Sunday, 16 September 2007

List of Dog breeds (Page 25)

Spanish Alano / Alano Español

Alano Español or Spanish Bulldog this Spanish breed of dog that derives its name from the Alans. Recently received recognition from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture and the RSCE. Recognition with the FCI is rumoured to be in planning.

Quick Facts

Alano Español Quick Facts

Weight: 35-40 kg 75-89 lbs
Height: 58-63 cm 23-25 inches
Coat: Coarse, short
Activity level: High
Learning rate: High
Temperament: Dominant, serious, fearless, reliable, stable, affectionate, patient
Guard dog ability: High
Watch-dog ability: Very high
Life span: approx. 11-14 years


The Alano Español has an untrained appearance that fits him especially for running long distances at high speeds and herding cattle. This dog has a well proportioned body structure, the rib cage is arched, but not cylindrical, the chest stretches to the elbow level. It also has strong and solid shoulders and withers. The back legs are weaker than the front legs, and are straight if you view them from the front or the side. The paws are big compared to the size and weight of the dog. The muscles in the hindquarters are toned and the back legs show very well defined angles with strong feet at the base. The tail is thickest at the base and gets thinner, eventually to a point. The stomach retracts inward in order to give him a more athletic appearance than other heavier breeds. The neck is strong, powerful and wide, showing two double chins that should never hang to low. The Alano has extremely powerful jaws. The teeth are wide, and spaced out from each other with a very strong and firm scissors bite. When running at full speed, they are fast and flexible, fully stretching in and out their whole body in each step. They can clear almost any obstacle without looking tired at all. Coat colors include yellow and wolf gray, fawns and reds.

Spanish Greyhound / Galgo Español

The Galgo Español (Spanish Galgo) or Spanish Greyhound is an ancient breed of dog, specifically a member of the sighthound family. The Galgo was named for the Gauls, who inhabited the Iberian Peninsula 400–600 B.C.E. The Galgo breed was probably a result of the dogs brought by the Gauls on their migration through the peninsula mixed with dogs brought by traders who did business with the Gauls.

In the intervening centuries, it is likely that other sighthound breeds were interbred to produce the Galgo that we know today.

Despite being called a "Spanish Greyhound", the Galgo is not truly a Greyhound. The lineages of the two breeds are different. However, in the last century or so, some breeders have cross-bred Galgos and Greyhounds in order to produce faster Galgos.

Galgos are unfortunately bred in large numbers by unscrupulous breeders, who then kill them in the most barbaric ways possible- hanging, burning, battering, shooting, or throwing them from a moving car. It is estimated that about 50,000 are killed each year, although some sources say 100,000 is the more likely number. (Source: FAZ Article).

Spanish Mastiff

The Spanish Mastiff is a large breed of dog, originating in Spain, originally bred to be a sheep dog and a guard dog whose purpose is to defend livestock from wolves and other predators.


The Spanish Mastiff ( is a very large and powerful dog, similar in appearance to the other Mastiff breeds. They have a large powerful head, with loose folds of skin and a double dewlap on the neck.

Males in this breed are at least 77 cm (30 in) tall at the withers, and range from 50–65 kg (110-140 lbs). Females are at least 72 cm (28 in), and weigh 50–60 kg (110-130 lbs).

This dog has a long muzzle compared to many other mastiffs. It has small eyes and drop ears resembling triangles. This dog's coat is most often reddish or fawn-colored, but can also be brindle, black or 'wolf' colored.

Spanish Water Dog

The Spanish Water Dog or Perro de Agua Español is a breed of dog developed by the shepherds in Spain as a multi-purpose herder who was also used sometimes as a gundog, as well as an assistant to fishermen.


The SWD is a medium size, athletic, robust dog that is slightly longer than tall. Their tails are usually docked in the US, but undocked tails are not a fault in show dogs if the dog was bred in a non-docking country.

The head should be strong and carried with elegance. The skull is flat and the top is parallel with the top of the muzzle. The nose, eye-rims and paw pads are the same colour as the darkest part of the coat or darker. The eyes are expressive and set fairly wide apart. They should be hazel, chestnut or dark brown in color, depending on the coat colour. The ears are set at medium height on the skull, and are triangular.

Coat and colour

It has a distinctive curly coat which is woolly in texture and may form cords when long. The coat should not be clipped or groomed for aesthetic purposes. Instead, it should look entirely natural, as though it is not groomed at all. It should never be trimmed, but sheared down at least once a year. SWD puppies are always born with curly hair.

The SWD can be seen in a variety of colours. It may be black, beige, brown, white or bicolour where the second colour is white (brown and white or black and white). Tri-coloured dogs are strictly prohibited by the currently held (world-wide) standards for the breed as are black and tan or brown and tan colour combinations

More colours SWD's can be seen in.
More colours SWD's can be seen in.


The Spanish Water Dog is a medium-sized dog. The approximate measurements are:

  • Males
    • Height (at the withers): 44 to 50 cm (17.32 to 19.69 inches)
    • Weight: 18 to 22 kg (40 to 49 lbs)
  • Females
    • Height (at the withers): 40 to 36 cm (15.75 to 18.11 inches)
    • Weight: 14 to 18 kg (31 to 40 lb)


The SWD is diligent, loyal, affectionate, and intelligent. They have very strong natural herding and guarding instincts. SWD’s thrive on work and play. Their athleticism and extremely hard working nature illustrates how they need a lot of exercise. They enjoy working, and can be trained to perform a variety of tasks. They can be wary with strangers, and early and continuing socialization with a variety of people and other animals is essential for a well-adjusted, social dog.


SWD's require minimal grooming.

Nine week old SWD brown and white boston colored puppy
Nine week old SWD brown and white boston colored puppy
  • SWD's should never be brushed, instead, as the cords grow they should be checked for matting. When matting does occur they should be gently pulled apart without tearing the cords. If there is too much matting the cords should be sheared.
  • SWD's should be bathed only when dirty in lukewarm water. Use a neutral shampoo, never use human shampoo. SWD's should be allowed to air dry.
  • The cords must be sheared one or more times a year.
  • Ears and eyes should cleaned as often as they are dirty.
  • As with all dogs nails should be trimmed.
  • SWD's puppies should be trimed for the first time at around the age of 6 months


The breed's life expectancy is about 14 years. SWD's have few known health problems. Some health problems seen in SWD's are:

This SWD is swimming in the ocean. Many SWD's love the water, but not all.
This SWD is swimming in the ocean. Many SWD's love the water, but not all.


There are many different theories as to its origin. but one of the most popular ones is that it was introduced by the Turks who traded in sheep and used them as sheepdogs. In Spain it is often called the "Andalusian Turk". It was also known by many other names such as, "Perro de Agua", "Perro Turco", "Laneto", "Perro de Lanas", "Perro Patero", "Perro Rizado", "Churro", "Barbeta" and most recently "Perro de Agua Espanol".

Regardless of its exact origins, it is documented that there was a wooly coated Shepherd Dog on the Iberian Peninsula around 1100 AD Historically, the SWD were primarily used as sheepdogs to move the flocks of sheep and goats from one pasture to another. The dogs were also called upon to work wherever a dog was required. For example, they were taught to work with fishermen as well as being taught to retrieve when hunting with the farmers.

Revival of the breed

Spanish Water Dogs are highly versatile. This one is herding sheep
Spanish Water Dogs are highly versatile. This one is herding sheep

In about 1975, two enthusiasts, Antonio Garcia Perez and Santiago Montesinos travelled around the countryside of Southern Spain, through the remote villages and farms of the mountainous region of Andalucia and bought or borrowed a number of dogs from the shepherds that they felt most fit the type they were looking for to establish a breeding program.

In 1980 the Spanish Water Dog Club (Spain) was formed in order to promote the breed and help get it recognized in its own country.

