Tuesday, 31 July 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 2)

Anatolian Shepherd Dog

The Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a breed of dog from Anatolia (central Turkey) and bred for guarding flocks of sheep from wolves, bears, jackals, and even cheetahs in Namibia.

The coat can be any color or length. The Anatolian is a muscular breed, with thick neck, broad head, and sturdy body. Its lips are tight to its muzzle and it has triangular drop ears. It stands 27 to 32 inches (69 to 81 cm) at the withers and weighs between 80 and 150 pounds (36 to 68 kg), with females on the smaller side and males on the larger side.


A female Anatolian Shepherd Dog

A female Anatolian Shepherd Dog
The Anatolian was developed to be independent and forceful, responsible on its own for guarding its master's flocks. These traits make it more challenging as a pet; owners of dogs of this breed must determinedly socialize the dogs to turn them into appropriate companions. They are intelligent and can learn quickly but might choose not to obey; this is not generally a dog for a beginning or shy owner. They become very protective of other animals in the household, and will treat them as their "flock." They have also been known to kill bears to protect their charges.

There appears to be only one health survey of Anatolian Shepherds, done in 2004 by the UK Kennel Club. The median life span for the 23 deceased dogs (a small sample size) in the survey was 10.75 years. This is a typical longevity for purebred dogs in general, but several years longer than most other breeds of their large size, which generally have median longevities of 6-8 years. The leading causes of death of the dogs in the survey were cancer (22%), "combinations" (17%), cardiac (13%), and old age (13%).


Based on a small sample of 24 still-living dogs, the most common health issues cited by owners were dermatologic, musculoskeletal, and lipomas. Entropion and canine hip dysplasia are sometimes seen in the breed. Eyes and hips should be tested before breeding.

Anatolians must be anesthetized like sight hounds, being very lean they need less anesthesia than a Rottweiler of the same weight would need.They reach full maturity, like many large breeds, at around 4 years. Some are sensitive to beef, which processed dog food is full of, and thus tend to develop allergic reactions such as ear infections.This can be avoided by feeding them a diet of lamb and rice or chicken & rice supplemented with salmon.

Siberian Husky

The Siberian Husky is a medium-sized, dense-coated working dog breed that originated in eastern Siberia, belonging to the Spitz genetic family. It is recognizable by its thickly-furred double coat, sickle tail, erect triangular ears and distinctive markings.
An active, energetic and resilient breed whose ancestors came from the extremely cold and harsh environment of the Siberian Arctic, it was imported into Alaska during the Nome Gold Rush and spread from there into the United States and Canada, initially as a sled dog. It rapidly acquired the status of a family pet and a show-dog, no longer as much used as a sled dog as formerly; today it has been largely replaced in dogsled racing by crossbreds.
Siberian Huskies share many outward similarities with the Alaskan Malamute as well as many other spitz breeds such as the Samoyed, which has a comparable history to the Huskies. Siberians have a thicker coat than most other breeds of dog. It comes in a variety of colors and patterns, usually with white paws and legs, facial markings, and tail tip. The most common colors are black and white, grey and white, copper-red and white, and pure white, though many individuals have brown, reddish, or biscuit shadings and some are piebald spotted. Striking masks, spectacles, and other facial markings occur in wide variety. They tend to have a wolf-like appearance. Though the breed is not related to the wolf any closer than any other breed of dog, it is thought they maintained this appearance through isolated breeding of Siberia.

A copper-coloured "bi-eyed" Siberian Husky exhibiting "snow nose"

A copper-coloured "bi-eyed" Siberian Husky exhibiting "snow nose"


Their eyes are brown, blue, amber, green, hazel or light brown. The light blue eye color is also part of the characteristic, but not completely dominant genetically. The breed may have one eye brown or hazel and the other blue (called "bi-eyed") or may have blue and another color mixed in the iris of one or both eyes; this latter trait, heterochromia, is called "parti-eyed" by Siberian enthusiasts. This is one of the few breeds for which different-colored eyes are allowed in the show ring. The Siberian Husky is one of the few dog breeds where blue eyes are common. No preference to eye color is given in the breed show ring, as it does not influence the dog's ability to pull a sled.

Ears and tail

Its ears are triangular, well-furred, medium-sized, and erect. Their ears are soft and they have very good hearing. Its fox-like brush tail is carried in a sickle curve over the back, and trails behind the dog in motion. Most Siberian Huskies' have a white tip on the end of their tail.


The Siberian Husky's coat consists of two layers, a dense, cashmere-like undercoat and a longer coarser topcoat consisting of short, straight guard hairs. This top coat can actually be two different colors, and it's not unusual to find it growing white then black then white on the same piece of fur. Siberians Husky's shed their undercoat two times a year or with the change of seasons; the process is commonly referred to as "blowing their coat". Otherwise, grooming is minimal; bathing is normally unnecessary as the coat sheds dirt. When grooming, most of the work needs to be done on the rear legs, as this is an area which does not naturally lose as much fur as the rest of the animal. The dog should be brushed when the fur starts to clump. Healthy Siberians have little odor. A properly groomed coat is also important especially if the dog has an affinity for playing in water, as the risk of developing fungal infections with a wet undercoat should be taken into consideration if the husky has not been properly brushed.Their coat can be likened to that of their closest relative the Samoyed but is not as big or dense.


