sex. These traits, combined with their independent nature, their high energy levels, and physical strength, can make a Catahoula "too much dog" for inexperienced or meek owners, and can make having such a dog a liability in suburban neighborhoods. Ideally, a Catahoula should have proper obedience training, secure confinement on the owner's property, and an outlet for its energy. The ideal place for this breed would be in a rural area where they can have plenty of space to expend their energy. Some catahoulas may be aggressive towards children and others outside of the family.

Health problems

As a breed, Catahoulas are relatively free of a lot of diseases. Deafness is one of the major genetic flaws in Catahoulas. A Catahoula that is mostly white, or has a white face with glass eyes, has an 80% chance of being deaf in one or both ears. Hearing in one ear is also referred to as "directional deafness." Breeders are not readily willing to allow deaf Catahoulas to leave their premises and will generally euthanize the deaf pups. Catahoulas are also prone to hip dysplasia. Catahoulas can have eye problems (tunnel vision, eye won't open all the way, pupil is abnormal, etc.). Some older dogs are known to have gotten cancer.

Catalan Sheepdog

The Catalan Sheepdog is a breed of Catalan pyrenean dog used as sheepdog. The breed is very rare in the United States, mostly being breed in Europe, especially Catalonia, Finland, Germany, and Sweden.


Catalan Sheepdogs range in size from 18 to 20 in (46 to 51 cm) in height and 45 to 60 lb (20 to 27 kg) in weight for males, with females being smaller. Their coat is long and either flat or slightly wavy, and can be from fawn to dark sable and light to dark grey. There is also a shorthaired version of this breed, but is nearly extinct


They are apparently so clever that they guard sheep without needing the instructions of the farmer. Enough (outdoor) action and distraction makes this dog a quiet and well-balanced home companion.


Catalan Sheepdogs are prone to hip dysplasia. Their average life span is 12 to 14 years.


This breed is used for herding and even as a companion. Because of its intelligence the Gos D'Atura, like most sheepdogs, are easy to train. Not only for herding, this cheerfull dog likes to do all kinds of dogsports such as agility and doggydance. In spite of its unpretending appearance this courage dog is also used as a watch-dog. An "allround-dog" and great companion.

Caucasian Shepherd Dog

The Caucasian Shepherd Dog (Georgian: კავკასიური ნაგაზი) is a breed of dog that is popular in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and other countries where shepherds need strong protection for their flocks and properties.


Caucasian Ovcharka: An excellent specimen

Caucasian Ovcharka: An excellent specimen

A well-bred Caucasian Mountain Dog should be a healthy, strongly-boned, muscular and even-tempered Moloss.

Excessive softness or vicious temperaments are considered serious faults for the breed. Generally healthy and long lived, as in other large breed dogs, hip dysplasia, obesity and occasional heart problems are known to occur. The ears of the Caucasian Ovcharka have traditionally been cropped, although some modern dogs can be seen unaltered. Even though any coat-types and colours exist, the preferred show-types are the long-coated grey dogs with some white markings allowed. No black or black-and-tan dogs are accepted for show, but they do exist. The minimum height is 24.5 inches with no upper limit. The Caucasian Ovcharka is not a dog for everyone and requires responsible handling. Self-determined and extremely strong with great intelligence, this ancient guardian from the Caucasus can be challenging to own for inexperienced dog owners.

These dogs are of two types: Mountain and plain. Plain dogs has shorter coathair and are visually higher because of less muscular built. Mountain ones has longer fur and are more musculary evolved. The breed's weight is 99–154 pounds (45–70 kg.), while height is 25–28 inches (64–75 cm.).


Powerful and massive, the Caucasian Ovcharka can prove to be a difficult breed for an inexperienced owner, because it respects and obeys only those dominant members of the family that it deems superior to itself. They are generally good with children, but will not see them as their masters. The dog develops a strong bond with its owner, but will rarely be completely submissive and blindly follow orders, for this is truly a thinking dog which relies primarily on its own instincts, sometimes even disregarding its master's directions in certain situations. A breed with a very quick reaction time and lightning-fast protection reflexes, it has even been unfairly described by some as somewhat of a "loose cannon". Still, with proper care, handling and training, this is a well-behaved and obedient family companion.