In 1985, after a lot of hard work and displaying the breed at various venues and dog shows the Spanish Kennel Club accepted it and gave it official status. It was provisionally recognized by Fédération Cynologique Internationale until 1999, when it was permanently recognized.

The SWD was officially recognized in United Kennel Club in 2001 and fully accepted for conformation events in 2004. Jerry and Ken Mann were instrumental in facilitating recognition in UKC. They presented the first SWD to be shown in an AKC Rare Breed Conformation venue in Inverness, Florida in January of 2000. They presented an Introduction Seminar at a UKC venue in South Carolina in 2001 and showed the first SWD at a UKC Mult-Breed show in the Summer of 2004. They spearheaded the first International SWD discussion list and were the first owners to use their SWD for herding in the United States.

Spinone Italiano

The Spinone Italiano (plural Spinoni Italiani) is an Italian dog breed. Its original purpose was as a versatile gun dog, which the breed is still a master of today. The Spinone is a loyal, friendly and alert dog with a close lying, wiry coat. It is an ancient breed that can be traced back to approximately 500 BC.

It is often used for hunting, pointing, and retrieving game (HPR), but the intelligent and strong Spinone can be used for practically anything ranging from companions to assistance dogs. The name of the breed is pronounced spin-own-ay (singular) and spin-own-ee for plural.


The Spinone has a square build (the length of the body is approximately equal to the height at the withers). It is a strong-boned, solidly built dog with a well-muscled body and limbs that are suited to almost any kind of terrain. Brown and white Spinone can sometimes be confused with a German Wirehaired Pointer by someone not familiar with the breeds. However, the long head and pronounced occipital are unique to the breed. He has an expression that shows intelligence and understanding and is often described as having human-like eyes. The tail of the Spinone is customarily docked at half its length (approx 5.5 to 8 inches or 140 to 200 mm from the base of the tail), and it sports dewclaws on all four feet, giving its hind legs a substantial appearance. Even as adults, Spinoni retain disproportionate, puppy-like, webbed paws which make them powerful swimmers.


The coat is tough, slightly wiry, and close fitting. The preferred length is 1½–2½ inches (4–6 cm) on the body; however, the ears, muzzle, head, and parts of the legs and feet are covered with shorter hair. Eyebrows have longer and stiffer hair; longer but softer hair covers cheeks and muzzle, creating a profuse moustache and beard.

The Spinone should not have an undercoat. A long, soft or silky coat is undesired and is a sign of excessive grooming.


An orange roan spinone italiano.
An orange roan spinone italiano.

Acceptable variants (UK and US) are solid white, white with orange markings, orange roan with or without orange markings, white with brown markings, and brown roan with or without brown markings. Pigment of skin, nose, lips, and the pads on their feet should be a fleshy red-orange in white dogs, slightly darker in orange and brown roan dogs. The white and orange coloration is unique amongst the wirehaired gun dogs.

Height and weight

Height at withers:

  • Dogs: 60–70 cm (23.5–27.5 in)
  • Bitches: 59–65 cm (22.5–25.5 in)

Weight should be in the correct proportion to size and structure:

  • Dogs: 34–39 kg (75–86 lb);
  • Bitches: 29–34 kg (64–75 lb).


The Spinone is easy going, docile, and affectionate towards both people and dogs. It is well known for being loving and gentle with children. Its extremely patient nature also helps with this, but children should be taught not to take advantage of this trait. It is loyal to those it knows and still friendly to those it doesn't. The breed is not known for any aggression and is therefore not a wise choice for somebody looking for an aggressive guard dog.

Centuries of working with man as a hunting companion has created a loyal, intelligent dog that is easily trained, although some can be stubborn about performing a learned task if they see no point in it. Because they are sensitive, motivational training works best for this breed, as this gentle creature's feelings can easily be hurt when handled incorrectly.

The Spinone can be a very active breed, but it is not a racy dog like most other hunting breeds. The Spinone typically moves at the relaxed trot that is characteristic of the breed. It has often been called the perfect dog to run or jog with, because it will not run off in front and leave its human companion struggling to keep up as it prefers the slower pace itself. It can be more than happy in a small yard and does not necessarily need acres of land. The small garden combined with regular walks would suit a Spinone well.

Though the Spinone has an amazing temperament it can have a tendency to slobber a lot!


Like all purebred dogs, it has its share of health problems, but careful breeding is helping the situation cease.

Life expectancy

In 2004, the Kennel Club in the UK conducted a breed health survey which found the average life expectancy of Italian Spinone to be 8.7 years.

Known medical issues

  • Cerebellar ataxia: Cerebellar ataxia (CA) is a deadly hereditary condition that is known to affect Spinone puppies. It is a recessive gene; therefore, both sire and dam must have been carriers for any pup in a litter to have this condition. No puppy with CA has lived past the age of 12 months to date. Most puppies that have been diagnosed with the condition are euthanised at 10–11 months.
  • Hip dysplasia: Like most large breeds, the Spinone can suffer hip dysplasia. This is when the hip bones become abnormal and make it difficult and painful to do any exercise. Dogs diagnosed with severe hip dysplasia can have their ball and socket joint replaced surgically with an artificial joint.


The breed is believed to have been developed in the Piedmont region of Italy. As the Spinone is a very ancient breed (it is believed to be one of the oldest gundogs in existence), it is not known exactly what the origins of the breed are; there are many different theories. Some of these claim that the Spinone could have originated in Italy, France, Spain, Russia, Greece, or Celtic Ireland.

Some people familiar with the history of the breed claim that the Spinone descended from the now-extinct Spanish Pointer, whilst others claim that it was the ancient Russian Setter that is responsible for the breed we know today. An even more popular theory is that Greek traders brought coarse-haired setters to Italy during the height of the Roman empire, where the dogs were then crossed with various others and the modern Spinone eventually emerged.

The French claim that the Spinone has descended from crosses of several French pointing breeds, whilst the Italians believe the Spinone is the ancestor of the Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, the German Wirehaired Pointer, and the Pudelpointer. Any one of these claims could be true; perhaps several of them are correct.

During the Second World War, the Spinone became close to extinct. Both the war and the fact that Italian hunters had begun using other breeds (such as setters, pointers, and spaniels) in the hunt, whereas before it was primarily the Spinone. Many breeders had to resort to crossing the Spinone with other wire-haired breeds, such as the Boulet, Wirehaired Pointing Griffon and German Wirehaired Pointer.

The breed was not officially known as "Spinone" until the early nineteenth century. Before then, some areas knew the breed as the "Spinoso". The breed was named after an Italian thorn bush, the pino, which was a favorite hiding place for small game because for larger animals it was practically impenetrable. Only thick-skinned, coarse-haired animals could fight through the branches unharmed to locate the game. The Spinone was the breed most capable of doing so, and therefore the name was formed.

Today the Bracco Italiano is the most popular hunting dog in Italy, although the Spinone is still common. The Bracco is a racier, higher energy dog, while the Spinone excels at hunting close or in dense cover, and in retrieving from water.


List of Spitz-type dog breeds

This list might not be complete and is, at best, an educated guess from experts and dog fanciers based on the physical characteristics of the breeds. Some, such as the Papillon, exhibit the tail, coat, and head of a Spitz dog, but its ears more closely resemble spaniels although being upright like the Spitz. In the future, genetic studies might better clarify the relationship among various breeds. Note that dogs listed here might also be classified as toy dogs, herding dogs, sled dogs, and in other types.