Like all dogs, the Husky's nose is normally cool and moist. In some instances, Siberians can exhibit what is called 'snow nose' or 'winter nose'. Technically called "hypopigmentation", it results from loss of sunlight, and causes the nose (or parts of it) to fade to brown or pink in winter. The normal color returns as summer approaches. Snow nose also occurs in other light-coated breeds; the color change can become permanent in older dogs, especially red & white and cream colored Siberians, though it is not associated with disease.


There is a large variation in size among Huskies, and breed standards state that height at the withers and weight should always be proportional to each other. The approximate measurements:
  • Males
    • Height: 21 to 23.5 inches (53.5 to 60 cm)
    • Weight: 45 to 60 lb (20.5 to 28 kg)
  • Females
    • Height: 20 to 22 in. (50.5 to 56 cm)
    • Weight: 35 to 50 lb (15.5 to 23 kg)
Despite their sometimes intimidating yet beautiful wolf-like appearance, Siberian Huskies generally have a gentle temperament. Being a working breed, Siberians are very energetic and enjoy the ability to explore and run. That, combined with their striking appearance, has made them popular as both family pets and as show dogs. Siberians can be extremely affectionate, curious (like all dogs), and welcoming to people; characteristics that usually render them as poor guard dogs. Properly socialized Siberians are most often quite gentle with children (although no child should be left unsupervised with dogs).
The harsh conditions in which Siberians originated rewarded a strong prey drive, as food was often scarce. Consequently, Siberians may instinctively attack animals such as house cats, birds, squirrels, rabbits, chickens, quail, and even deer, and have been known to savage sheep. However, many households enjoy harmonious, mixed "packs" of cats and Siberians; this works best when the dogs are raised with cats from puppyhood.
A 2000 study on dog bites resulting in human fatalities by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found fifteen such fatalities caused by "husky-type" dogs (excluding Alaskan Malamutes) between 1979 and 1997. Most Huskies are not especially aggressive, but some dogs may have stronger prey drive than most, which may manifest itself in aggression towards humans.


As with any dog breed, Siberian Huskies do have some qualities which some pet owners may find undesirable. Despite their affectionate nature, Siberian Huskies are not as subservient and eager to please their owners as some other popular breeds, and will sometimes refuse to perform a task unless given a better "motive" than simply pleasing their trainer. Siberian Huskies can be challenging to train due to their strong will and independent thinking. Proper training requires persistence and patience. Siberian Huskies are not generally recommended for first time dog owners, as their strong will and desire to run are difficult for inexperienced owners to manage.
Siberian Huskies have strong running instincts and therefore for their own safety should never be left to run free off-leash. They have little "homing instinct" and will run for long distances, and therefore should always be kept on a leash or in a fenced yard. Siberians also dig large holes and will show considerable ingenuity in escaping from fenced runs. As sled dogs they have a very strong desire to pull, thus good obedience training is recommended.
Siberians require exercise on a daily basis and a secure fence at all times. Although they do sometimes bark, they are more frequently known to "yodle", "howl", or "whoo", often vocalizing when excited, back-talking to their owners, or to initiate some play or challenge behavior with either human and canine companions.


Siberians are normally rather healthy dogs, typically living from eleven to fifteen years of age. Health issues in the breed are eye troubles (cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal dystrophy among others), allergies, and cancer in older animals. Hip dysplasia occurs but is not a major concern in the breed with high levels of protein and fat, particularly when used for dogsledding. That said, Siberian Huskies are fuel-efficient dogs, consuming less food than other dogs of similar size and activity level. The diet must be adjusted to their level of work and exercise; obesity can be a problem for underexercised, overfed pets. Due to their origins, Huskies do require some amount of fish oil in their diet, primarily for their coat and nails, which can become brittle without the fish oil. Most trainers/hobbyists recommend feeding Siberians sardines as a means to introduce fish oil into their diet, though flaxseed oil can be considered a less-expensive alternative to sardines.


Because of a their striking looks and generally friendly disposition, Huskies are often an attractive option for those who are unfamiliar with the unique requirements of the breed. As a result, Huskies are often adopted into homes that are ill-equipped. Huskies are attractive, athletic, and friendly. Huskies are not a good fit for low-energy households. Huskies are much better in all circumstances when raised by one owner and stay with that owner.

Artois Hound

The Artois Hound is a rare breed of dog, and a descendant of the Bloodhound. A scent hound 22-23 inches high at the withers, weighting anything between 55 and 65 pounds, it is a well constructed dog with a slow graceful gait. It has a large, strong head, a medium-length back and a pointed tail that tends to be long and sickle-shaped. Their ears are set at eye level; they have large prominent eyes and quite thick lips.

General appearance

A well constructed dog, muscled and not too long, giving the impression of strength and energy.


Artois Puppy, 3 months old.

Artois Puppy, 3 months old.
  • Cranial Region: Its skull should be strong, broad, quite short, rounded and flat at its upper part but with the occipital protuberance only slightly pronounced. Its stop should be accentuated.
  • Facial Region: Its nose should be black, strong, with wide opened nostrils. Its muzzle should be straight and, seen in profile, moderately elongated. Of its lips, the upper lip should largely be covering the lower lip and must be rather important so as to give a square shape to the extremity of the muzzle, (as seen in profile). Its jaws/teeth should have a scissor bite, the upper incisors covering the lower in a narrow contact and are well set squarely in relation to the jaws. Its eyes, in relation to the width of the forehead, should not be very close together; they should be round, level with the head surface, with a melancholic and soft expression; they are dark brown in colour. The mucous membranes of the lower lids must not be visible. Its leathers should be set at eye level, a little thick, broad, round at the tip, almost flat and quite long, reaching the beginning of the nose. Its is moderately long, powerful; very little dewlap.