Caucasian Ovcharka guarding poultry

Caucasian Ovcharka guarding poultry

Located between the Black Sea on the West and the Caspian Sea on the East, the Caucasus mountain range of Eastern Europe represents a true melting pot of various cultures due to a number of nations calling it their home through the ages. Today these influences are still strong and a rich source of cultural wealth of the region, as well as numerous political conflicts. Encompassing the territories of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Daghestan, Ossetia, Turkey, Chechnya, Ingushetia and Iran, the Caucasus mountains are also home to one of the oldest living Molossers, the magnificent Caucasian Mountain Dog. In reality the term "Caucasian Dog" should stand for a group of breeds and not for a single breed or a favoured variant. There is a great variety of types among the Caucasian dogs depending on their home region, but due to the ignorance of many Westerners and strong national appetite of Russian and pro-Russian dog fanciers worldwide, a single type bearing a misleading name is being favored in the show rings and literature, at the expense of truth and other breed variants. The exotic-sounding misnomer Ovcharka is very popular in the West, thanks to the efforts of the Russian Kennel Club, even though it simply translates to "Sheepdog, Shepherd or Shepherd Dog", making it very unpopular and often insulting among the non-Russian nationals of Caucasian and dog enthusiasts. Considered a Russian breed, the Caucasian Ovcharka is a part of the Troika, a threesome of recognized Russian sheepdogs, the other two being the bearded South-Russian Sheepdog and the controversial Central Asian Shepherd Dog.

In order to understand the issues concerning the Caucasian Mountain Dog, a short historic overview is in order. Although its first official Western Show-Ring appearance was in the 1930s in Germany, the Caucasian Mountain Dog has existed since ancient times and, like many Eastern Molossers, was introduced to the bloodlines of many of today's World breeds throughout history. The Armenian Plateau was one of the earliest cradles of civilization and the first appearance of dogs of this type is closely linked to that area. The Armenian Gamprs are seen as a variant of the Caucasian Mountain Dog, and while that may be the case, it is also important to note that the Gampr comes in two distinct varieties, both of which are believed to be much older than the modern Caucasian and Central-Asian Sheepdogs. Some believe that the Caucasian Mountain Dog was a result of crossing the mountain Gampyrs with the spitz-type dogs in ancient times, but this theory, although not without merit, is understandably not very popular.

Caucasian Pup

Caucasian Pup

Modern times

The main Russian bloodlines can be traced to Moscow, Ekaterinburg, Tambov, Orenburg, Magnitogorsk, Cheljabinsk, Novosibirsk, Donetsk, Lugansk, Ivanovo, Perm, Nizhny Novgorod, and Saint Petersburg, even though there are many different Caucasian strains still found in the Caucasus mountains. In recent years, the term "aboriginal" is being used to describe older, non-show mountain bloodlines, but this is very misleading and often used as a trendy marketing ploy by some breeders.

Even though most dogs in the Caucasus are working hybrids between various types, there are still some distinguishing characteristics among regional variants. For instance:

  • The Georgian dogs are divided into the large, longhaired and often multicoloured Mkinvartsveri Kazbek type and the slightly smaller wolf-grey Nagazi dogs of medium-length coat with longer muzzles, but there is also a separate breed known as Tushetian Nagazi or Georgian Caucasian Sheepdog in Georgia, which represents the original Georgian population of the breed, with the pure white dogs being the most valued.
  • Daghestan dogs are tall, wide-headed and athletic, always short-haired and multicoloured.
  • Astrakhan type is found in the Kabardino-Balkarian region and is believed to be a cross between the Russian show type and the old Circassian and Kazbek dogs, but Balkarian Molossers are also rooted in the Sarmatian Mastiff.
  • The Turkish Caucasus dogs are divided into four types, those being the Garban, the Akhaltsihnske type, the Circassian variant and the Kars Dog.
  • The large, short-muzzled, shorthaired fawn, brown, red, with or without white markings and extremely vicious Garban (Gorban) was developed from the Kars and the Kangal, as well as other Turkish dogs being crossed with the Armenian and Kazbek types.
    • The Akhaltsihnske type was then created from the Garban crosses with the Georgian Nagazi variant and possibly Turkish Akbash, resulting in longhaired, lightly built solid-coloured white, fawn and grey dogs. The Circassian variant is believed to be a result of crossing the Kangals with the Cherkes dogs introduced to Turkey after the Russian-Circassian wars.
    • The Kars Dog is a variety closely associated with the Kars province of modern Turkey and is today seen as a separate breed. The Armenian Gamprs are usually slightly smaller than the Georgian dogs and are shorter-necked and more squarely built, also allowing for a great variety of colours, even brown or black.
  • The Azerbaijan Volkodav variant also comes in two types, with the longhaired mountain and short-coated steppe dogs both being smaller than Georgian and Armenian types, always having black masks.
  • A result of matings between the dogs of southern Kavkaz with the Sage Mazandarani and the Kars Dog of Turkey, the Iranian Sage Ghafghazi is a lean, powerful and richly coated mastiff, used as a caravan protector of the Shahsavan nomads, who have been breeding it since the 17th century. These Iranian Caucasians come in a variety of colours, both solid and bicoloured.
  • There is also a rare shorthaired Kavkaz mastiff, known as the North-Caucasian Volkodav, which is on its way to receive a separate breed recognition.

Even the legendary Alaunt, the breed considered to be the key progenitor of all bulldog breeds, is also originally descended from this Caucasian stock of mountain dogs.

As mentioned above, most working Caucasian dogs are hybrids between established types, as well as some lines of the Central Asian dogs, in effect making the Russian show type appear to be a superiorly-bred dog in the eyes of the West. This is of course due to in part to the main difference between the Eastern and Western ways; the dogs being bred strictly for work in the East and primarily for show and companion life in the West. The fighting strains of the Caucasian Ovcharka can contain blood of some European breeds too, from certain mastiffs to even Pit Bull Terriers and Bandogges, but these crosses are a minority in the breed. The Caucasian Molossers were used for centuries to protect properties, guard livestock, kill wolves, hunt bears and for many other duties, but today and especially in the West, they are most commonly employed as companion animals and watchdogs. Most prized as an aggressive property guardian, the mighty Caucasian Ovcharka is an intimidating and committed protector with no equal. The Caucasian Mountain Dog is generally a low activity dog, seemingly lethargic when not working, but extremely agile and convincing when it feels its family is threatened. Although certain strains are more vicious than others, all Caucasians are very territorial and fairly dog-aggressive, needing early and careful broad socialization, as well as firm, but never forceful handling. This wonderful ancient breed makes a good family dog, but it isn't the same thing as a Newfoundland, a Bernese or a St. Bernard and potential owners should be aware of the breeds history and temperament before deciding to tackle the task of raising a Caucasian Mountain Dog.

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small breed of dog usually considered one of the toy dog breeds. It is a small spaniel with substantial silky coat of moderate length, often with a mild wave, and long ears. Four colours are recognized. The breed originated in the 20th century, though has its roots in the older King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration.


The Cavalier is by most measures the largest toy breed: though clearly a lap dog, fully-grown adults tend to fill one rather amply. It is nonetheless quite small for a spaniel, when fully-grown Cavaliers roughly comparable in size to an adolescent of a more conventional spaniel breed. Breed standards call for a height between 29 and 33 cm (12-13 inches) with a proportionate weight between 4.5 and 8.5 kg (10 and 18 lbs). Unlike most other spaniels, the Cavalier has a full-length tail well-feathered with long hair, which is typically carried aloft when walking.


The breed naturally grows a substantial silky coat of moderate length. Breed standards call for it to be free from curl, with a slight wave permissible. In adulthood, Cavaliers grow lengthy feathering on their ears, chest, legs, feet and tail; breed standards demand this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet cited as a particularly important feature of the breed.

A cavalier's coat may be beautiful, but, because it can be long, it is very important to keep it well groomed. This can be done by yourself, or you can hire a professional groomer. If the coat is not properly cared for, the dog will shed quite a bit. Daily brushing is recommended to ensure that the coat does not get matted and that foreign objects, such as grass and sticks, do not become entangled in the feathering.