Akita Inu
Alaskan Husky
Alaskan Klee Kai
Alaskan Malamute
American Eskimo Dog
Canadian Eskimo Dog
Chinese Foo Dog
Chow Chow
East Siberian Laika
Finnish Lapphund
Finnish Spitz
German Spitz
Greenland Dog
Guejae Gae
Icelandic Sheepdog
Japanese Spitz
Karelian Bear Dog
Karelo-Finnish Laika
Korea Jindo Dog
Lapponian Herder (Lapinporokoira)
Mackenzie River Husky
Nenets Herding Laika
Northeasterly Hauling Laika
Norwegian Buhund
Norwegian Elkhound
Norwegian Lundehund
Russo-European Laika
Ryūkyū Inu
Sakhalin Husky
Seppala Siberian Sleddog
Shiba Inu
Siberian Husky
Swedish Lapphund
Swedish Vallhund
Thai Bangkaew Dog
Volpino Italiano
Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)
West Siberian Laika

Spitz-type breeds of dog (the correct German plural is Spitze, though Spitzen is commonly used in the United States) are characterized by long, thick, and often white fur, and pointed ears and muzzles. The tail is usually curled over the dog's back.


The exact origins of Spitz-type dogs are not known, though most of the Spitz-types seen today originate from the Arctic regions.

There is no archaeological evidence showing transition stages between the wolf and the often-similar Spitz-type dogs. Skeletal remains up to 5,000 years old suggest it is far more likely that the ancestors of Spitz types mated with wolves.

Though it is not completely certain that there has been wolf blood in the Spitz-type dogs for that long, it is certain that humans have intentionally mated Spitz types with wolves in more recent times to achieve the wolf-like appearance of breeds such as the Alaskan Malamute.


About three thousand years ago, dogs began to migrate from the Arctic into temperate Europe, North America, Asia, and to a lesser extent, Africa.

Skeletal remains around 2,000 years old unearthed in Switzerland indicate that Spitz-type dogs have inhabited Central Europe for millennia. These dogs are almost certainly the ancestors of the European Spitz-types, such as the Keeshond and Schipperke.

Many Spitz-types also migrated into Korea and China. Over the centuries, many of these dogs were transported by humans to Japan, most likely from Korea. These Asian Spitz types are the ancestors of today's breeds such as the Chow Chow and the Akita Inu.

Working dogs

Through selective breeding, Spitz types have evolved to fit three purposes helping humans: hunting, herding, and pulling sleds.

The larger and more powerful breeds such as the Karelian Bear Dog and the Norwegian Elkhound were used for big game hunting, helping humans kill moose and elk.

Smaller breeds such as the Finnish Spitz and the Lundehund were used in Scandinavia to hunt birds and smaller mammals.

The largest of all the Spitz types, notably the Canadian Eskimo Dog and the Greenland Dog, were used to pull sleds up until the 19th century. During that century, when fur trapping became a lucrative business, people began to realize that size did not necessarily relate with endurance, and the smaller Siberian Husky came to be used more frequently in Canada and Alaska. The Finnish Lapphund was used by the Sami people.

Adaptation to the Arctic

Spitz types are well suited to living in harsh northern climates. They often have an insulating, waterproof undercoat that is denser than the topcoat to trap warmth.

Small ears help reduce the risk of frostbite, and thick fur that grows on the paws protects the dogs from sharp ice.

However, many Spitz-type breeds retain wolf-like characteristics such as excessive independence, suspiciousness, and aggression towards unfamiliar humans or other animals, and can therefore require much training before they become manageable. Some, such as the Karelian Bear Dog, are almost impossible to train as companion dogs.

Companions and toys

The charming look of the Spitz-type, with its thick fur, fluffy ruff, curled tail and small muzzle and ears, have caused several people to create non-working types designed to be companions or lap dogs. This trend is most evident in the tiny Pomeranian, which was originally a much larger dog closer to the size of a Keeshond before being bred down to make an acceptable court animal. The Keeshond, the Wolfspitz variation of the German Spitz, widely known as the national dog of Netherland, is an affectionate and loyal, albeit very energetic, pet.

Other Spitz types which have been bred away from working uses are the American Eskimo Dog, the Alaskan Klee Kai, the German Spitz, the Pomeranian, and even the Papillon.

St. Bernard (dog)

The St. Bernard Dog is a very large breed of dog originally bred for rescue and as a working dog. A full-grown male can weigh between 150 and 220 lb (68 and 100 kg) and the approximate height is 27.5 inches to 35.5 inches (70 to 90 cm).

According to several resources they are one of the largest dog breeds. There are two varieties of the breed: the short-haired or smooth-coat variety and the long-haired or fluffy-coat variety.

The Saint Bernard is known for its loyalty and vigilance and is tolerant of both children and animals. Because of these traits, it has become a family dog. They also make good watchdogs, as their size can be startling to strangers, though their temperament is mild.

Quick Facts

Saint Bernard Quick Facts

Weight: 130-220+ lbs
Height: 27.5-35.5 inches
Coat: Smooth coat or Rough coat
Coat (cont):
Activity level: Medium
Learning rate: High
Temperament: friendly, loyal, loving
Temperament (cont) friendly towards people and strangers
Guard dog ability: Medium
Watch-dog ability: Very High
Litter size: 2-14
Life span: 9-12 years


The ancestors of the St. Bernard are the herding dogs of Swiss farmers like the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, as well as hunting dogs and watchdogs. Their history has also been connected with the hospice at the Great St. Bernard Pass. First reports of the dogs' presence at the pass date to the 17th century, and they remained loyal companions to the monks there.

The most famous St. Bernard to save people at the pass was Barry (sometimes spelled Berry), who reportedly saved somewhere between 40 and 100 lives. There is a monument to Barry in the Cimetière des Chiens, and his body was preserved in the Natural History Museum in Berne .

St. Bernard demonstrating its strength
St. Bernard demonstrating its strength

The classic St. Bernard looked very different from the St. Bernard of today, because an avalanche killed off many of the dogs used for breeding. To further the breed, they crossed the remaining dogs with other dogs, but in the process lost much of their use as rescue dogs. The St. Bernard is among the heaviest and largest dog breeds in the world. The heaviest and largest dog in known history was a Saint Bernard named Benedictine, which weighed 152.5kg (336 lbs). Successive studies suggest that Benedictine was in fact 162 kg (357 lbs). ).


The name "St. Bernard" originates from a travelers hospice on the often treacherous St. Bernard Pass in the Western Alps between Switzerland and Italy, where the name was passed to the local dogs. The pass, the lodge, and the dogs are named for Bernard of Menthon, the 11th century monk who established the station.

"St. Bernard" was not in widespread use until the middle of the 19th century. The dogs were called "Saint Dogs","Noble Steeds", "Alpenmastiff", or "Barry Dogs" before, and in parts of North America, they're still called "Saints".


The St. Bernard originally was a smooth-coated dog developed to rescue travelers from the snow. In the 1830s the monks who owned and bred the dogs introduced Newfoundland blood to strengthen the breed, and this gave rise to the rough-coat St. Bernard. Although more popular, the rough-coat variety proved to be unsuitable for mountain work because the long hair tended to collect icicles. For this reason the monks kept the smooth coat variety for rescue work.


Scipio, a St. Bernard dog belonging to Orville Wright.
Scipio, a St. Bernard dog belonging to Orville Wright.

St. Bernards are very gentle giant dogs. St. Bernards are often fond of children and are loyal to their family, but, as with any dog, should not be left unsupervised with young children. It is imperative that St. Bernards should also remain very socialized because of their size. They are also very prone to anxiety if left alone for long periods of time and may destroy their owner's belongings like all other dogs. It is recommended that a suitable safe environment be made available during times that the owner cannot be home. This could range anywhere from a fenced yard to a suitably sized crate (normally Extra Large). They commonly get along very well with other dogs and love high amounts of attention.

Even though they can usually be seen lounging around the house, that's not all they do. Depending on the dog, they like to dig, and are capable of jumping over fences. Before you consider bringing this type of dog into your house, make sure you have lots of room for them to run, and a sturdy fence that they can't jump over, or dig under.