Its back is broad and well supported. Its loins are slightly arched. The hips give a slight inclination to its croup, which is well muscled. Its chest is broad and long, rather let down so that the sternal line arrives at elbow level. Its ribs should be well sprung. Its belly flanks fully its body.


It is strong and quite long; there should be some longer and coarser, slightly offstanding hairs, (like ears of grain) towards the tip. It is carried in a sickle fashion, never falling forward.



A view of the ensemble indicates that its limbs are strong and vertical. Its shoulders are oblique and muscled. Its elbows are set well in the axis of the body. Its forearm should be lightly oblique.


A view of the ensemble indicates that, (seen from behind), the point of the buttock, the middle of the leg, the hock, the metatarsal and the foot are on the same vertical line. Its upper thighs are let down and well muscled. Its hock joints are strong and moderately angulated, and the metatarsals are short and strong.


They are slightly elongated, strong but sufficiently tight; the pads are black, tough and compact.

Coat and colour

Its skin is quite thick. Its hair is short, thick and quite flat. The coat pattern is a dark fawn tri-colour, (similar to the coat of a hare or a badger), with a mantle or in large patches. The head is usually fawn, sometimes with a black overlay. Its main colours being tan and black and white in any combination.


The Artois Hound is an energetic dog that is brave and loyal. Though it has a large amount of endurance, it is calm and well balanced. It is a moderate sized dog that will feature the best characteristics of the scenthounds. It has a powerful sense of smell, and it is fast and independent. These dogs were bred to hunt rabbits, and they are proficient at this task. These dogs need to be trained by owners who are consistent. They are affectionate and loving to those that care for them. Like all scent hounds they are happiest when on the trail of a good scent.

Health Problems

There are no known health problems that are specific to the Artois Hound. Any health problems it may develop can be found in other dog breed. These dogs may have a maximum life expectancy of 13 years.


This is a hunting dog that needs extensive amounts of exercise. Without it, the dog could become problematic for its owners. It should be taken on walks daily, and this dog is great for healthy people who love to jog and hike. While it can live in an apartment, it may perform better in a small yard. It is important for owners to make sure this dog is never unleashed in an unsecured area, as it may run off in the direction of the first interesting scent it picks up. It is important for owners to make sure these dogs are given lots of space to move around in.


The Artois Hound does not require a large amount of grooming. The Artois' smooth short-haired coat is easy to look after. Owners will simply want to make sure the coat is brushed on a consistent basis. These dogs should only be given baths when they need it. A wipe down with a damp towel should suffice for the bathing aspect, (although you should bathe it with mild soap only if or when necessary; you should also dry shampoo it occasionally), however a rubber, wire, or hard bristled brush would work best for the brushing aspect.The shedding patterns of these dogs are not known. Be sure to check the ears carefully for signs of infection. The nails of the D'Artois should also be trimmed, (particularly to avoid nail-born infections).

Australian Cattle Dog

The Australian Cattle Dog (ACD), also known as the Queensland Heeler, Blue Heeler, and Red Heeler, is a breed of herding dog developed in Australia for controlling cattle. It is a medium-sized dog with a lot of energy, intelligence and an independent streak.

General appearance

The Australian Cattle Dog should be muscular, athletic and substantial in appearance, without any trace of weakness or fragility. However, excessively heavy or cumbersome build is also undesirable as it limits agility, a necessity for any good cattle herder. Along with athleticism, symmetry and balance are also essential, and no individual part of the dog should be exaggerated or draw excessive attention. Even when bred for companion or show purposes, it should have well-condition, hard muscles.

Coat and colour

A blue Australian Cattle Dog

A blue Australian Cattle Dog
The Cattle Dog's coat comes in two basic colours (blue and red) and a variety of markings and coat patterns, sometimes quite striking. The solid blue coat has a bluish appearance, caused by the mottling of black, gray and white hairs all over the dog's body. The solid red coat is distinctly red, generally with some variable percentage of white hairs frosting the coat. With the exception of solid colouring for a mask or a few body spots, the rest of the dog is covered with hairs which are alternately coloured and white, like the hair on a roan horse. This roaning is also found in collies that are merle in colouration. But unlike merle collies, this colour in Cattle Dogs should not be accompanied by odd-coloured eyes and irregular albino patching. The coat of a cattle dog should show an even disposition of colour, save in the coat patterns of 'speckle' and 'mottle'. These two patterns (which show in both red and blue versions of the coat) are less common. A 'speckle' is a dark coat with a heavy roaning of white speckles, almost in a reverse spotted pattern. A 'mottle' is a light or white coat with regularly-placed denser areas of dark colour showing up as spots, inherited from the Dalmatian ancestry. Both of these coat variations are considered unusual and uncommon, but acceptable by breeders.
Cattle Dog puppies are born white (save for any solid coloured body or face markings) and grow darker as they mature.
The more common colour of the Cattle Dog is generally blue, with ginger feet, ginger spots on the legs, and some of the ginger color on the face and underparts. The alternate genetic colour is red. A red Cattle Dog should have no blue whatsoever, (although they can occasionally appear with black 'saddles', this is a strongly disfavoured marking). Its body is flecked with red and white, its mask is red and if it has patches on the body, they are red also. Red is the genetically dominant colour, blue is the recessive (but preferred) colour.
For dog owners whose interest is primarily in their qualification for conformation shows, even markings are preferred over uneven markings, and large solid-color marks on the body are undesirable. For owners who are more interested in their dogs' performance in activities such as herding or dog sports, the breed's strong work ethic and intelligence are of more importance than the exact coat markings. The mask is one of the most distinctive features of an Australian Cattle Dog. This mask consists of a blue-black patch over one or both eyes (for the blue coat color) or a red patch over one or both eyes (for the red coat color). The blue variety may also show some red on the face. Depending on whether one eye or both have a patch, these are called, respectively, single (or 'half') mask and double (or 'full') mask. Australian Cattle Dogs without a mask are called plain-faced and may have small red "eyebrows". Any of these is correct according to the breed standard, and the only limitation is the owner's preference.
Most Australian Cattle Dogs have a stripe or spot of white hair in the center of the forehead, usually 1/2 inch to 1 inch by 2 inches to 3 inches (about 2 cm by 7 cm) called the Bentley Mark. This is similar in appearance to the blaze or star markings sometimes found on horses. This mark can be traced to a purebred dog owned by Thomas Bentley. According to legend, a popular dog owned by Tom Bentley passed on this distinctive mark to all Australian Cattle Dogs. They also frequently have a white tip to the tail and a small white patch on the chest.