The breed has four recognized colours:

  • Blenheim (rich chestnut on pearly white background)
  • Tricolour (black and white with tan markings on cheeks, inside ears, resembling eyebrows, inside legs, and on underside of tail)
  • Black and Tan (black with tan markings)
  • Ruby (rich reddish-brown all over)

Parti-colours are the colours that include white: Blenheim and Tricolour. Whole-colours have no white: Black and Tan, and Ruby. The Blenheim is the most common colour, although the others are not rare. If you are wanting to show a Blenheim Cavalier King Charles Spaniel extra points will be given for a rich chestnut dot placed between the eyes on the top of the forehead, called the lozenge. It is rare which makes it desirable for show breeders.


The breed is highly affectionate, and some have called the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel "the ultimate lap dog". Most dogs of the breed are playful, extremely patient and eager to please. As such, dogs of the breed are usually good with children and other dogs. A well-socialized Cavalier will not be shy about socializing with much larger dogs. (However, on occasion, this tendency can be dangerous, as many cavaliers will presume all other dogs to be equally friendly, and may attempt to greet and play with aggressive dogs.)

However, the extremely social nature of the Cavalier KC Spaniel means that they require almost constant companionship from humans or other dogs, and are not suited to spending long periods of time on their own. This breed is the friendliest of the toy group.


Cavaliers can suffer from a number of severe genetic defects. Unfortunately, two possible genetic conditions, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, can be both severe and very common. If considering a puppy, ask to see its parents' heart and eye certificates, and consider seeking a breeder who MRI screens dogs for syringomyelia, to reduce the chance the puppy will have the defects described below. Breeders who breed for health willingly supply health clearances for their breeding dogs, and responsible breeders choose pairings to try to reduce the incidence of all these defects in the breed.

Mitral valve disease

Virtually all Cavaliers eventually suffer from mitral valve disease, causing progressively worsening heart murmurs leading to heart failure. This condition, in which the 'hinge' on the heart's mitral valve loosens and can gradually deteriorate, causing a heart murmur (as blood seeps through the valve between heartbeats) then congestive heart failure, can begin to emerge at an early age, and is present in more than half of all Cavalier King Charles Spaniels by age 5. It is rare for a 10-year-old Cavalier not to have a mitral valve heart murmur. While heart disease is common in dogs generally -- one in 10 of all dogs will eventually have heart problems -- MVD is generally (as in humans) a disease of old age, but unfortunately, the cavalier is prone to early-onset heart disease, at as young as age one or two. It is the leading cause of death of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the reason the breed's expected life span is only between seven and ten years. Veterinary geneticists and cardiologists have designed breeding guidelines to eliminate early-onset mitral valve disease in the breed, but it is unclear if a statistically significant number of breeders follow these guidelines. Reputable international CKCS clubs all recommend that puppy buyers seek breeders who have cardiac clearances for their breeding dogs from a vet cardiologist, and who follow the MVD breeding protocol (parents should be at least 2.5 years old and heart clear, and their parents (eg the puppy's grandparents) should be heart clear until age 5).


Syringomyelia (SM) is a condition affecting the brain and spine, causing symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to severe pain and partial paralysis. It is caused by a malformation in the lower back of the skull which reduces the space available to the brain, compressing it and often forcing it out (herniating it) through the opening into the spinal cord. This blocks the flow of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) around the brain and spine and increases the fluid's pressure, creating turbulence which in turn is believed to create fluid pockets, or syrinxes (hence the term syringomyelia), in the spinal cord. Syringomyelia is rare in most breeds but has become widespread in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, with international research samples in the past few years consistently showing nearly all (90%+) cavaliers have the malformation and that between 30-70% have syrinxes, though most dogs with syrinxes are not symptomatic. Although symptoms of syringomyelia can present at any age, they typically appear between 6 months and 4 years of age in 85% of symptomatic dogs, according to Dr Rusbridge. Symptoms include sensitivity around the head, neck, or shoulders, often indicated by a dog whimpering or frequently scratching at the area of his neck or shoulder. Scratching is often unilateral -- restricted to one side of the body. Scratching motions are frequently performed without actually making physical contact with the body ("air scratching"). The scratching behavior appears involuntary and the dog frequently scratches while walking -- without stopping -- in a way that is very atypical of normal scratching ("bunny hopping"). Scratching typical of SM is usually worse when the dog is wearing a collar, is being walked on leash, or is excited, and first thing in the morning or at night.