The very fast growth rate and the weight of a St. Bernard can lead to very serious deterioration of the bones if the dog does not get proper food and exercise. Many dogs are affected by hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia. Osteosarcoma (bone cancer) has been shown to be hereditary in the breed .

St. Bernards are susceptible to eye disorders called entropion and ectropion. The FCI standard indicates that this is now a major fault. The breed is also susceptible to epilepsy and seizures, a heart disease called dilated cardiomyopathy, and eczema. The average life span of a St. Bernard is about 8 years,and some insurance companies will not issue a life insurance beyond 8 years.

The height of a full grown Saint Bernard can be from 25.5 to 35.5 inches (61-90 cm.) and the average weight can range from 110 to 220 pounds (50-100 kg).

In Media

Painting  by John Emms portraying St. Bernards as rescue dogs with brandy barrels around their neck
Painting by John Emms portraying St. Bernards as rescue dogs with brandy barrels around their neck

St. Bernards are often portrayed, especially in comics and cartoons, with small barrels of brandy worn around their necks. This was supposedly used to warm the victims that the dogs found. However, the monks deny that any St. Bernard has ever carried casks or small barrels around their necks; they believe that the origin of the image is an early painting. The monks did keep casks around for photographs by tourists.

One magazine cartoon showed a grown St. Bernard, presumably female, with several puppies; she and each puppy had a cask around the neck. The man with the dogs told a visitor, according to the caption, "Of course, I only breed them for the brandy.


The Stabyhoun or Stabij is a rare dog breed that originates from Friesland, a province in the North of the Netherlands. The first part of the name is probably from the Dutch: "sta me bij" (stand by me). The last part is simply Friesian, meaning dog, which is pronounced "hoon". There are only approximately 3500 Stabyhouns in existence today.


A sturdily built long-coated breed, greater in length than height, which should be neither too coarse not too refined in build. Acceptable colors are black, brown, and orange with white markings. Spotting and/or roan in the white are acceptable but tricolour is objectionable. Dogs are 53 cm and bitches 50 cm, measured at the withers. Ideal weight is 45 pounds (20 kg) for bitches and 50 to 55 lb (23 to 25 kg) for dogs.


The head should show more length than width, with the skull and foreface equally long. The coat on the head is short. The skull should be slightly domed but not narrow and may never give the impression of being wide, it is carried low on a strong, slightly arched neck. The stop is only slightly indicated. The foreface is powerful, tapering to the nose without getting pointed. The expression of the face should always be gentle and intelligent. The bridge is straight and the muzzle is broad with a nose that is well developed and has wide nostrils. Lips are tight and cover the teeth, which are strong and have a scissor bite. The neck should be free of throatiness or dewlap.

The ears are set fairly low and are strongly developed, which cause the fold in the ear not to take place directly at the root but further on, so. that the ear is not carried against the head but stand away from it. They are moderately long and have the form of a mason's trowel. The feathering of the ear is a typical characteristic of the breed, they are rather long at the base of the ear, decreasing in length down to the point where the lowest 1/3 part of the ear is covered with short hair. Their tall is never docked but you can if you want. Also their tall is a nice size

The eyes should lie level in the head, and be of medium in size with round with tight lids, without showing haw or third eyelid. The colour dark brown for dogs with black ground color, brown for dogs with a brown or orange ground color.


The coat on the body is long and sleek, only over the croup may there be a slight wave and should never be curly. The back of both the front and hind legs should be bushy, as it is on the tail, but should never be feathering. A somewhat curly coat shows that a cross has been made, and that is why the dogs with that sort of coat cannot be recognized as Stabyhoun.

The body should be powerful with well-rounded ribs. The back is straight with the croup only slightly sloping. The loin is powerful, the belly is only moderately tucked up. The tail is long, reaching to the hock. It is set low and carried downwards to the last third part, which is bend upwards in a gentle curve. In action, the tail is lifted, but never so as to curl. The tail is covered with longer hair on all sides to the end, without curls or waves, not feathered, but bushy.

The shoulder is well laid against the chest and the blade well laid back and angulated. Lower arm powerful and straight, forelegs straight, with no weak pasterns. The hindquarters are powerful and well angulated with a low placed hock. The feet should be round and rather big with toes that are well developed and arched, the Stabyhoun should have thick pads.


A Stabyhoun lying in the grass
A Stabyhoun lying in the grass

The Stabyhoun has a nice temperament, friendly, peaceful, patient, and willing to please. A characteristic of the stabyhoun is tolerance toward children and other animals. The Stabyhoun should be obedient and devoted to its owner, making it easy to train, these dogs should never be vicious or snappy.

The breed needs exercise and is not for the lazy owner, although it can be very laid back in the home environment, it still needs plenty of activity. Due to its strong retrieving instinct, is very happy to spend the whole day playing fetch with its owner.

The working Stabyhoun

The Stabyhoun is both a retriever and a pointer. It works very well on water, being able to withstand the coldest of rivers and lakes, and is easily controlled over greater distances. It brings in any game alive and undamaged. When catching moles and other vermin, these animals are killed through breaking the neck, but the fur remains undamaged. It is a powerful dog and larger ones are used to pull sleds in the winter.

These dogs have high levels of energy and endurance because of their history as a gundog. People have recognised this and the Stabyhoun is now used in almost all imaginable forms of training and activity: dog agility, obedience, hunting, triathlon, endurance, frisbee, and others.


The average life expectancy is 13-14 years.

The Stabyhoun is a healthy dog. In the past the breed had some problems, but careful breeding expelled most problems. Epileptics occurred in the past, but the inheritable form has luckily not been diagnosed for a long time.


The Stabyhoun does not need any special care apart from proper brushing to keep tangles out. The dogs moult (shed) usually twice a year, and thorough brushing helps the dog to finish its moult in about two weeks. Washing should be avoided when possible, because it affects the natural sleekness of the coat. The coat by its nature will lose dirt very quickly. After a swim the dog is usually quite clean and dry in a couple of hours.


A Stabyhoun with 11 puppies
A Stabyhoun with 11 puppies

As the Stabyhoun population is so small, careful breeding is very important. The association has breed advisors and the official opinion of the club is to keep inbreeding very limited. More specifically: not over 10%. Although in the last 10 to 15 years dogs have gone abroad, there is no population elsewhere to fall back on. The dogs are sold relatively cheaply in the Netherlands, especially because most breeders see them as a national heritage. This makes them breed out of love rather than out of other motives. The average number of puppies in a litter is 7, and the bitches are not allowed to have more than 5 litters in their lifetime.

The bitch has to be over 18 months and no older than 9 years of age, at least one year should elapse in between litters, the hips have to be x-rayed (not over FCI-C result), and the combination has to be approved by the breeding committee. Sometimes wrong colours may be passed on, which is to be avoided. The association keeps very careful track of these matters. The studs have to be 18 months of age, with the same show and hip results as the bitches, and they are not allowed to give over 8 litters in their lifetime. It is preferred to have no more than 3 litters out of a male a year, so on the breeders' days the litters can be checked and notes can be taken as of the traits that the males (and females) may or may not inherit. Stud-owners are expected to appear on these breeders' days. It is expected the breeders will promote the breeders' days towards those who have bought puppies in the past year, so that as many as possible will visit these days.


A Wetterhoun/Stabyhoun mix called Triska
A Wetterhoun/Stabyhoun mix called Triska

The Stabyhoun is a gundog of which descriptions were found as early as 1800. In earlier days it was used for hunting foxes, small game, and birds, and it also turned out to be a fine mole catcher. During the hunting season, it was used as an all-round gundog, an occupation it keeps to this day, although British and German breeds are more popular. It is a fine pointer, an excellent tracker, and also a good watchdog. It has also been used as a draught dog.