A female Australian Cattle Dog should measure about 17 to 19 inches (43 to 48 cm) at the withers. A male Australian Cattle Dog should measure about 18 to 20 inches (46 to 51 cm) at the withers. An Australian Cattle Dog is a well-muscled, compact dog with a dense coat of coarse, rather oily hair with a slight ruff and fine, almost woolly, winter undercoat. It has a naturally long tail, generally carried low, with a slight white tip. An Australian Cattle Dog in good condition should weigh roughly 35 to 50 pounds (16 to 23 kg).


Blue Australian Cattle Dog with docked tail

Blue Australian Cattle Dog with docked tail
Some breeders dock Australian Cattle Dog's tails. This is a controversial practice and, in some countries, is illegal or is prohibited for show dogs.
Docking Australian Cattle Dogs' tails is a practice peculiar to the United States, and is most often found in mixed- or pet-bred dogs. Australian Cattle Dog tails are not docked in their country of origin, Australia. The Australian Cattle Dog needs its attractive tail for balance and steering while working or in agility. It is widely believed the tails are docked because of the mistaken notion that the dog will get its tail caught in doors or mouths of irate livestock.
The Australian Cattle Dog is not to be confused with the Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog, a square dog which is born with a naturally 'bobbed' tail. Though the Stumpy strongly resembles the Australian Cattle Dog, it should never be confused with the Australian Cattle Dog. The ASTCD has a taller, leaner conformation.
Australian Cattle Dog Quick Facts

Weight: 12-18 kg 25-50 lbs
Height: 43-51 cm 17-20 inches
Coat: Short, straight
Group: herding
Activity level: Very high
Learning rate: High
Temperament: Independent, intelligent
Guard dog ability: High
Watch-dog ability: High
Litter size: 4-8
Life span: Median ~12 years (based on minimal data)
Country of Origin: Australia

Like many herding dogs, Cattle Dogs have high energy levels and active minds. They need plenty of exercise and a job to do, such as participating in dog sports, learning tricks, or other activities that engage their minds. Some individuals find repetitive training frustrating and dull, so owners should aim to make training sessions varied and more exciting in order to keep their dog interested. Cattle Dogs who do not receive the appropriate exercise and entertainment will invent their own, often destructive, activities. These dogs are, by nature, wary. They are naturally cautious, and grow more so as they age. Their cautious nature towards strangers make them perfect guard dogs, when trained for this task. Cattle Dogs drive cattle by nipping at their heels, but they have also been known to herd other animals, such as ducks, chickens and flocks of ground-feeding parrots without instruction when left to their own devices.
To relieve the urge to nip, the Australian Cattle Dog can be encouraged to pick up and chew a toy or stick that is thrown for them. The Australian Cattle Dog, given a toy that would last another dog for an extended time, will happily sit down with the object between its paws and skilfully shred it into small pieces. An Australian Cattle Dog will remove the fuzz from a tennis ball as neatly as it would skin a rabbit. Any toy left with the Australian Cattle Dog needs to be extremely robust if it is to last.
The Australian Cattle Dog is gregarious to other dogs with whom it is familiar, working well in combination with other Australian Cattle Dogs, Kelpies, and Border Collies. Because of their plucky nature, the establishing of an order can result in a few scuffles and bites.
It is important for an owner to quickly establish a hierarchy in which they are the dog's pack leader, otherwise the young Australian Cattle Dog may bond to a senior dog, rather than to its owner. As an urban pet, if the young Australian Cattle Dog is allowed to bond too strongly with some senior dog in the neighbourhood, it can be very difficult for the owner to then establish control. With unknown dogs, particularly males, the Australian Cattle Dog can be aggressive and fearless.


The data on mortality and morbidity in Australian Cattle Dogs are minimal. Apparently the only completed health survey is one done by the UK Kennel Club in 2004, which had a small sample size of 11 deceased dogs and a larger sample size of 69 live dogs. The Australian Cattle Dog Health, Education, and Welfare foundation has an ongoing health survey of dogs alive on or after January 1, 2001, but there is no information on their web site (as of July 12, 2007) about when they plan to end data collection and produce a report.