Not all dogs with SM show scratching behavior. Not all dogs who show scratching behavior appear to suffer pain, though several leading researchers, including Dr Clare Rusbridge in the UK and Drs Curtis Dewey and Dominic Marino in the US, believe scratching in SM cavaliers is a sign of pain and discomfort and of existing neurological damage to the dorsal horn region of the spine. If onset is at an early age, a first sign may be scratching and/or rapidly appearing scoliosis. If the problem is severe, there is likely to be poor proprioception (awareness of body position), especially with regard to the forelimbs. Clumsiness and falling results from this problem. Progression is variable though the majority of dogs showing symptoms by age 4 tend to see progression of the condition.

A vet should be asked to rule out basic causes of scratching or discomfort such as ear mites, fleas, and allergies, and then, primary secretory otitis media (PSOM - glue ear), as well as spinal or limb injuries, before assuming that a Cavalier has SM. PSOM can present similar symptoms but is much easier and cheaper to treat. Episodic Falling Syndrome can also present similar symptoms. An MRI scan is normally done to confirm diagnosis of SM (and also will reveal PSOM).

Because of the prevalance in the breed, SM is increasingly being considered as important a health issue as mitral valve disease (MVD). Just as many breeders follow the MVD breeding protocol, many breeders are now starting to follow breeding guidelines recommended by international researchers (November 2006), to try to decrease the incidence and severity of SM in the breed. The guidelines stipulate that breeding dogs be MRI screened and graded according to whether they show the malformation, syrinxes, or both. Neurologists give scanned dogs a signed certificate noting its grade. At least one dog in a breeding pair must be graded A (clear of syrinxes). A limited breeding scheme by a group of Dutch breeders has shown so far that, encouragingly, AxA matings are consistently producing A puppies.

Episodic Falling (EF)

Episodic Falling is an 'exercise-induced paroxysmal hypertonicity disorder' meaning that there is increased muscle tone in the dog and the muscles are unable to relax. Although it is often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, the dog remains conscious throughout the episode. Severity of symptoms can range from mild, occasional falling or freezing to seizure-like episodes lasting hours. Episodes can become more or less severe as the dog gets older. Onset of symptoms is usually before five months but may be noticed only later in life.

Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is not a common genetic disease in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. It is never present at birth and develops with age. Hip dysplasia is diagnosed by x-rays, but it usually does not appear in x-rays of Cavaliers until they mature.

Luxating patella

Cavaliers, like many toy breeds, are subject to a genetic defect of the femur and knee called luxating patella. The disorder is believed to affect 20% to 30% of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. This condition is most often observed when a puppy is 4 to 6 months old. In the most serious cases, surgery may be indicated.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Another common defect among Cavaliers is keratoconjunctivitis sicca, colloquially known as "dry eye". The usual cause of this condition is an autoimmune reaction against the dog's lacrimal gland (tear gland), reducing the production of tears. According to the Canine Inherited Disorders Database, the condition requires continual treatment and if untreated may result in partial or total blindness.

Central Asian Shepherd Dog

Central Asian Shepherd Dogs or Alabay are a landrace of breeds which originates from all over Central Asia from Iran to Tibet - along the ancient Silk road.

It is believed that the ancient Central Asian dogs are the ancestors of all breeds. This is debatable, but it is almost certain that the Tibetan Mastiff is a close relative of the Central Asian Shepherd Dog and not its ancestor, as often thought. Regardless of which breed came first they are consisidered the most ancient Molosser breed of dogs in the World.

Central Asian dogs are a wonderful reminder of what a natural dog looks like. The common misconception is that all Central Asian Shepherds are over 4,000 years old, when in fact the Russian version known as CAO is a fairly recent creation. Since these dogs don't exist in a single country, but are found all over eastern Europe and Asia, thus the breed has different names depending on the nomadic tribes that use these dogs as guardians of the nomads today.