The dog used to be owned by farmers who were, in general, poor. It was very welcome to have such an all arounder, because often only one dog could be afforded. As a versatile breed, Stabyhouns have been used throughout ages as a guard and watch dog for the farms, but before all it is a hunting dog.

The breed's looks and purpose have not changed for decades, although in earlier days the breed was often mixed with another Friesian breed: the Wetterhoun, because only working capacities were counted. In 1942 the breed was officially acknowledged and since then crossbreeding between the two has stopped.

Today it enjoys a moderate, though very devoted fancy among Dutch sportsmen and homeowners and its numbers are increasing slowly but steadily. It has yet to gain any significant fancy outside of the Netherlands.

Staffordshire Bull Terrier

The Staffordshire Terrier is a medium sized, short coated, old time breed of dog, originally bred for bull and bear fighting. Dogs proven in the pit were bred with others of like skill and ability and over time the Staffie was produced. In the early part of the twentieth century they gained respectability and were accepted into the Kennel Club of England as the Staffordshire Bull Terrier - not to be confused with the Bull Terrier. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier (Staffie) is an English breed of dog and should not be confused with their larger cousin the American Staffordshire Terrier or the American Pit Bull Terrier.

The Staffie is a breed that has many supporters and perhaps just as many detractors. Famed animal conservationist Steve Irwin incorporated Sui, his Staffordshire Bull Terrier, into many episodes of his documentary television show, The Crocodile Hunter.

Often held responsible for many of the unpleasant attacks reported on humans and other animals, the Staffie can polarise public opinion. When spoken of, people will generally fall into one of two camps, those strongly for the breed and those strongly against.

In cases of reported attacks, there is often little distinction made between the bull terrier breeds, such as the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Pit-Bull Terrier, the Bull Terrier and the Staffie. Perhaps because of its comparative high numbers and poor recognition by the public, the Staffie wears much of the blame for reported attacks that may have been perpetrated by any member of the bull terrier breeds.

Staffies are regularly the fourth most popular breed in Australia, behind German Shepherds, Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers, according to the numbers of puppies bred each year.


Black and white pied Staffie
Black and white pied Staffie

Lovingly referred to as a "keg on legs", the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a stocky, muscular dog that exudes character, strength and athletic ability. Their expressive countenances indicate their mood and intelligence.

They have a broad head, defined occipital muscles, a relatively short foreface, half prick ears, dark round eyes and a wide mouth with a clean scissor-like bite. The ears are small and either rose or half-prick. The cheek muscles are usually pronounced and give the impression of strength. Their lips show no looseness, and they rarely drool.

The Staffie is a dog with extreme strength for its size with unbeatable bravery.

The head tapers down to a strong well muscled neck and shoulders placed on squarely spaced forelimbs. Their rib cage is well sprung and is topped by a level top line. They are tucked up in their loins and the last rib of their cage should be visible. Their tail is carried like an old fashioned pump handle and should be neither too long nor too short. Their hind quarters are well muscled and are the drive in the Staffie's gait, being well let down in the hock.

Black Staffie with white chest
Black Staffie with white chest

They may be coloured black, brindle, red, blue, white, or any blending of these colours with white. White with any colour over an eye is known as piebald or pied. Skewbald is white with red patches. Liver-coloured and black and tan dogs sometimes occur but these are considered an unacceptable colour for the showring or any reputable breeding program. The coat is smooth and short.

The dogs stand 35-40 cm (14-16 in) at the withers and weigh 13-22 kg (29-48 lb) with female dogs on the lighter side and male dogs on the heavier side.

As with many breeds with show determined characteristics, the 'Staffie' can suffer from several health problems including cataracts, breathing and 'gas' problems. Animal welfarists often campaign to highlight the problems with set breed characteristics on this and other dogs' health.

Bold, inquisitive and fearless the Staffie is renowned for its reliability as a family dog. They are extremely loving dogs, being loyal and devoted to people, with special emphasis on their reliability with children. The breed thrives in the family environment, being a suitably compact size for close family living. For these reasons, they are sometimes referred to as "nanny dogs".

As a result of their dog fighting heritage, one of the problems noticed in this breed is a tendency of aggression towards other dogs. It must be understood that even a Staffordshire Bull Terrier with "good" temperament may fight when challenged by another dog and should therefore be adequately controlled in public places. It is a good idea to avoid possible confrontational situations and a good idea to use a toy to distract the dog around other dogs. It is always good advice to avoid allowing your Staffie to make eye to eye contact with strange dogs, as this is normally seen as a challenge. It must also be understood, that dog aggression is not related to human aggression in this breed. A staffie that is aggressive to strange dogs may still be completely trustworthy to humans.

Staffies are notorious for their tenacity and strength. If they get hit in the head or hurt themselves they show no pain. Although they are fighters, they are good pets and generally won't harm anyone.

The German Shepherd Dog League of N.S.W recognised this very problem in its breed and has set up a tough accreditation program for its breeders. There isn't such a program amongst Staffie owners, however there are very good breeders who are mindful of producing dogs with stable temperaments. It is important that any breeder can satisfy you that the puppy you are interested in, and its parents, have a stable temperament. Avoiding aggression can also be aided by proper socialisation and training of the puppy. Puppies should be regularly exposed to the full gamut of situations that they are likely to encounter as older dogs. Regular, supervised contact with other dogs, children and any other family pet, along with early obedience training will help ensure that the dog grows into a well socialised animal.

The Staffie is as 'daft as a brush' in its home environment, but needs a lot of exercise for its powerful jaws. Unless you are prepared to have your house and furniture chewed to rubble by your pet, you should keep it in an area where it can do minimal damage to your home and ensure it is exercised daily. It also needs plenty of things to chew on which you don't value, such as chewing materials you can buy at pet shops, and better still, large raw meaty bones.

Obedience training is imperative to ensure that the owner feels they will have control over their dog in any situation. A Staffie well versed in the commands 'sit' and 'stay' is an animal that knows its place and can be confidently managed. A Staffordshire Bull Terrier is not a dog that should be allowed to roam off leash, and he can sometimes be quarrelsome with other canines and small animals - this varies between individual dogs, but it is something that should always be kept in mind, particularly with adult (over two years of age) dogs.[

Staffie puppies are also quick learners and if properly trained and given clear boundaries from day one then are very obedient and loyal dogs to have. They are also ideal family pets as they love children and other pets if brought up with them. As with most breeds females are easier to train and less aggressive when they're older. However, given proper training and boundaries, these dogs are lovely loyal pets.


This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted after Monday, 17 September 2007.

This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted after Monday, 17 September 2007.

'Staffies', in part probably due to their almost cat like agility, can often be remarkable climbers. Unlike the vast majority of domestic dogs, members of the breed seem to frequently enjoy climbing trees. The heavily muscled forelegs no doubt assist in climbing.

In keeping with the other two breeds commonly known under the umbrella term of 'pit bull' (American Staffordshire Terrier and American Pit Bull Terrier) they are relatively poor swimmers. It is surmised that their high muscle mass as a proportion of total body weight keeps them quite low in the water.

Owners of the breed, though no research or analysis is available, frequently mention that they have a noticeable penchant for the taste of coffee in comparison with other breeds (even in the same household) Once again, nobody really has any hard concrete reasons why this might be so.


Before the nineteenth century, bloodsports such as bull baiting, bear baiting and cock fighting were common. Bulls bought to market were set upon by dogs as a way of tenderising the meat and providing entertainment for the spectators; and dog fights with bears, bulls and other animals were often organised as entertainment for both royalty and commoners. Early Bull and Terriers were not bred for the handsome visual specimen of today, rather they were bred for the characteristic known as gameness. The pitting of dogs against bear or bull tested the gameness, strength and skill of the dog. These early "proto-staffords" provided the ancestral foundation stock for the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the American Pit Bull Terrier with the exception of the American Staffordshire Terrier.