Based on a small sample of 11 deceased dogs, Australian Cattle Dogs have a median longevity of 11.7 years (maximum 15.9 yrs). The median longevities of breeds of similar size are usually between 11 and 13 years, so, assuming the 11 dogs were representation of the population, Australian Cattle Dogs appear to have a typical life span for a breed their size. Leading causes of death were cancer (27%) and cerebral vascular ("stroke" 27%).
There is an anecdotal report of an Australian Cattle Dog (or an ACD-like dog) named Bluey who lived 29.5 years, but the record is unverified. Bluey is reported to have been born in 1910. The first Australian Cattle Dog standard was written in 1902, only eight years before Bluey was born. It is not clear how closely Bluey resembled, or is related to, the breed as it now exists.


Based on a sample of 69 still-living dogs, the most common health issues noted by owners were musculoskeletal (spondylosis, elbow dysplasia, and arthritis) and reproductive (pyometra, infertility, and false pregnancy).

Russell Terrier

The Russell Terrier is a predominantly white working terrier with the insatiable instinct to hunt formidable quarry underground. The breed was derived from the Reverend John Russell's fox working terrier strains that were used in the 1800s for fox hunting. The Reverend's fox working strains were much smaller than the Show Fox Terrier and remained working terriers. The size of the Russell Terrier (10" to 12") combined with a small flexible, spannable chest makes it an ideal size to work efficiently underground. Their unique rectangular body shape with a 50/50 ratio of body to leg makes them distinctly different from the Parson Russell Terrier and the JRTCA Jack Russell Terrier.
The Russell Terrier originated in England with Australia being designated as the country of development.
Used with permission and rewritten and pasted from WORD.
A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length. His smart movement matches his keen expression. Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken.
A Russell Terrier.

A Russell Terrier.
  • The overall dog is longer than high.
  • The depth of the body from the withers to the brisket should equal the length of foreleg from elbows to the ground.
  • The girth behind the elbows should be about 40 to 43 cm.
  • A lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen, intelligent expression. Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident.
Cranial Region
  • Skull: The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle. THIS PORTION OF STANDARD DIFFERS DEPENDING ON THE BREED CLUB.
  • Stop: Well defined but not over pronounced.
Facial Region
  • Nose: Black.
  • Muzzle: The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput.
  • Lips: Tight-fitting and pigmented black.
  • Jaws/Teeth: Very strong, deep, wide and powerful. Strong teeth closing to a scissor bite.
  • Eyes: Small dark and with keen expression. MUST not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely. The eyelid rims should be pigmented black. Almond shape.
  • Ears: Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility.
  • Cheeks: The cheek muscles should be well developed.
  • Neck: Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise.
  • General: Rectangular.
  • Back: Level. The length from the withers to the root of tail slightly greater than the height from the withers to the ground.
  • Loin: The loin should be short, strong and deeply muscled.
  • Chest: Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance from the ground, enabling the brisket to be located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm.
  • Sternum: Point of sternum clearly in front of the point of shoulder.
  • Tail: May droop at rest. When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears.
  • Forequarters
  • Shoulders: Well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle.
  • Upper arm: Of sufficient length and angulation to ensure elbows are set under the body.
  • Forelegs: Straight in bone from the elbows to the toes whether viewed from the front or the side.
  • Hindquarters: Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder.
  • Stifles: Well angulated.
  • Hock joints: Low set.
  • Rear pastern (Metatarsus) : Parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position.
  • Feet: Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in nor out.
Gait / Movement
  • True, free and springy.
  • Hair: May be smooth, broken or rough. Must be weatherproof. Coats should not be altered (stripped out) to appear smooth or broken.
  • Color: White MUST predominate with black and/or tan markings. The tan markings can be from the lightest tan to the richest tan (chestnut).
Size and Weight
  • Ideal Height: 25 cm (10 ins) to 30 cm (12 ins).
  • Weight: Being the equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cm in height, i.e. a 25 cm high dog should weigh approximately 5 kg and a 30 cm high dog should weigh 6 kg.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree, and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. However, the following weaknesses should be particularly penalized when entering a conformation competition:
  • Lack of true Terrier characteristics.
  • Lack of balance, i.e. over exaggeration of any points.
  • Sluggish or unsound movement.
  • Faulty mouth.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities should be disqualified when showing.

About the Jack Russell Terrier
The name "Jack Russell Terrier" was never used to describe a breed of dog. Rather, it became a common name for any predominantly-white earth-working terrier after the death of the Reverend John Russell. The only requisite was color, the instinct combined with the will to employ earth-work and the size to work efficiently underground. Still today, the name is widely used for working terriers of the Parsons Reverend's style. It was in the country of development, Australia, that this 10-12 inch dog was first standardized by Kennel Club recognition with the official name "Jack Russell Terrier" applied to the breed. This ultimately led to recognition of the breed by FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) countries including Ireland and most recently the USA. Unfortunately, due to the previous use of the name in the USA and England, the name Jack Russell Terrier is conflicting. In the USA, the Jack Russell Terrier conforming to the Australian/FCI standard is simply called a Russell Terrier. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the most common Jack Russell Terrier stood between 10" and 12" at the shoulder. There were those over 12", but these were in the minority. In the United Kingdom, each hunt had its Hunt Terriers made up usually of an assortment of Jack Russells, Borders, Lakelands and "Patterdales".
Even now, the size of the Russell Terrier in a hunt kennel will vary depending on its usage. In areas where the terriers are expected to run with hounds, they will be longer in leg. In areas where the terriers are carried in a saddle bag or, more likely today, in the back of a vehicle, they will be of the shorter and longer than tall variety. During the hunts' off-season the kennels usually have fun days and conformation events accompanied by a Hound Show, Terrier Show and Terrier racing. The Russell Terrier is a very popular companion breed in the US. It must be noted first and foremost the breed is a working breed not a companion breed. They are bred by dedicated Fanciers to preserve their working functional conformation and the instinct to employ their original purpose as earth terriers. This makes them an excellent performance breed participating in a variety of events; natural hunting which includes earthwork, agility, rally, obedience, tracking, go-to-ground and conformation, just to name a few. They are also found as therapy and service dogs.