The Central Asian Shepherd Dog is a name used to describe quite a few different breeds. Using the word "Alabai" to describe the C.A.O. is incorrect, since the breed variety known as Alabai is only found in Turkmenistan. Although it is popular to use the word "ovtcharka" these days, it needs to be kept in mind that it is a Russian word, whereas most of these breeds are indigenous to non-Russian regions of the former USSR.

These dogs come in many different types of varying sizes, coats, colours and temperaments, depending on their primary use and region of origin. The dogs' temperaments vary depending on the working ability they are selected for. Prior to the invasion of Central Asia during Stalin's reign all the dogs were used as guardians for people and flock. Large dark dogs were used in the villages and taller less heavy dogs in colors to match the Karakul sheep were used as the guardian of the shepherds.

The Russian dogs differ from dogs in Central Asia today. Due to the 2000 change in the Russian standard which differs greatly from the FCI and UKC Standards used throughout the world.

Kazakh shepard with alabays

Kazakh shepard with alabays

Only a small number of truly pure dogs is found in main cities of the Central Asian Countries, so having a Turkmen or Uzbek heritage listed in a dog's pedigree doesn't necessarily mean that the dog is truly a CAS. When the Russians left the Central Asian cities in a rush in 1990 they left behind German Shepherd Guard Dogs that were let loose to interbred with the native Shepherd Dogs creating what natives call "Ovcharka".

Although there are three different head-types and three body-sizes to be found in the CAS. And that is exactly what Central Asian Shepherd Dogs are - they're working dogs. Whether their job is livestock herding, flock guarding, hunting, or protecting property, the dogs under this name are the main progenitors of all working breeds.

Massive and powerful, this breed is best suited for experienced individuals willing to work on the dog's broad socialization skills from an early age. The Central Asians make excellent guard dogs as well as companions for people. Usually with docked tails and cropped ears, the Central Asian Shepherd Dogs come in a variety of coat types, ranging anywhere from being as short as one inch to those that are over seven inches in length. Coming in all colours except liver or blue " RKF 2000 Revision"

"Black-n-tan," tricolour, brindle and even uniform black dogs can be found in certain regions.

Cesky Terrier

The Cesky Terrier is a small terrier originating in Czechoslovakia. The name is pronounced Chess-kee (after its Czech name Český teriér, literally Czech Terrier).


The Cesky Terrier, also called the Bohemian Terrier, is a short-legged, moderately long, terrier. It looks similar to a Sealyham Terrier. The Cesky Terrier has a long head, bushy beard, mustache, and eyebrows. The body is solid, but not heavy. The Cesky Terrier is agile and robust. The wavy, silky coat usually comes in various shades of gray-blue with tan, gray, white, or yellow furnishings or light coffee, though puppies are born black. The coat lightens between birth and two years of age.

The Cesky Terrier's eyes are brown in gray-blue dogs and yellow in brown dogs. The noses and lips of blue-gray dogs are black; for brown dogs it is liver. The ears are triangular, folding forward close to the head. The head is long, but not too wide, with a well-defined stop.


This is a sweet and happy dog that is good with children and tends to be less dog-aggressive than some other terrier breeds. Patient and brave, they are loyal, obedient, and courageous dogs. They are intelligent and more trainable than many other terriers. They are easy to handle. They love people, especially children, and are fairly friendly with strangers, but like most terriers, are feisty, stubborn, and fearless.


The Cesky Terrier exists due to the efforts of a Czech breeder, František Horák. The Cesky is a relatively new breed, first recognized by the FCI in 1963. The Cesky Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1993. They are a mixture of Sealyham Terriers and Scottish Terriers. The Cesky's original purpose was to hunt vermin in their dens, especially rats and foxes.


The Cesky Terrier is energetic and enjoys running and playing through a wooded area or open countryside. They also enjoy a long walk on the lead.


This breed occasionally suffers from the Scotty Cramp, a minor problem causing awkward movement, but that is not painful or life threatening.

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