These bloodsports were officially eliminated in 1835 as Britain began to introduce animal welfare laws. Since dogfights were cheaper to organise and far easier to conceal from the law than bull or bear baits, bloodsport proponents turned to pitting their dogs one against another instead. Dog fighting was used as both a bloodsport (often involving gambling) and as an effort to continue to test the quality of their stock. For decades afterwards, dog fighting clandestinely took place in pockets of working-class Britain and America. Dogs were released in a pit, and the last dog still fighting (or occasionally, the last dog surviving) was recognised as the winner. The quality of pluckiness or "gameness" was still highly prized, and dogs that gave up during a fight were reviled as "curs". As an important aside, fighting dogs were often handled in the pit during fights, by both their owners and the judge, so were bred to be as trustworthy with humans as they were aggressive towards other dogs.

It is this nefarious history that gives the staffie his celebrated temperament, as in the words of the American Kennel Club: "from the past history of the Staffordshire Terrier, the modern dog draws its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, and children in particular, its off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes it a foremost all-purpose dog."

The breed attained UK Kennel Club recognition on 25 May 1935. Much of the groundwork to attain this status can be attributed to Joseph Dunn and Joe Mallan. Dunn and Mallan invited friends to a staffie fanciers meeting at the Cross Guns Hotel, Cradley Heath, South Staffordshire (a hotel owned and managed by Mallan). About fifty breeders met at the hotel and formed the Original Staffordshire Terrier Club. The name was shortly changed to Staffordshire Terrier Club due to the Bull Terrier Club objecting the use of the word 'original'. Staffies were imported into the US during this time. Since that time the breed has grown to be one of the most popular breeds of dogs with a large repressentation at the Crufts Dog Show.

In the US many were imported by pit fighters and used in their breeding programs to produce the American Pit Bull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. Many were imported by British nationals who brought their dogs with them or U.S. expatriates who fell in love with the breed in England and brought it home. Eventually through the campaign of many people the Staffie was recognised in the U.S. in 1976. He has a loyal following.

Breed specific legislation

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a target of breed bans. This belief is partly due to many people branding staffies under the same name as pit bull type dogs, when, in fact, it is a totally different breed. The Denver ban, for instance, reads: Denver banned “any dog that is an American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any dog displaying the majority of physical traits” of these breeds. Denver Mun. Code §8-55

The German government tried to ban the breed in September 2000 across the EU, but were stopped by representatives from the British Kennel Club.

Standard Schnauzer

The Standard Schnauzer is the original breed of the three breeds of Schnauzer, and despite its wiry coat and general appearance, is not related to the British terriers. Rather, its origins are in old herding and guard breeds of Europe. The breed is a robust, squarely built, medium-sized dog with aristocratic bearing, making it a popular subject of painters Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt.


A Standard Schnauzer pup taking a snooze
A Standard Schnauzer pup taking a snooze

The Standard Schnauzer has a harsh, wiry outer coat with minimal shedding that is salt and pepper or, less often, solid black in color. The hair on the face lengthens to form a beard and eyebrows. The breed is robust and sturdy, and should be "heavy" for its height with lots of muscle and bone. Ideal weight and height ranges vary considerably from one breed club's standard to the next. Males range between 18 and 20 inches (45cm–50cm) high at the withers and generally weigh between 35 and 50 pounds (15.5 kg–22.5 kg). Females are ideally between 17 and 19 inches (42.5 cm–47.5 cm) high at the withers and generally weigh between 30 and 45 pounds (13.5kg–20.2kg). Traditionally the ears were cropped and the tail docked. However, in many European countries and in Australia, ear-cropping and tail-docking are now prohibited and the dogs are shown with natural ears and tail (see illustration). In the United States, many dogs are cropped and almost all have docked tails.

This Standard Schnauzer is unusual in having an un-docked tail
This Standard Schnauzer is unusual in having an un-docked tail
Two female Standard Schnauzers, one with cropped ears and one with natural ears.
Two female Standard Schnauzers, one with cropped ears and one with natural ears.


The Standard Schnauzer is sociable, highly intelligent and alert. Schnauzers can be "comedians", formidable guards, and great family companions. Properly raised and trained, they are reliable companions with children. Schnauzers are a very enthusiastic breed and thrive on interaction with any family activities. Therefore they suit an active family with older children, but can be very gentle with young children if properly trained. If they are not kept involved in family activities, they may invent their own entertainment. They are usually not unnecessary barkers but have a deep, intimidating bark which is useful as a watch dog. Schnauzers are noted for guarding the family home and for displaying devotion to their immediate family and their family's circle of friends. Consequently they may take time to warm up to strangers. They learn easily but can also become bored with repetition. They are often determined and may want to do things their own way, thus owners should be firm and consistent. However, schnauzers do not respond well to harsh treatment. Standards have good hunting instincts, and have been used as retrievers both on land and in the water. Standard schnauzers are also excellent herders of sheep and cattle, which reflects their origin as a general-purpose farm dog, and many have achieved AKC herding titles.


Schnauzers are originally a German breed and are descended from herding, ratting and guardian breeds during the Middle Ages. They may be most closely related to the spitz-type breeds. Dogs very similar to today's schnauzers existed in the Middle Ages, and they have appeared several times in paintings, statues and tapestries with Rembrandt, Dürer and Reynolds all portraying them. Initially a dog of the peasant farmer, in the 19th century this breed captured the interest of the German dog fancy and they began to be bred to a standard of perfection. The word "Schnauzer" (German name for 'small beard') appeared for the first time in 1842 when used as a synonym for the Wire-haired Pinscher (the name under which the breed first competed at dog shows). The Standard Schnauzer is the original Schnauzer from which the Miniature and Giant breeds were developed in the late 19th century. They have been shown from the 1870's onwards and first appeared in the United States about 1900. The Standard Schnauzer has also been used throughout modern history in various roles. For example it was used by the Red Cross for guard duty during World War I and at one point by both German and American police departments. Several Standards have been used in the USA for drug and bomb detection, and also as Search-and-Rescue dogs.

Styrian Coarse Haired Hound

The Styrian Coarse Haired Hound is a breed of dog of the hound type.


This medium to large hound has a harsh, rough coat (although not shaggy) that comes in colours of red and fawn; a white mark on the chest may be present. Height is between 45-53cm (17.5-21 in) at the shoulder and they may weigh between 15-18kg (33-40lbs). They are a strong muscled, tough dog with a serious expression. They are not generally kept as a companion dog as they do not make good pets; they require a lot of exercise and can be dominant and destructive.


The Styrian Coarse Haired Hound dates back to the 18th century when Karl Peintinger, the founder of the breed, crossed a Hanoverian Scent Hound with an Istrian Hound. Selective breeding continued until it produced a rough-coated, hardy hunting dog used by Austrians and Slovenians to hunt wild boar. It can also be used to track wounded animals through rough terrain and in high altitudes.

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Sulimov Dog / Canid hybrid

Canid hybrids are the result of interbreeding between different species of the canine (dog) family (Canidae).

Genetic considerations

Many members of the dog family can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

Molecular analysis indicates 4 divisions of canids:

  1. Wolf-like canids including the domestic dog, gray wolves, coyotes, and jackals
  2. The South American canids
  3. Old and New World red-foxlike canids, for example, red foxes and kit foxes
  4. Monotypic species, for example, bat-eared fox and raccoon dog

The wolf (including the dingo and domestic dog), coyote, and jackal, all have 78 chromosomes arranged in 39 pairs. This allows them to hybridise freely (barring size or behavioural constraints) and produce fertile offspring. The wolf, coyote, and golden jackal diverged around 3 to 4 million years ago. Other members of the dog family diverged 7 to 10 million years ago and are less closely related and cannot hybridise with the wolf-like canids: the yellow Jackal has 74 chromosomes, the red fox has 38 chromosomes, the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes, and the Fennec fox has 64 chromosomes. Although the African Wild Dog has 78 chromosomes, it is considered distinct enough to be placed in its own genus.