A well-cared-for Russell can live for anywhere between 14-21 years. Health concerns with the breed include hereditary cataracts, primary lens luxation, congenital deafness, medial patellar luxation, cerebellar ataxia, Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, myasthenia gravis, atopy, and von Willebrand's disease. It is responsible breeders to have puppies BAER tested for hearing. The dams and sires should be CERF tested annually and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals examined to reduce the chance of passing on congenital eye or joint problems. Prospective puppy buyers are encouraged to avoid dogs sired or whelped by dogs under two years of age as congenital problems in the sire or dam may not yet have expressed themselves.

Australian Kelpie

The Kelpie is an Australian sheep dog that has proven very successful at herding and droving with little or no command guidance. They are medium-sized dogs and come in a variety of colors. Kelpies have been exported throughout the world and are used for herding livestock (primarily sheep) and poultry.
The breed has been separated over time into two distinct varieties: the Show Kelpie and the Working Kelpie. The Show Kelpie is the variety that is seen at conformation dog shows. They usually have little or no herding instinct. Show Kelpie breeders tend to call their breeding establishments "kennels", whereas Working Kelpies are bred for their herding instincts and breeders tend to call their breeding establishments "Studs" in a similar way to cattle and sheep Studs.

Australian Kelpie Quick Facts

Weight: 11-20 kg 25-45 lbs
Height: 43-51 cm 17-20 inches
Coat: Short, smooth, rough
Activity level: Very high
Learning rate: High
Temperament: Responsive, keen
Guard dog ability: High
Watch-dog ability: High
Litter size: 4-7
Life span: 10-14 years
Breed standards
Breed standards vary depending on whether the registry is more interested in a dog who performs his job superbly or a dog whose appearance meets an ideal standard. It is possible for a dog to do both, but his options for competition in conformation shows might be limited depending on his ancestry and on the opinions of the various kennel clubs or breed clubs involved.
Black and tan Kelpie

Black and tan Kelpie
In Australia, there are two separate registries for Kelpies.
Working Kelpies are registered with the Working Kelpie Council (WKC), which is the primary authority on the breed standard, and/or the State Sheepdog Workers Association. The WKC encourages breeding for herding ability, and allows a wide variety of coat colors. The Working Kelpie cannot be shown, due to the wide standards allowed by the WKC.
Show Kelpies are registered with the Australian National Kennel Council, which encourages breeding for a certain appearance and limits dogs to certain colors. Show Kelpies can only have recognised Show Kelpie blood lines and dogs cross bred with Working Kelpies cannot be shown.

Outside Australia

In the USA, the Kelpie is currently not recognized as a breed by the American Kennel Club (AKC), which promotes standards based on the dog's appearance. The North American Australian Kelpie Registry, which promotes the dog as a working breed, apparently does not want the breed to be promoted by the AKC. The Svenska Working Kelpie Klubben also does not permit Working Kelpies to be shown.


Chocolate brown Kelpie

Chocolate brown Kelpie
Kelpies are loyal, friendly, intelligent, problem-solving dogs and make excellent pets. They do need to be stimulated as idle and bored dogs become frustrated and destructive. Walks and socialisation are more than sufficient to keep them happy, but agility and ball games bring out the best in them. A Kelpie is not an aggressive dog, but family pets will protect their family with no regard for themselves.
The Working Kelpie typically has an abundance of energy and deep endurance. It will often drive a mob of sheep over sixty kilometers (37 miles) and upwards in extremes of climates and conditions. Kelpies are very agile: Working Kelpies are renowned for running along the backs of sheep when moving them through chutes. Show Kelpies generally excel in agility trials.


Kelpies are a hardy breed with few health problems, however they are susceptible to disorders common to all breeds, like cryptorchidism, hip dysplasia, cerebellar abiotrophy and luxating patella which registered breeders check every litter for. It is recommended that Kelpies be vaccinated against parvovirus and distemper, and rabies if the dog is outside Australia, which is currently free of the disease.

Australian Shepherd
The Australian Shepherd is a breed of working dog that was developed in the United States but coming from Merino farmers from Australia in the 19th century.
Like all working breeds, the Aussie has considerable energy and drive and usually needs a job to do. It often excels at dog sports such as frisbee and dog agility.
The breed's general appearance varies greatly depending on the particular line's emphasis. As with many working breeds that are also shown in the ring, there are differences of opinion among breeders over what makes an ideal Australian Shepherd.


Reflecting the great variation that exists in the breed, an Aussie can stand between 18 and 23 inches (46 to 58 cm) at the withers and weigh between 35 and 75 pounds (16 to 34 kg). For show dogs, females should fall in the lower ranges and males in the higher ranges. There is a conflict, though, concerning the Miniature Australian Shepherd. Since there is no strict height or weight measurements, some say mini Aussies are the same as the original breed, simply smaller, and should not be considered a separate breed. Others stick to an opinion that minis were bred separately and should be their own breed.


The eight colors of Aussies are blue merle (black and gray with white patchwork), red merle (liver red and beige with white patchwork), black (which may or may not have white legs, a white chest, or a white collar), and red (which may or may not have white legs, a white chest, or a white collar); each of these colors may also have copper points on the eyebrows, cheeks, and/or legs to create four additional combinations. Thus, dogs with copper and white along with the primary color are called tricolor, dogs with white or copper along with the primary color are called bicolor, and dogs with no white or copper are referred to as self-colored. White should not appear on the body of the dog from topmost point of the shoulder blade to the tail except in the merles.
Color variants: Black tricolor, red merle, blue merle, red tricolor.

Color variants: Black tricolor, red merle, blue merle, red tricolor.
The wide variation of color combinations comes from the interaction between the a color allele, which is either black (B) dominant or brown (b) recessive, and the dominant merle allele (M). Together, these provide four coat-color aspects that can appear in any combination:
  • Black or liver
  • Merle or not merle
  • Self- or tan-pointed
  • Solid color or trimmed with white
The merle allele, which produces a mingled or patchwork combination of dark and light areas, is the most common coat pattern associated with the breed. This merle (M) is dominant so that affected dogs (Mm) show the pigmentation pattern; however, when two merles are bred, there is a statistical risk that 25% of the offspring will end up with the two copies of the merle gene (homozygous). These dogs usually have a mostly white coat and blue irises, and are often deaf and/or blind. In this case, the deafness and blindness are linked to having two copies of the merle gene, which disrupts pigmentation and produces these health defects.


Red merle with tan points and one brown eye and one blue eye. Blue merle with tan points with blue eyes

Red merle with tan points and one brown eye and one blue eye. Blue merle with tan points with blue eyes
There is also great variety in the Aussie's eye color. An early nickname for the breed was "ghost-eye dog". Aussie eyes may be green, hazel, amber, brown, or blue; they may have two different colored eyes, or even have bicolored or "split eyes" (for example, a half-brown, half-blue eye), which appear to be linked to the merle coloration. Merled eyes occur as well, where one color is mixed in and swirled with another. Any combination of eye color is acceptable in the breed standard, so long as the eyes are healthy. In general, however, black Aussies (self, bi-color or tri-color) tend to have brown eyes, while red (self, bi-color or tri-color) Aussies tend to have amber eyes.


A hallmark of the breed is a short bobbed or docked tail in countries where docking is permitted. Some Aussies are born with naturally short bobbed tails, others with full long tails, and others with natural partial bobs, where the tail is midlength and appears stubby. Most breeders dock the tails when the puppies are born.
Although these dogs do not have a tail to wag, the wagging movement of the hind end still occurs.
Some Australian Shepherd owners opt to keep the tail on the dog for the natural look, which can still be shown in the breed ring.

Australian Shepherd Quick Facts

Weight: 16-34 kg 35-75 lbs
Height: 43-58 cm 18-23 inches
Coat: Double coat
Coat (cont): Medium length
Activity level: High
Learning rate: High
Temperament: Responsive, active, friendly to owners
Guard dog ability: Medium-high
Watch-dog ability: High
Litter size: 5-8
Life span: Median 12-13 years

The Australian Shepherd is unique with regard to its temperament. There are two distinct types of personality to look for depending on the lines, as well as many shades within these two types.
Generally the breed is an energetic dog that requires exercise and enjoys working, whether it is learning and practicing tricks, competing in dog agility, or any other physically and mentally involving activity. Many need to run, full out, regularly. It is usually a sweet and affectionate dog who is faithful to its owners and may be good with children, although its overwhelming instinct to work may subvert its ability to function as a family dog.
Dogs with strong working instinct may show more reserved, guarding behaviors along with a tendency to chase or nip at running children or strangers if not properly trained. Its protective instinct and behaviors can be frightening to children, strangers, and small animals. Those bred for a more family-oriented temperament are more friendly and affectionate with strangers and generally more reliable around children. Because the breed was developed to serve on the ranch, a job which includes being protective of its property, it sometimes can be annoying with its inclination to bark warnings about neighborhood activity, but it is not generally an obsessively barking dog.
The Aussie is intelligent, learns quickly, and loves to play. This means that a bored, neglected, unexercised Aussie will invent its own games, activities, and jobs, which to a busy owner might appear to be hyperactivity in the house (for example, an Aussie may go from being at rest to running at top speed for several 'laps' around the house before returning to rest, all apparently for no purpose) around fragile furnishings or involve the destruction of yard and property. Without something to amuse them, Aussies often turn destructive. Aussies also do best with plenty of human companionship: they are often called "velcro" for their strong desire to always be near their owners and for their tendency to form intense, devoted bonds with select people.
The Australian Shepherd has a reputation as a highly intelligent and versatile stock dog with a range of working styles. While improperly trained or frustrated Aussies may exhibit excessive running and barking, a good working Aussie is quick, thoughtful, and easy with its stock. The ability for the breed to adapt to the situation and think for itself makes it an excellent all-around worker. For this reason the Aussie is often chosen to work unusual livestock such as ducks, geese, and commercially raised rabbits.



Results of a 1998 internet survey with a sample size of 614 Australian Shepherds indicated a median longevity of about 12.5 years, but also that longevity may be declining. A 2004 UK survey found a much shorter median longevity of 9 years, but their sample size was low (22 deceased dogs).
The median life spans for breeds similar in size to Australian Shepherds are mostly between 11 and 13 yrs , so, assuming the results of the UK study are not representation of the population there, Aussies appear to have a typical life span for a breed their size. Leading causes of death in the UK survey were cancer (32%), "combinations" (18%), and old age (14%).