Legal implications of hybrids

Dog hybrids kept as pets are prohibited in many jurisdictions or are classed as wild animals and must be housed in the same way as purebred wolves. For example, hybrids of the domestic dog with the wolf, coyote, dingo, jackal, fox, dhole, African Wild Dog, or Raccoon dog are prohibited in the State of Hawaii.

Wolf-dog hybrid

Main article: Wolf-dog hybrid

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is now regarded as a domesticated form of the Grey Wolf (Canus lupus lupus), and therefore belongs to the same species as other wolves such as the Dingo (Canus lupus dingo). Therefore hybridisation between these sub-species is unremarkable.

People wanting to improve domestic dogs or create an exotic pet have sometimes bred them back to wolves. Grey wolves have been crossed with wolf-like dogs such as German Shepherd Dogs, Siberian Huskies, and Alaskan Malamutes. The breeding of wolf-dog hybrids is controversial, with opponents purporting that it produces an animal unfit as a domestic pet. There are a number of established wolfdog breeds in development. The initial hybrid offspring are generally back-crossed to domestic dogs to maintain a domestic temperament and consistent conformation. First-cross wolf-dog hybrids are popular in the USA, but retain many wolf-like traits.

Dingo hybrids

The Australian Dingo breeds freely with domestic dogs. This is now so widespread that many dingoes are now mongrels. Some dingo hybrids have been deliberately bred as pets, but are turned loose due to behavioural problems. These hybrids are accepted back into the wild dingo population where they breed with pure dingoes. In some parts of Australia, up to 80% of dingoes are hybrids. Dingoes are distinguishable from domestic dogs through DNA and through having longer teeth and longer muzzles.

The Australian Kelpie sheepdog is widely believed to be a hybrid of dingo and north England collie dogs, but this (the dingo blood) is not upheld by breed documentation. The Australian Cattle Dog breed is known to have been influenced by the dingo.

According to the partwork "Animal Life and the World of Nature" (Vol 1, 1902-1903), Lord Walter Rothschild owned a dingo-wolf hybrid bred by Mr and Mrs HC Brooke from a tame male dingo and a semi-tame female wolf.

Dog-fox hybrids

An unconfirmed female terrier/fox hybrid was reported, and later euthanized (killed), in the UK. British gamekeeper folklore claims that terrier bitches can produce offspring with male foxes. Other dog breeds claimed to have hybridized with foxes are the Alaskan Malamute, Sheltie, Siberian husky, and most of the hound groups. The supposed hybrids (known as a dox) are likely to be natural variation in the domestic dog.

There has been a reported cross between a domestic dog and a South American fox, but the fox was a fox-like wolf, known as the maned wolf, and not a true fox.

In Saskatchewan, Canada there was another supposed dox, this time a female miniature Sheltie with a wild fox. There was a litter of three, but only one survived. The surviving (a female) was sterile, and looked like an almost pure fox, with slight variations. However, the variability of dogs in appearance makes it impossible to determine whether an animal is hybrid based on looks. In most cases the dox will have gold or yellow eyes, wired hair, and with black red and gray hairs covering most of the body.

Coyote hybrids


Coydogs (male coyote/female dog) Coydogs were once believed to be present in large numbers in Pennsylvania due to a declining coyote population and a burgeoning domestic dog population. Most supposed hybrids were naturally occurring red or blond color variations of the Coyote or were feral dogs. The breeding cycles of dogs and coyotes are not synchronized and this makes interbreeding uncommon. If interbreeding had been common, each successive generation of the coyote population would have acquired more and more doglike traits.

Coyotes are solitary by nature; this trait is carried across to coyote-dog hybrids. This can result in problematical and unsociable behaviour which makes them generally unsuitable as pets. As a result, they may be abandoned or allowed to stray and be absorbed into the feral dog or coyote population. However if the coyote (or dogote) is found at a very young age and raised properly they can, in fact, become a pet much like some wolf-dogs are kept. Much time and effort must be put into them for this to occur.


The mating of a male dog and a female coyote results in a dogote. There has been one report of a dogote which arose from a male German shepherd/female coyote mating in the wild. Hybrid pups were found after a female coyote was shot. The adult dogotes resembled German shepherds in color.

The dogote displays unsociable behavior much like the coydog but through much time and effort can, like the coydog, become a pet.

Coyote-Dingo hybrid

Coyotes have also been crossed with Australian dingoes in zoological gardens.

Coyote-wolf hybrid

Coy-wolves (Coyote/Wolf) have occurred in captivity or, rarely, in the wild where the choice of same-species mates has been limited. Coyote/Red Wolf hybrids have been found. Some consider that the American Red Wolf is not a true species because it can hybridize with both the Grey Wolf and the Coyote; however, it is now known that hybridization between species (in general) happens more often than previously thought. Some consider it a Grey Wolf/Coyote hybrid and use this argument to prevent conservation of the Red Wolf. Some hybridization occurred when pure Red Wolves were in decline and interbred with the more numerous Coyotes. The species boundary is often preserved by geographic or behavioural separation, not by genetic separation.

Jackal hybrids

The Wolf and Jackal can interbreed and produce fertile hybrid offspring, which are sometimes known as huskals. Coyote/Jackal Hybrids have also been bred as pets by Wolf-dog enthusiasts. Dogs have been crossed with golden jackals; however, they cannot produce fertile offspring with yellow jackals as the latter have only 74 chromosomes compared to 78 in the dog. It is also thought that Pharoanic Egyptians crossbred domestic dogs with jackals, producing a jackal­-dog that resembled the god Anubis.

(Note: Wild horses have 66 chromosomes. Domestic horses have 64. Wild horses and domestic horses can interbreed and produce fertile hybrids. The reason golden jackals differ in chromosome number is most likely because golden jackals have 2 pairs of chromosomes that are twice as long but contain similar gene content as 4 pairs of dog chromosomes. This might reduce fertility but it would not likely completely sterilize golden jackal-dog hybrids.)

In The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication Charles Darwin wrote:

Several years ago I saw confined in the Zoological Gardens of London a female hybrid from an English dog and jackal, which even in this the first generation was so sterile that, as I was assured by her keeper, she did not fully exhibit her proper periods; but this case was certainly exceptional, as numerous instances have occurred of fertile hybrids from these two animals.

In Russia, Golden Jackal/Lapponian Herder hybrids were bred as sniffer dogs because Jackals have a superior sense of smell and Lapponian Herders are good cold climate dogs. Also Fox Terrier, Lunehund, and Spitz blood were bred for over generations and for almost 25 years have been dedicated to the forming and presice genes of these Sulimov dogs. As well as a superior sense of smell, important at low temperatures where substances are less volatile and therefore less pungent, Sulimov Dogs are small sized and can work in confined spaces. When tired, their normally curled tails droop, making it clear to the handler that the dog needs to be rested.

The jackal hybrids were bred by senior researcher Klim Sulimov, Senior Research Assistant at the D.S. Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Environmental Protection in Russia.

Male Jackal pups had to be fostered on a Husky bitch in order to imprint the Jackals on dogs. Female Jackals accepted male Huskies more easily. The half-bred Jackal-Dogs were hard to train and were bred back to Huskies to produce quarter-bred hybrids (quadroons). These hybrids were small, agile, trainable and had excellent noses. They are called Sulimov Dogs after their creator and may one day be registered as a working breed of dog. Twenty-five jackal-dog hybrids are used by Aeroflot at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow, for functions which include bomb-sniffing. Their breeding program dates back to 1975, but was not applied to bomb detection until 2002.