Based on a sample of 48 still-living dogs, the most common health issues noted by owners were eye problems (red eye, epiphora, conjunctivitis, and cataracts). Dermatologic and respiratory problems also ranked high.
Collie eye anomaly (CEA) and cataracts are considered major health concerns[citation needed] in Aussies. Other conditions of note include iris coloboma, canine hip dysplasia (CHD), Pelger-Huet syndrome, hypothyroidism, and nasal solar dermatitis . A veterinarian should test your Australian Shepherd's hips, eyes, thyroid and DNA (to check for CEA). Blue merle shepherds of the miniature variety are known for a markedly short lifespan, usually from 5-7 years

The Australian Shepherd (as well as Collies, German Shepherds and many other herding dogs) are susceptible to toxicity from common heartworm preventatives (anti-parasitics) and other drugs. This is caused by a genetic mutation of the MDR1 gene. The most common toxicity is from the heartworm medicine Ivermectin found in products such as Heartgard.

Australian Silky Terrier

The Australian Silky Terrier is an Australian breed of dog. It is classed in the Toy group in its country of origin and some other countries, but is classed as a terrier in Europe.
The average Australian Silky Terrier is about ten inches at the withers, and weighs about ten pounds(3-4 kg). Its head is longer than that of the Yorkshire Terrier but shorter than that of the Australian Terrier. The coat is five to six inches long(12-15 cm) with a silky texture.

That Silky Terrier has eyes sensitivity and uses sunglasses

That Silky Terrier has eyes sensitivity and uses sunglasses

Australian Silky Terriers are bred as house dogs, so tend to have a strong attachment to their owner and owner's family, coupled with a slight suspicion of strangers and strange dogs.
If a visitor is welcomed by the owner most will then completely accept the visitor and try to get attention from them.
These dogs are very sensitive to voice tone. A loud deep tone will frighten them, and a high squeaky shriek will make them freeze.
The Australian Silky Terrier is friendly to all the family, but will usually attach itself to one member and be friendly with the rest. It will tolerate strangers, but no more than that. It will love children if raised with them, but it doesn't enjoy being fussed over or being treated like an animated toy and prefers to be treated as an equal.

Australian terrier

The Australian Terrier is a small breed of dog in the terrier family.

A young Aussie

A young Aussie
The Australian Terrier stands around 25 centimeters high at the withers and weighs around 7 kilograms. It is a low-set dog; the length of its body is longer than its height at the withers. The Aussie has a high-set tail that is not now docked in Australia.
The head of the Australian Terrier is elongated, with a slight stop and pricked ears. The ANKC breed standard describes the dog's look as "hard bitten" and "rugged". The eyes are small, dark, and oval and must have a keen terrier expression. The leather of the nose runs up to the bridge of the muzzle, which is described as "strong".
The dog's coat is rough or harsh to the touch, with a soft undercoat and a distinctive ruff around the neck. Australian Terriers shed little hair. The breed standard specifies that it should be untrimmed, but some prefer to neaten the dog for the show ring. Acceptable colours are blue and tan, red or sandy.
The Australian Terrier has medium sized triangular ears which are very flexible. The ruff around the neck complements its appearance. It is a great companion dog.


The Aussie should have the personality of a working terrier; its even disposition makes it suitable for a companion dog.

There are three completed health surveys for Australian Terriers. Two surveys, one in 1997 and one in 2002, have been conducted by the Australian Terrier Club of America. The Club is currently collecting data for their next survey. The UK Kennel Club has a 2004 survey, but it has a much small sample size than the Australian Terrier Club of America surveys. Some of the respondents in the American surveys were from Australia, but none of the Australian Terrier clubs in Australia appear to have conducted, or be in the midst of conducting, a survey.


In both 1997 and 2002 Australian Terrier Club of America surveys, median longevity of Australian Terriers was 11 years (total sample size of 230 deceased dogs). In the UK Kennel Club 2004 survey, median longevity was 12.1 years, but the sample size was only 11 deceased dogs. 11 years is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs in general, but on the low end of longevities for breeds similar in size to Australian Terriers.
Major causes of death in the 2002 survey were old age (17%), undetermined (16%), cancer (15%), and diabetes (13%).


Among 619 living dogs in the 2002 Australian Terrier Club of America survey, the most commonly reported health problems were endocrine (primarily diabetes), allergic dermatitis, and musculoskeletal (primarily luxating patella and ruptured cranial cruciate ligament) . Other conditions reported among more than 4% of the surveyed dogs were adult onset cataracts and ear infections. The much smaller 2004 UKC survey, with 28 living dogs, suggested similar health concerns.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

I am Emma Halliday from walmley in the midlands and i am 11 years old! i have an Auzzie called tilly she is 2 years old. she is mad and loves a good toy to play with! she likes chiken for breakfast. she is too small to breed from so we bought her off the breeder! when she gets her ball with the rope on she shakes it and when she lets go off it it flys across the room! when you are sitting on the sofa and you are watching the tv she lies down and growls at you in a nice way so you will come and play
with her! she is a great family dog and she likes to be picked up and have a nice cuddle! she does hate the postman though! she loves everyone(well except the postman!),likes to chase pigeons and squirels! All th e family love her very,very,very,very(etc) much and she will never need re-homing because she is looked after very well! if you read this Doreen tilly will never forget you and she still loves you, thank you very much for letting uys but tilly off you all the family are very gratefull! hope to see you soon! i hope you people out there who may read this now know how adorable my tilly is!