Sussex Spaniel

The Sussex Spaniel is a breed of dog developed in England. It played a part in the foundations of the Field Spaniel and is very similar in appearance to the Clumber Spaniel. It is used as a Gundog, and in Dog Shows.


The breed is long-bodied, muscular and heavily built. Its head is broader in the skull than the English Cocker Spaniel and its wrinkled brow gives it a kind, gentle, and sometimes slightly sad expression. The tail is usually docked except in countries where docking is not permitted. Its bones are quite large for a short-legged dog.

Coat and colour

The only acceptable colour is golden liver with hazel eyes. The coat is thick, either straight or slightly wavy, and does not curl. The nose and eye-rims must be of the same colour as the coat.


The Sussex Spaniel is short and should be no taller than 13 to 15 inches at the withers. The acceptable weight range is between 35 and 45 pounds.


In 1795, Mr.Fuller of Rosehill park, Hastings in East Sussex, England began breeding dogs for a special purpose-Gun dogs to work in districts where the terrain was rough and the undergrowth very dense- which meant that a spaniel was needed which could give tongue or to alert the hunter on his quarry. This was a trait not desirable in any other spaniel. So Mr. Fuller decided to cross various dogs like the now extinct liver and white norfolk, the Field Spaniel and possibly some early springing spaniel.

The Sussex Spaniel was one of the first breeds admitted into the stud book by the American Kennel Club in 1884. As the name implies, the breed originated in Sussex, England in the 18th century where it was used as a hunting dog. Because of its short legs and narrow body the breed could easily maneuver through the undergrowth, which made it the ideal hunting companion.

The breed lost what little popularity it had in the 1940's. In 1947, only 10 sussex spaniels were registered in the English Kennel Club.

Today this breed is more common in the United States than even in its originating country- England.


The breed is friendly and makes an excellent companion for the country household.

Swedish Elkhound / Jämthund

The Jämthund, also called the Swedish Elkhound, is a member of the Spitz dog breeds that are found in Northern Europe. Even though no credit can be given to the Swedes for the breeding of the race (the historically Norwegian province Jämtland has only been Swedish territory since 1645), the Jämthund is the National Dog of Sweden, the National Dog of the Swedish Marines, and the Swedish Air Force's official service canine. The Jämthund is described as having a wolf-like appearance.

Sketch of a Jämthund
Sketch of a Jämthund


The dog has a tightly curled or a scimitar-like curve in the tail. It has erect ears; medium to long muzzle; strong, long endurance; and has a double coat of usually two colours. The eyes are brown.


The Jämthund is eponymous to Jämtland, a province of northwestern Sweden. Since the end of the last ice age, Jämthunds have been raised by the locals. They are used for moose hunting and sled pulling, and were mobilised during wartime for sled pulling.

Swedish Lapphund

The "Swedish Lapphund" is the Swedish counterpart of the Finnish Lapphund, a reindeer-herding dog, today more often found as a great companion dog. **The Swedish lapphund is a long-coated, medium dog, they are loyal and protective.The "Swedish Lapphund" is found today more often found as a great companion dog. History: Swedish Lapphunds are a very old breed. In fact a 7,000 year old skeleton found in Norway closely resemble todays Lapphunds. Originally bred to guard and herd the Sami people's reindeer herds, they are mostly used today as a companion dog although in some, the herding instinct is very strong. The breed is not common outside its home country of Sweden. However if you do get a Lapp, they can be a very independent but loyal companion and lover of the family. Intelligence: As all spitz type dogs, Lapphunds like to please but also like to do things their own way! Gentle training is needed and once the penny has dropped training is easy. As with all puppies it is important to socialise at the right point in their lives to have a well balanced and loving friend. This breed can be very noisy, as when originally trained as reindeer herders they were taught to bark all the time whilst working. This way the reindeer knew that a silent dog like creature was an enemy. Not much fun around town though so this needs to be curtailed through gentle training. Show Characteristics: The head should be wedge-shaped with no hint of snipiness and with a well-defined stop. The eyes should be set well apart, round and dark brown with well pigmented rims. The ears should be set well apart, short, erect and pointed. The jaws should be strong with a perfect scissor bite. The lips and palate should be strongly pigmented. The neck should be powerful and of medium length. The body should be slightly longer than the height at the withers with a straight and muscular back. The forelegs should be straight with close fitting elbows and sloping shoulders. The hindlegs should be strong with a moderate turn of stifle and low set hocks. Dewclaws are highly undesirable. The feet should be strong and oval with black nails and pads. The tail should be high set and reach to the hock when extended, with bushy, long dense hair, and carried curled over the back when moving. Country Of Origin: Sweden They have a very high level of energy and need more than two hours of exercise, they worry greatly when the family leaves, and may tear up the house if you do. Personal Protection: Medium Suitability As Guard Dog: Medium Risk of Sheep Worrying: High Tendency to Bark: High Ease of Transportation: Low Level of Aggression: Low Compatibility With Other Animals: High Suitable For Children: High General Character And Temperament: In general the Lapphund is a friendly, outgoing and devoted dog. They are protective of their homes; no intruder will ever go unheard. Lapphunds get along extremely well with children, make good family pets and like to be included in all family activities. However if they are left to there own devices they can be very vocal, and if their minds are not exercised (similar to border collie) then they can be destructive and are known to enjoy digging. Sympathetic training is a must. They are very tolerant of children, but as with all pets, children should NEVER be left alone, however trustworthy your friend may be. Please note that you should not intend to get one of these delightful dogs if there is not someone or another to be a constant companion. THESE DOGS DO NOT LIKE BEING KEPT AWAY FROM THE FAMILY and doing so risks the dog getting so desperate to be with you that it may get destructive.

Swedish Vallhund

The Swedish Vallhund is a breed of dog. It is believed that the Swedish Vallhund distinguished itself during the age of Vikings, more than 1,000 years ago. Known as the "Viking dog", the Vallhund were bred to herd cattle, catch vermin (such as rats), and guard the home. The Vallhund were also referred to as "the little cattle dog of the Vikings".


The Skye Terrier and both variants of the Welsh Corgi are believed to be descended from the Vallhund. By 1942 the Vallhund were almost extinct, until Mr. Björn von Rosen and Mr. Karl-Gustaf Zettersten, both from Sweden, began looking for dogs to keep the breed alive. As a result of their work, the Swedish Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1948 and the Vallhund was given its name, which in Swedish means "herding dog". In terms of ownership, the breed remains quite rare.


The Vallhund are a powerful, fearless, watchful, energetic, alert, intelligent, friendly, and healthy small breed of dog that have a tendency to bark. It is suitable for many kinds of activities, including herding and dog agility.

Size and Weight

Height for these little dogs ranges from 12.5 - 13.5 inches for males and 11.5 - 12.5 inches for Females. The proportion is more important though for these dogs. The AKC states: "The relationship of height to length of body, as measured from the prosternum to the rearmost portion of the buttocks, should be 2:3." They should be strong for their size and have a muscular body. They can weigh anywhere from 20 to 35 pounds.

Color and Coat

The dog's coat should be of medium length, and harsh. The topcoat close and tight and undercoat is soft and dense. The hair on the head is short and on the foreparts of the legs. Hair is a little bit longer on the neck, chest and back parts of the hind legs.


This breed makes a great companion and can also be used for herding and ratting. They love human attention and are very devoted to their owners. They are a clownish type dog and can be a show-off at times. The Swedish Vallhund is responsive and even-tempered with most people. But they can be wary of strangers and should be properly socialized and trained as a puppy as to avoid over-protective behavior as an adult. They will try to guard your home even if they are 3 sizes too small, so to say, for the job at hand.

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